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1,402 full-text articles. Page 8 of 53.

Medial Temporal Lobe Functional Connectivity Predicts Stimulation-Induced Theta Power., E. A. Solomon, J. E. Kragel, R. Gross, B. Lega, M. R. Sperling, G. Worrell, S. A. Sheth, K. A. Zaghloul, B. C. Jobst, J. M. Stein, S. Das, R. Gorniak, C. S. Inman, S. Seger, D. S. Rizzuto, M. J. Kahana 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Medial Temporal Lobe Functional Connectivity Predicts Stimulation-Induced Theta Power., E. A. Solomon, J. E. Kragel, R. Gross, B. Lega, M. R. Sperling, G. Worrell, S. A. Sheth, K. A. Zaghloul, B. C. Jobst, J. M. Stein, S. Das, R. Gorniak, C. S. Inman, S. Seger, D. S. Rizzuto, M. J. Kahana

Department of Neurology Faculty Papers

Focal electrical stimulation of the brain incites a cascade of neural activity that propagates from the stimulated region to both nearby and remote areas, offering the potential to control the activity of brain networks. Understanding how exogenous electrical signals perturb such networks in humans is key to its clinical translation. To investigate this, we applied electrical stimulation to subregions of the medial temporal lobe in 26 neurosurgical patients fitted with indwelling electrodes. Networks of low-frequency (5-13 Hz) spectral coherence predicted stimulation-evoked increases in theta (5-8 Hz) power, particularly when stimulation was applied in or adjacent to white matter. Stimulation tended ...


Magnetically Focused Proton Irradiation Of Small Volume Radiosurgery Targets Using A Triplet Of Quadrupole Magnets, Patrick McGee, Grant McAuley, Andrew Wroe, James M. Slater, Jerry D. Slater 2018 Loma Linda University

Magnetically Focused Proton Irradiation Of Small Volume Radiosurgery Targets Using A Triplet Of Quadrupole Magnets, Patrick Mcgee, Grant Mcauley, Andrew Wroe, James M. Slater, Jerry D. Slater

Grant McAuley, PhD

Proton therapy is an advantageous choice for the irradiation of tumors in proximity of critical structures due to rapid dose fall off and high dose deposition at target compared to dose at the surface of the patient (ie, peak-to-entrance dose ratio (P/E)). However, with target fields below 1.0 cm, as often encountered in proton radiosurgery, multiple Coulomb scattering (MCS) broadens proton beams leading to diminished P/E advantages and reduced dose delivery efficiency (DDE). Magnetic focusing tends to counteract MCS and is a promising method to reduce these undesirable effects. The purpose of this research is to investigate ...


Waardenburg Syndrome And Left Persistent Superior Vena Cava, Driss Raissi, Alexander Christie, Kimberly Applegate 2018 University of Kentucky

Waardenburg Syndrome And Left Persistent Superior Vena Cava, Driss Raissi, Alexander Christie, Kimberly Applegate

Radiology Faculty Publications

Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a rare genetic disorder secondary to neural crest cell developmental abnormalities. It is predominantly described as an auditory-pigmentary syndrome with diverse patient presentation, typically involving congenital sensorineural hearing loss and pigmentation abnormalities of the skin, hair, and iris. Other developmental abnormalities that may be associated with this syndrome are Hirschsprung's disease and a myriad of cardiovascular congenital defects. We present a case of a young girl with WS who found to have a persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) draining into the coronary sinus. The prevalence of PLSVC is increased in patients with chromosomal and ...


Upper Gastrointestinal Bleed Embolization With Onyx®: The "Tattoo Effect", Driss Raissi, Qian Yu, S. Houssam Mardini 2018 University of Kentucky

Upper Gastrointestinal Bleed Embolization With Onyx®: The "Tattoo Effect", Driss Raissi, Qian Yu, S. Houssam Mardini

Radiology Faculty Publications

Endoscopic intervention is well validated for the control of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). In cases of refractory bleeding, transarterial embolization is a safe and effective alternative. Ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH) commonly known as Onyx® is an inherently black liquid embolic approved for use in cerebrovascular arteriovenous malformations and is increasingly used as an embolic agent in multiple peripheral and visceral territories. Onyx® has a uniquely undesirable property of causing black color discoloration when used in peripheral applications adjacent to the skin akin to a "tattoo effect." Knowledge of the agents used by the interventional radiologist, clinical correlation, and close follow-up ...


Radiation In Its Origin: Health Risks Resulting From Prolonged Exposure To Radon, Tetiana Soloviova, Evans Lespinasse 2018 CUNY New York City College of Technology

Radiation In Its Origin: Health Risks Resulting From Prolonged Exposure To Radon, Tetiana Soloviova, Evans Lespinasse

Publications and Research

Among non-smokers, radon is the number one cause of lung cancer, and the second cause of lung cancer overall, according to the Environmental Protection Agency. Radon cannot be detected through one's sense of sight, smell, hearing, taste or touch. The only way to detect it is by testing certain spaces or environments with specialized instruments. This radioactive gas is present in trace quantities in the earth and produced by decaying uranium. It enters buildings through cracks in walls, floors, construction joints or gaps around service pipes, electrical wires and sump pits. It emits heavy nuclear fragments of alpha particles ...


Functional Brain Activation Changes Associated With Practice In Delaying Smoking Among Moderate To Heavy Smokers: Study Protocol And Rationale Of A Randomized Trial (Cope)., Andrew T. Fox, Delwyn Catley, Kimber P. Richter, Edward F. Ellerbeck, Morgan G. Brucks, Vlad B. Papa, Laura E. Martin 2018 Children's Mercy Kansas City

Functional Brain Activation Changes Associated With Practice In Delaying Smoking Among Moderate To Heavy Smokers: Study Protocol And Rationale Of A Randomized Trial (Cope)., Andrew T. Fox, Delwyn Catley, Kimber P. Richter, Edward F. Ellerbeck, Morgan G. Brucks, Vlad B. Papa, Laura E. Martin

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

BACKGROUND: Most smokers struggle to overcome tobacco addiction. Neuroscientific models of addiction emphasize the importance of brain regions associated with cognitive control and reward to understand the cycle of addiction and relapse. During an attempt at abstinence, the cognitive control system appears to be underpowered to override the heightened reward system of the addicted brain. Thus, one neural target for treatment is to strengthen the cognitive control system. It may be possible to improve the functioning of the cognitive control system via deliberate practice.

METHODS/DESIGN: This study will determine the effects of practicing delaying smoking on brain and behavioral ...


Radiological And Clinical Outcomes In Patients Undergoing Anterior Cervical Discectomy And Fusion: Comparing Titanium And Peek (Polyetheretherketone) Cages, Muhammad Junaid, Mamoon Ur Rashid, Syed Sarmad Bukhari, Mamoon Ahmed 2018 PNS Shifa, Karachi, Pakistan

Radiological And Clinical Outcomes In Patients Undergoing Anterior Cervical Discectomy And Fusion: Comparing Titanium And Peek (Polyetheretherketone) Cages, Muhammad Junaid, Mamoon Ur Rashid, Syed Sarmad Bukhari, Mamoon Ahmed

Section of Neurosurgery

Objectives: To study clinical and radiological outcomes in patients who had undergone the procedure of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with titanium or PEEK (polyetheretherketone) cages for cervical disc prolapse.
Methods: This is a retrospective/non-randomized study which was conducted at the Combined Military Hospital Peshawar. Study interval was four years from 1st October, 2010 to 31st September, 2014. Total number of included patients were 149. All of the patients had undergone the procedure of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with titanium or PEEK (polyetheretherketone) cages. All of the patients had plain MRI cervical spine done for diagnosis of anterior ...


Cancer As A Chronic Disease, Beth Herrick, James Liebmann, Richard S. Pieters 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Cancer As A Chronic Disease, Beth Herrick, James Liebmann, Richard S. Pieters

Cancer Concepts: A Guidebook for the Non-Oncologist

Cancers which were once fatal are increasingly able to be managed as chronic diseases. While most metastatic cancers in adults may not be curable, they often can be controlled for long periods of time with a succession of treatments. In this chapter in Cancer Concepts: A Guidebook for the Non-Oncologist, we will examine those cancers with longer natural histories and those with extended survivals due to therapeutic advances. Finally, several cases will be presented that exemplify this new paradigm of cancer as a chronic disease.


Dti Metrics For Multi-Site/Multi-Scanner Study Of Adult Cervical Spinal Cord, Devon M. Middleton, PhD, Joshua Fisher, BS, Adam E. Flanders, MD, Feroze Mohamed, PhD, John H. Wu, MD, Laura Krisa, PhD, Mark Elliot, PhD, Scott H. Faro, MD, Jessica Evans, BS 2018 Thomas Jefferson University

Dti Metrics For Multi-Site/Multi-Scanner Study Of Adult Cervical Spinal Cord, Devon M. Middleton, Phd, Joshua Fisher, Bs, Adam E. Flanders, Md, Feroze Mohamed, Phd, John H. Wu, Md, Laura Krisa, Phd, Mark Elliot, Phd, Scott H. Faro, Md, Jessica Evans, Bs

Department of Radiology Posters

Background and Objective

A major variable in DTI spinal cord studies is the diversity in MRI scanner vendor and field strength. While there are several techniques proven to acquire DTI data, there are no standardized accepted methods for acquisition and processing. As more medical systems are utilizing this technology to evaluate the spinal cord, it is important to study the reproducibility of the DTI metrics among various scanner platforms, coil configurations and software implementations to determine the variance in obtaining normative spinal cord DTI data. This preliminary data for a multi-site DTI study examines the effects of these different MR ...


Prevalence Of Subarachnoid Haemorrhage Among Patients With Cranial Venous Sinus Thrombosis In The Presence And Absence Of Venous Infarcts, Muhammad Azeemuddin, Muhammad Awais, Fatima Mubarak, Noor Ul-Ain Baloch 2018 Aga Khan University

Prevalence Of Subarachnoid Haemorrhage Among Patients With Cranial Venous Sinus Thrombosis In The Presence And Absence Of Venous Infarcts, Muhammad Azeemuddin, Muhammad Awais, Fatima Mubarak, Noor Ul-Ain Baloch

Department of Radiology

Introduction: In patients with cranial venous sinus thrombosis, the occurrence of subarachnoid haemorrhage in association with haemorrhagic venous infarcts is a well described phenomenon. However, the presence of subarachnoid haemorrhage in patients with cranial venous sinus thrombosis in the absence of a haemorrhagic venous infarct is exceedingly rare.
Methods: We retrospectively reviewed charts and scans of all patients who had cranial venous sinus thrombosis confirmed by magnetic resonance venography at our hospital between September 2004 and May 2015. The presence of subarachnoid haemorrhage was ascertained on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, susceptibility-weighted imaging and/or unenhanced computed tomography scans by a single ...


Nanoparticles As Multimodal Photon Transducers Of Ionizing Radiation, Edwin C. Pratt, Travis M. Shaffer, Qize Zhang, Charles Michael Drain, Jan Grimm 2018 Weill Cornell Medical College

Nanoparticles As Multimodal Photon Transducers Of Ionizing Radiation, Edwin C. Pratt, Travis M. Shaffer, Qize Zhang, Charles Michael Drain, Jan Grimm

Publications and Research

In biomedical imaging, nanoparticles combined with radionuclides that generate Cerenkov luminescence are used in diagnostic imaging, photon-induced therapies, and as activatable probes. In these applications, the nanoparticle is often viewed as a carrier inert to ionizing radiation from the radionuclide. However, certain phenomena such as enhanced nanoparticle luminescence and generation of reactive oxygen species cannot be explained by only Cerenkov luminescence interactions with nanoparticles. Herein, we report methods to examine the mechanisms of nanoparticle excitation by radionuclides, including interactions with Cerenkov luminescence, β particles, and γ radiation. We demonstrate that β scintillation contributes appreciably to excitation and reactivity in certain ...


Comprehensive Evaluation Of Treatment And Outcomes Of Low-Grade Diffuse Gliomas, Catherine R. Garcia, Stacey A. Slone, Thomas A. Pittman, William H. St. Clair, Donita D. Lightner, John L. Villano 2018 University of Kentucky

Comprehensive Evaluation Of Treatment And Outcomes Of Low-Grade Diffuse Gliomas, Catherine R. Garcia, Stacey A. Slone, Thomas A. Pittman, William H. St. Clair, Donita D. Lightner, John L. Villano

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

Background

Low-grade gliomas affect younger adults and carry a favorable prognosis. They include a variety of biological features affecting clinical behavior and treatment. Having no guidelines on treatment established, we aim to describe clinical and treatment patterns of low-grade gliomas across the largest cancer database in the United States.

Methods

We analyzed the National Cancer Database from 2004 to 2015, for adult patients with a diagnosis of World Health Organization grade II diffuse glioma.

Results

We analyzed 13,621 cases with median age of 41 years. Over 56% were male, 88.4% were white, 6.1% were black, and 7 ...


Breast Cancer Prevalence Among Patients Referred For Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy At Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya, Angeline Anyona Aywak, Timothy Musila Mutala, Purity Ndaiga, Callen Onyambu, Sughra Raza 2018 University of Nairobi

Breast Cancer Prevalence Among Patients Referred For Ultrasound-Guided Biopsy At Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya, Angeline Anyona Aywak, Timothy Musila Mutala, Purity Ndaiga, Callen Onyambu, Sughra Raza

Journal of Global Radiology

Purpose: To establish the prevalence of cancer in patients referred for breast ultrasound-guided biopsy at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya.

Methods and Materials: A total number of 115 patients were included after approval from the local ethical review committee. The patients were referred by clinicians for ultrasound-guided biopsy for palpable breast lesions confirmed by imaging as solid masses. Detailed ultrasound examination per American College of Radiology (ACR) guidelines was performed before core biopsy or fine needle aspiration (FNA). Histological diagnosis was made and prevalence of cancer analyzed.

Results: Of the 115 patients, final histology was available for 112 lesions; two ...


Role Of Adc Values And Ratios Of Mri Scan In Differentiating Typical From Atypical/Anaplastic Meningiomas, Muhammad Azeemuddin, Waseem Mehmood Nizamani, Muhammad Usman Tariq, Mohammad Wasay 2018 Aga Khan University

Role Of Adc Values And Ratios Of Mri Scan In Differentiating Typical From Atypical/Anaplastic Meningiomas, Muhammad Azeemuddin, Waseem Mehmood Nizamani, Muhammad Usman Tariq, Mohammad Wasay

Department of Radiology

Atypical/anaplastic meningiomas are prone to aggressive behaviour which affects treatment planning and prognostication. Our aim was to assess the role of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) values of MRI brain in differentiating typical from atypical/anaplastic meningioma. We reviewed 84 typical and 37 atypical/anaplastic meningiomas and compared mean ADC values and ADC ratios of their preoperative MRI brain. At 3 Tesla, mean ADC value for typical meningioma was1.03±0.10x10-3 and 0.63±0.05x10-3 for atypical/anaplastic meningioma. At 1.5 Tesla, mean ADC value for typical meningioma was 1.05±0.11x10-3 and atypical/ anaplastic meningioma ...


A Narrative Review On Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound In Aortic Endograft Endoleak Surveillance., Sriharsha Gummadi, John R. Eisenbrey, Andrej Lyshchik 2018 Lankenau Medical Center; Thomas Jefferson University

A Narrative Review On Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound In Aortic Endograft Endoleak Surveillance., Sriharsha Gummadi, John R. Eisenbrey, Andrej Lyshchik

Department of Radiology Faculty Papers

Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms have been performed successfully since 1991. However, 20% to 50% of these patients may develop an endoleak or continued aneurysmal sac expansion or perfusion despite stent graft coverage. Current recommendations suggest lifelong surveillance with computed tomographic angiography (CTA) at least 1 month after intervention and yearly after that. In select patients with a stable aneurysm sac on computed tomography performed 1 year after treatment, future screening could be performed with ultrasonography. However, color Doppler ultrasound can fail to detect as many as 31% of endoleaks. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) provides an alternative approach to excluded ...


Labrad : Vol 44, Issue 2 - September 2018, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi 2018 Aga Khan University

Labrad : Vol 44, Issue 2 - September 2018, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi

LABRAD

  • Inappropriate Requesting Of Glycated Haemoglobin (HBA1c) By Clinicians
  • Fecal Calprotectin (S100a8/S100a9)
  • Fecal Pancreatic Elastase: A Test for Pancreatic Insufficiency
  • Radiology Pathology Correlation
  • Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS)
  • WHO Classification of Head and Neck Tumours: An Update
  • Plasma Metanephrines in Diagnosis of Pheochromocytoma
  • Megaloblastic Anemia
  • Aplastic AnemiaTransfusion Associated Circulatory Overload (Taco): A Severe But Preventable Transfusion Reaction


Evaluation Of Hybrid Arc And Volumetric-Modulated Arc Therapy Treatment Plans For Fractionated Stereotactic Intracranial Radiotherapy., Jun Li, David To, Vickie Gunn, Wenyin Shi, Yan Yu, Haisong Lui 2018 Thomas Jefferson University

Evaluation Of Hybrid Arc And Volumetric-Modulated Arc Therapy Treatment Plans For Fractionated Stereotactic Intracranial Radiotherapy., Jun Li, David To, Vickie Gunn, Wenyin Shi, Yan Yu, Haisong Lui

Department of Radiation Oncology Faculty Papers

PURPOSE: The study was aimed to compare hybrid arc and volumetric-modulated arc therapy treatment plans for fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy of brain tumors.

METHODS: Treatment plans of 22 patients were studied. Hybrid arc and volumetric-modulated arc therapy plans were generated using Brainlab iPlanDose and Varian Eclipse treatment planning systems, respectively, with 6 MV photon beams on a Varian TrueBeam STx linear accelerator (Palo Alto, CA). Prescription dose was 54 Gy. The fractionation was 1.8 Gy per fraction and 30 fractions in total, or 2 Gy per fraction and 27 fractions in total. Planning target volume ranged from 2.4 to ...


Use Of Ultrasound For Diagnosis Of Pneumonia In Adults, A Review, Dafang Chen, Rodrigo Cavallazzi 2018 University of Louisville

Use Of Ultrasound For Diagnosis Of Pneumonia In Adults, A Review, Dafang Chen, Rodrigo Cavallazzi

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Pneumonia is a common lung infection with significant morbidity and mortality. Currently, the diagnosis of pneumonia is made by patient history confirmed with chest radiograph or computed tomography. These modalities, however, have limitations including low accuracy, radiation exposure, and high cost. Lung ultrasound has become more prevalent in evaluating pulmonary conditions and has shown to be highly accurate in the diagnosis of pneumonia. The purpose of this review is to discuss sonographic findings associated with pneumonia, techniques used to obtain quality images, and the evidence in literature supporting the use of lung ultrasound in the diagnosis of pneumonia. Numerous studies ...


The "Lightning Bolt" Sign On Computed Tomography During Percutaneous Renal Mass Cryoablation, Qian Yu, Driss Raissi 2018 University of Kentucky

The "Lightning Bolt" Sign On Computed Tomography During Percutaneous Renal Mass Cryoablation, Qian Yu, Driss Raissi

Radiology Faculty Publications

Ice‑ball fracture is a rare and often overlooked entity that may lead to intraprocedural hemorrhage after percutaneous cryoablation of renal masses. There is scant literature on ice‑ball fractures associated with percutaneous renal cryoablation. Immediate recognition of the lightning bolt sign during intraprocedural computed tomography can help identify patients who may have developed this complication.


Clinical Audit To Assess Delays In Chemotherapy Administration At Daycare Oncology Center At A Tertiary Care Hospital In Karachi, Pakistan, Arifa Arifa Aziz, Zarka Samoon, Afsheen Feroz, Nadia Ayoub, Safia Awan, Madhia Beg 2018 Department of Oncology, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi Pakistan

Clinical Audit To Assess Delays In Chemotherapy Administration At Daycare Oncology Center At A Tertiary Care Hospital In Karachi, Pakistan, Arifa Arifa Aziz, Zarka Samoon, Afsheen Feroz, Nadia Ayoub, Safia Awan, Madhia Beg

Department of Radiation Oncology

Aim: There were delays reported by patients in chemotherapy administration in daycare oncology. Therefore, we decided to audit all processes which are involved in chemotherapy administration. The objective was to improve our service by decreasing the time between admission and initiation of chemotherapy and identify the reasons for delays. Materials and Methods: The audit was conducted in three parts. In Review I, audit tool was developed and information documented of 109 patients receiving chemotherapy at daycare center from April 14 to May 13, 2015. Five processes were assessed out of which delay in initial assessment by the nurse was the ...


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