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3d Printing Of Bone Spurs Before Surgical Removal During Total Knee Arthroplasty, John Paul Prodoehl 2020 Thomas Jefferson University

3d Printing Of Bone Spurs Before Surgical Removal During Total Knee Arthroplasty, John Paul Prodoehl

Phase 1

Project Background: In the United States, total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is the most performed orthopaedic operation. Among the 700,00 patients who received TKA, 21-25% underwent revision due to knee instability. Proper stability of a TKA depends on soft tissue balance for proper alignment in flexion and extension, and improper soft tissue modification is the primary cause of early implant failure. Soft tissue balancing can be complicated by presence of osteophytes on the distal femur or proximal tibia, which may require removal. The three-dimensional structure of osteophytes is often difficult to visualize with imaging, which could cause incomplete removal. Utilizing ...


3d Printing Of Bone Spurs Before Surgical Removal, Katelyn Koons, John Paul Prodoehl, Matthew Chadwick, Chris Li, Lauren Schlegel, Jeffrey Henstenburg, MD 2020 Thomas Jefferson University

3d Printing Of Bone Spurs Before Surgical Removal, Katelyn Koons, John Paul Prodoehl, Matthew Chadwick, Chris Li, Lauren Schlegel, Jeffrey Henstenburg, Md

Phase 1

Project Background: In the United States, 2% of the population will experience bone spurs, which will not resolve on their own.1 Of people over 60 who experience a bone spur, 40% will require medical attention.2 The soft tissue visualization appears to be difficult with imaging, leaving increased chance of poor balancing of the knee replacement. Osteophyte structure continues to be difficult to visualize in a 3D way and without their proper removal, can lead to increased rate of revision surgery. Having a 3D model of the bone spur may decrease risk of complication and enhance soft tissue modification ...


3d Printing Of Bone Spurs Before Surgical Removal, Matthew Chadwick, John Paul Prodoehl, Katelyn Koons, Chris Li, Lauren Schlegel, Jeffrey Henstenburg, MD 2020 Thomas Jefferson University

3d Printing Of Bone Spurs Before Surgical Removal, Matthew Chadwick, John Paul Prodoehl, Katelyn Koons, Chris Li, Lauren Schlegel, Jeffrey Henstenburg, Md

Phase 1

Project Background: In the US alone, total knee arthroplasty is the most common performed orthopedic surgery, with over 700,000 cases per year.1 Overall, 21-25% underwent revision due to instability.2 The stability of a TKA depends largely on soft tissue balance for proper alignment in flexion and extension. Soft tissue balancing in TKA depends on posterior femoral condylar osteophytes, which prevent full extension of the knee and increase tension posteriorly. Pre-operative soft tissue visualization is difficult and this leaves an increased chance for implant failure and revision surgery. Having a 3D model of the bone spur before and ...


3d Printing Of Knee Models To Decrease Or Time And Reduce Revisional Surgery In Total Knee Arthroplasty (Tka), Lauren Schlegel, John Paul Prodoehl, Matthew Chadwick, Chris Li, Katelyn Koons, Jeffrey Henstenburg, MD 2020 Thomas Jefferson University

3d Printing Of Knee Models To Decrease Or Time And Reduce Revisional Surgery In Total Knee Arthroplasty (Tka), Lauren Schlegel, John Paul Prodoehl, Matthew Chadwick, Chris Li, Katelyn Koons, Jeffrey Henstenburg, Md

Phase 1

Project Background: Osteophytes are a common problem, affecting 2% of the United States population. For many elderly people, these osteophytes will cause them to seek medical attention. Due to the 2-D nature of MRIs and CT scans, it can be difficult to gain a complete understanding of the complicated soft tissue structures surrounding the joint when performing a Total Knee Arthroplasty(TKA). Without proper removal of osteophytes and correct soft tissue balancing, there is an increased rate of revisional surgery. By utilizing a 3-D model preoperatively and within the OR, surgeons can visualize various aspects of the knee to determine ...


A Prospective Study Comparing Tendon-To-Bone Interface Healing Using An Interposition Bioresorbable Scaffold With A Vented Anchor For Primary Rotator Cuff Repair In Sheep., Jeremiah Easley, Christian Puttlitz, Eileen Hackett, Cecily Broomfield, Lucas Nakamura, Michael Hawes, Charles Getz, Mark Frankle, Patrick St Pierre, Robert Tashjian, P Dean Cummings, Joseph Abboud, Derek Harper, Kirk McGilvray 2020 Colorado State University

A Prospective Study Comparing Tendon-To-Bone Interface Healing Using An Interposition Bioresorbable Scaffold With A Vented Anchor For Primary Rotator Cuff Repair In Sheep., Jeremiah Easley, Christian Puttlitz, Eileen Hackett, Cecily Broomfield, Lucas Nakamura, Michael Hawes, Charles Getz, Mark Frankle, Patrick St Pierre, Robert Tashjian, P Dean Cummings, Joseph Abboud, Derek Harper, Kirk Mcgilvray

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery Faculty Papers

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical and histologic properties of rotator cuff repairs using a vented anchor attached to a bioresorbable interpositional scaffold composed of aligned PLGA (poly(l-lactide-co-glycoside)) microfibers in an animal model compared to standard anchors in an ovine model.

METHODS: Fifty-six (n = 56) skeletally mature sheep were randomly assigned to a repair of an acute infraspinatus tendon detachment using a innovative anchor-PLGA scaffold device (Treatment) or a similar anchor without the scaffold (Control). Animals were humanely euthanized at 7 and 12 weeks post repair. Histologic and biomechanical properties of the repairs were ...


Oral Contraceptives As Possible Acl Injury Prevention Method, Haley Schweizer 2020 Arcadia University

Oral Contraceptives As Possible Acl Injury Prevention Method, Haley Schweizer

Capstone Showcase

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injuries are an upsetting setback for many athletes that require a long and costly recovery process. The injury rates are four times greater in women than men. Preventative measures that help to prevent ACL injuries are limited to stretching and strengthening. Therefore, this review aims to investigate if oral contraceptive [I] usage provides a possible new avenue for prevention of ACL injury [O] in young female athletes (ages 18-30) [P] compared to those that do not take oral contraceptives [C].

Methods: A literature review was performed though PubMed, Google Scholar, SCOPUS Database, and ClinicalKey ...


Unmet Need In Rheumatology: Reports From The Targeted Therapies Meeting 2019., Kevin L Winthrop, Michael E Weinblatt, Joan Bathon, Gerd R Burmester, Philip Mease, Leslie Crofford, Vivian Bykerk, Maxime Dougados, James Todd Rosenbaum, Xavier Mariette, Joachim Sieper, Fritz Melchers, Bruce N Cronstein, Ferry C Breedveld, Joachim Kalden, Josef S Smolen, Daniel Furst 2020 Swedish Medical Center

Unmet Need In Rheumatology: Reports From The Targeted Therapies Meeting 2019., Kevin L Winthrop, Michael E Weinblatt, Joan Bathon, Gerd R Burmester, Philip Mease, Leslie Crofford, Vivian Bykerk, Maxime Dougados, James Todd Rosenbaum, Xavier Mariette, Joachim Sieper, Fritz Melchers, Bruce N Cronstein, Ferry C Breedveld, Joachim Kalden, Josef S Smolen, Daniel Furst

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

OBJECTIVES: To detail the greatest areas of unmet scientific and clinical needs in rheumatology.

METHODS: The 21st annual international Advances in Targeted Therapies meeting brought together more than 100 leading basic scientists and clinical researchers in rheumatology, immunology, epidemiology, molecular biology and other specialties. During the meeting, breakout sessions were convened, consisting of 5 disease-specific groups with 20-30 experts assigned to each group based on expertise. Specific groups included: rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, axial spondyloarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and other systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases. In each group, experts were asked to identify unmet clinical and translational research needs in general ...


Secukinumab Provides Sustained Improvements In The Signs And Symptoms Of Psoriatic Arthritis: Final 5-Year Results From The Phase 3 Future 1 Study., Philip Mease, Arthur Kavanaugh, Andreas Reimold, Hasan Tahir, Juergen Rech, Stephen Hall, Piet Geusens, Pascale Pellet, Eumorphia Maria Delicha, Luminita Pricop, Shephard Mpofu 2020 Swedish Medical Center/Providence St. Joseph Health

Secukinumab Provides Sustained Improvements In The Signs And Symptoms Of Psoriatic Arthritis: Final 5-Year Results From The Phase 3 Future 1 Study., Philip Mease, Arthur Kavanaugh, Andreas Reimold, Hasan Tahir, Juergen Rech, Stephen Hall, Piet Geusens, Pascale Pellet, Eumorphia Maria Delicha, Luminita Pricop, Shephard Mpofu

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

OBJECTIVE: To report the 5-year efficacy and safety of secukinumab in the treatment of patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in the FUTURE 1 study (NCT01392326).

METHODS: Following the 2-year core trial, eligible patients receiving subcutaneous secukinumab entered a 3-year extension phase. Results are presented for key efficacy endpoints for the secukinumab 150-mg group (n = 236), including patients who escalated from 150 to 300 mg (approved doses) starting at week 156. Safety is reported for all patients (n = 587) who received 1 dose or more of study treatment.

RESULTS: Overall, 81.8%% (193 of 236) of patients in the secukinumab 150-mg ...


Epidemiology Of Hip Fractures In Bulgaria: Development Of A Country-Specific Frax Model, E. Kirilova, H. Johansson, N. Kirilov, S. Vladeva, T. Petranova, Z. Kolarov, E. Liu, M. Lorentzon, L. Vandenput, N. C. Harvey, E. McCloskey, John A. Kanis 2020 Australian Catholic University

Epidemiology Of Hip Fractures In Bulgaria: Development Of A Country-Specific Frax Model, E. Kirilova, H. Johansson, N. Kirilov, S. Vladeva, T. Petranova, Z. Kolarov, E. Liu, M. Lorentzon, L. Vandenput, N. C. Harvey, E. Mccloskey, John A. Kanis

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Summary: A retrospective population-based survey was undertaken in a region of Bulgaria to determine the incidence of hip fracture. The estimated number of hip fractures nationwide for 2015 was 9322 and is predicted to increase to 11,398 in 2050. The hip fracture rates were used to create a FRAX model. Objective: To describe the epidemiology of hip fractures in Bulgaria, which was then used to develop the country-specific fracture prediction FRAX® tool. Methods: We carried out a retrospective population-based survey in Stara Zagora, Bulgaria, representing approximately 4.6% of the country’s population. We identified hip fractures occurring in ...


Bmd-Related Genetic Risk Scores Predict Site-Specific Fractures As Well As Trabecular And Cortical Bone Microstructure, Maria Nethander, Ulrika Pettersson-Kymmer, Liesbeth Vandenput, Mattias Lorentzon, Magnus Karlsson, Dan Mellström, Claes Ohlsson 2020 Australian Catholic University

Bmd-Related Genetic Risk Scores Predict Site-Specific Fractures As Well As Trabecular And Cortical Bone Microstructure, Maria Nethander, Ulrika Pettersson-Kymmer, Liesbeth Vandenput, Mattias Lorentzon, Magnus Karlsson, Dan Mellström, Claes Ohlsson

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Context: It is important to identify patients at highest risk of fractures. Objective: To compare the separate and combined performances of bone-related genetic risk scores (GRSs) for prediction of forearm, hip and vertebral fractures separately, as well as of trabecular and cortical bone microstructure parameters separately. Design, Setting, and Participants: Using 1103 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) independently associated with estimated bone mineral density of the heel (eBMD), we developed a weighted GRS for eBMD and determined its contribution to fracture prediction beyond 2 previously developed GRSs for femur neck BMD (49 SNPs) and lumbar spine BMD (48 SNPs). Associations between ...


A Head-To-Head Comparison Of The Efficacy And Safety Of Ixekizumab And Adalimumab In Biological-Naïve Patients With Active Psoriatic Arthritis: 24-Week Results Of A Randomised, Open-Label, Blinded-Assessor Trial., Philip Mease, Josef S Smolen, Frank Behrens, Peter Nash, Soyi Liu Leage, Lingnan Li, Hasan Tahir, Melinda Gooderham, Eswar Krishnan, Hong Liu-Seifert, Paul Emery, Sreekumar G Pillai, Philip S Helliwell 2020 Swedish Medical Center/Providence St. Joseph Health

A Head-To-Head Comparison Of The Efficacy And Safety Of Ixekizumab And Adalimumab In Biological-Naïve Patients With Active Psoriatic Arthritis: 24-Week Results Of A Randomised, Open-Label, Blinded-Assessor Trial., Philip Mease, Josef S Smolen, Frank Behrens, Peter Nash, Soyi Liu Leage, Lingnan Li, Hasan Tahir, Melinda Gooderham, Eswar Krishnan, Hong Liu-Seifert, Paul Emery, Sreekumar G Pillai, Philip S Helliwell

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

OBJECTIVES: To compare efficacy and safety of ixekizumab (IXE) to adalimumab (ADA) in biological disease-modifying antirheumatic drug-naïve patients with both active psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and skin disease and inadequate response to conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (csDMARDs).

METHODS: Patients with active PsA were randomised (1:1) to approved dosing of IXE or ADA in an open-label, head-to-head, blinded assessor clinical trial. The primary objective was to evaluate whether IXE was superior to ADA at week 24 for simultaneous achievement of a ≥50% improvement from baseline in the American College of Rheumatology criteria (ACR50) and a 100% improvement from baseline in ...


Micrococcal-Nuclease-Triggered On-Demand Release Of Vancomycin From Intramedullary Implant Coating Eradicates Staphylococcus Aureus Infection In Mouse Femoral Canals, Ananta Ghimire, Jordan D. Skelly, Jie Song 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Micrococcal-Nuclease-Triggered On-Demand Release Of Vancomycin From Intramedullary Implant Coating Eradicates Staphylococcus Aureus Infection In Mouse Femoral Canals, Ananta Ghimire, Jordan D. Skelly, Jie Song

Orthopedics and Physical Rehabilitation Publications

Preventing orthopedic implant-associated bacterial infections remains a critical challenge. Current practices of physically blending high-dose antibiotics with bone cements is known for cytotoxicity while covalently tethering antibiotics to implant surfaces is ineffective in eradicating bacteria from the periprosthetic tissue environment due to the short-range bactericidal actions, which are limited to the implant surface. Here, we covalently functionalize poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate hydrogel coatings with vancomycin via an oligonucleotide linker sensitive to Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) micrococcal nuclease (MN) (PEGDMA-Oligo-Vanco). This design enables the timely release of vancomycin in the presence of S. aureus to kill the bacteria both on the ...


What Is Congenital Talipes Equinovarus?, Cornelia Lieb-Lundell 2019 University of St. Augustine for Health Sciences

What Is Congenital Talipes Equinovarus?, Cornelia Lieb-Lundell

San Marcos, Fall 2019

An estimated 80% of clubfoot cases occur in low to middle-income countries. Incidence of clubfoot is estimated to be 1-1.5 per 1000 births, and male to female occurrence is 3:1. (1) Left untreated, this congenital anomaly becomes a “neglected clubfoot” and can result in lifelong hardships including limited ambulation related to gait deviations, pain, foot deformities and an inability to wear shoes. Without treatment, this health condition can lead to functional limitations with limited independence in activities of daily living and participation restrictions within the family and community related to decreased mobility. (2)

The intervention presented is the ...


Secukinumab Efficacy On Resolution Of Enthesitis In Psoriatic Arthritis: Pooled Analysis Of Two Phase 3 Studies., Laura C Coates, Johan K Wallman, Dennis McGonagle, Georg A Schett, Iain B McInnes, Philip Mease, Lawrence Rasouliyan, Erhard Quebe-Fehling, Darren L Asquith, Andreas E R Fasth, Luminita Pricop, Corine Gaillez 2019 Swedish Medical Centre and University of Washington, Seattle, USA

Secukinumab Efficacy On Resolution Of Enthesitis In Psoriatic Arthritis: Pooled Analysis Of Two Phase 3 Studies., Laura C Coates, Johan K Wallman, Dennis Mcgonagle, Georg A Schett, Iain B Mcinnes, Philip Mease, Lawrence Rasouliyan, Erhard Quebe-Fehling, Darren L Asquith, Andreas E R Fasth, Luminita Pricop, Corine Gaillez

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

BACKGROUND: Enthesitis is one of the psoriatic arthritis (PsA) domains. Patients with enthesitis are associated with worse outcomes than those without enthesitis. The effect of secukinumab on the resolution of enthesitis in patients with PsA was explored using pooled data from the FUTURE 2 and 3 studies.

METHOD: Assessments of enthesitis through week 104 used the Leeds Enthesitis Index. These post hoc analyses included resolution of enthesitis count (EC = 0), median time to first resolution of enthesitis (Kaplan-Meϊer estimate), and shift analysis (as observed) of baseline EC (1, 2, or 3-6) to full resolution (FR), stable (similar or reduction of ...


Fracture Repair Requires Trka Signaling By Skeletal Sensory Nerves., Zhu Li, Carolyn A Meyers, Leslie Chang, Seungyong Lee, Zhi Li, Ryan Tomlinson, Ahmet Hoke, Thomas L Clemens, Aaron W James 2019 Johns Hopkins University & Baltimore Veterans Administration Medical Center

Fracture Repair Requires Trka Signaling By Skeletal Sensory Nerves., Zhu Li, Carolyn A Meyers, Leslie Chang, Seungyong Lee, Zhi Li, Ryan Tomlinson, Ahmet Hoke, Thomas L Clemens, Aaron W James

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery Faculty Papers

Bone is richly innervated by nerve growth factor-responsive (NGF-responsive) tropomyosin receptor kinase A-expressing (TrKa-expressing) sensory nerve fibers, which are required for osteochondral progenitor expansion during mammalian skeletal development. Aside from pain sensation, little is known regarding the role of sensory innervation in bone repair. Here, we characterized the reinnervation of tissue following experimental ulnar stress fracture and assessed the impact of loss of TrkA signaling in this process. Sequential histological data obtained in reporter mice subjected to fracture demonstrated a marked upregulation of NGF expression in periosteal stromal progenitors and fracture-associated macrophages. Sprouting and arborization of CGRP+TrkA+ sensory nerve ...


Assessing Physical Activity And Sleep In Axial Spondyloarthritis: Measuring The Gap., Atul Deodhar, Lianne S Gensler, Marina Magrey, Jessica A Walsh, Adam Winseck, Daniel Grant, Philip Mease 2019 Swedish Medical Center and University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Assessing Physical Activity And Sleep In Axial Spondyloarthritis: Measuring The Gap., Atul Deodhar, Lianne S Gensler, Marina Magrey, Jessica A Walsh, Adam Winseck, Daniel Grant, Philip Mease

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

Patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) frequently report pain, stiffness, fatigue, and sleep problems, which may lead to impaired physical activity. The majority of reported-on measures evaluating physical activity and sleep disturbance in axSpA are self-reported questionnaires, which can be impacted by patient recall (reporting bias). One objective measure, polysomnography, has been employed to evaluate sleep in patients with axSpA; however, it is an intrusive measure and cannot be used over the long term. More convenient objective measures are therefore needed to allow for the long-term assessment of both sleep and physical activity in patients' daily lives. Wearable technology that utilizes ...


Volume Changes After Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury In Animal Studies - A Systematic Review, Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini, Fariba Vahedi, Mahmoud Omidbeigi, Marzieh Sharifi, Zahra Hassannejad, Shayan Abdollah Zadegan, Motahareh Rezvan, Mona Mokhatab, Kiavash Sajadi, Aida Shakouri-Motlagh, Farhad Shokraneh, Alexander R. Vaccaro, Vafa Rahimi Movaghar 2019 Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Volume Changes After Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury In Animal Studies - A Systematic Review, Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini, Fariba Vahedi, Mahmoud Omidbeigi, Marzieh Sharifi, Zahra Hassannejad, Shayan Abdollah Zadegan, Motahareh Rezvan, Mona Mokhatab, Kiavash Sajadi, Aida Shakouri-Motlagh, Farhad Shokraneh, Alexander R. Vaccaro, Vafa Rahimi Movaghar

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery Faculty Papers

There are limited data on the lesion volume changes following spinal cord injury (SCI). In this study, a meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the volume size changes of the injured spinal cord over time among animal studies in traumatic SCI. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we conducted a comprehensive electronic search of English literature of PubMed and EMBASE databases from 1946 to 2015 concerning the time-dependent changes in the volume of the spinal cord following mechanical traumatic SCI. A hand-search was also performed for non-interventional, non-molecular, and non-review studies. Quality appraisal, data extraction ...


Treatment And Outcome Improvement With Implementation Of A System-Wide Comprehensive Plan Of Care For Management Of Isolated Hip Fractures, C. Michael LeCroy MD, Adam Kaufman MD, Christina McQuiston MD, Harold Michael Frisch MD, Martha Hoskyns, Sean Snyder, Terrie Smith, Jaclyn Gosnell, Michael J. Schurr, William Shillinglaw DO 2019 HCA Healthcare

Treatment And Outcome Improvement With Implementation Of A System-Wide Comprehensive Plan Of Care For Management Of Isolated Hip Fractures, C. Michael Lecroy Md, Adam Kaufman Md, Christina Mcquiston Md, Harold Michael Frisch Md, Martha Hoskyns, Sean Snyder, Terrie Smith, Jaclyn Gosnell, Michael J. Schurr, William Shillinglaw Do

Orthopedic Surgery

No abstract provided.


Using Patient Experience In Optimizing The Total Knee Arthroplasty Patient Journey, Nienke Wolterbeek, Dieuwertje J. Hiemstra, Fiona A. van der Hoeven, Kiem G. Auw Yang 2019 Department of Orthopedic Surgery, St. Antonius Hospital

Using Patient Experience In Optimizing The Total Knee Arthroplasty Patient Journey, Nienke Wolterbeek, Dieuwertje J. Hiemstra, Fiona A. Van Der Hoeven, Kiem G. Auw Yang

Patient Experience Journal

Information was used to improve the patient journey and to achieve patient-centered care. Patients (>18 years, purposive sampling) were interviewed once at one point of their total knee arthrosis journey within the hospital setting. Patients were accompanied and observed during their hospital visit by one of the 19 healthcare professionals which were trained as interviewers. A qualitative research approach with in-depth and semi-structured interviews using a standardized interview guide were used to gather an in-depth understanding of the perceptions of patients. Interviews were written out with the emphasis on positive and negative feedback, quotes and observations that were made. The ...


Less Iatrogenic Soft-Tissue Damage Utilizing Robotic-Assisted Total Knee Arthroplasty When Compared With A Manual Approach: A Blinded Assessment, Emily L. Hampp, Nipun Sodhi, Laura Scholl, Matthew E. Deren, Zachary Yenna, Geoffrey Westrich, Michael A. Mont 2019 Stryker Corporation

Less Iatrogenic Soft-Tissue Damage Utilizing Robotic-Assisted Total Knee Arthroplasty When Compared With A Manual Approach: A Blinded Assessment, Emily L. Hampp, Nipun Sodhi, Laura Scholl, Matthew E. Deren, Zachary Yenna, Geoffrey Westrich, Michael A. Mont

Open Access Articles

Objectives: The use of the haptically bounded saw blades in robotic-assisted total knee arthroplasty (RTKA) can potentially help to limit surrounding soft-tissue injuries. However, there are limited data characterizing these injuries for cruciate-retaining (CR) TKA with the use of this technique. The objective of this cadaver study was to compare the extent of soft-tissue damage sustained through a robotic-assisted, haptically guided TKA (RATKA) versus a manual TKA (MTKA) approach.

Methods: A total of 12 fresh-frozen pelvis-to-toe cadaver specimens were included. Four surgeons each prepared three RATKA and three MTKA specimens for cruciate-retaining TKAs. A RATKA was performed on one knee ...


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