The Assessment Of Maternal Haemodynamic Profile Via Transthoracic Bioreactance As A Screening Tool For The Early Prediction Of Preeclampsia (Pe) And Normotensive Fetal Growth Restriction (Fgr)., 2018 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
The Assessment Of Maternal Haemodynamic Profile Via Transthoracic Bioreactance As A Screening Tool For The Early Prediction Of Preeclampsia (Pe) And Normotensive Fetal Growth Restriction (Fgr)., Cathy Monteith
Preeclampsia (PE) and Fetal Growth Restriction (FGR) are common complications of pregnancy. Data presented in this thesis, which mainly originate from the single centre prospective HAEMODYNAMIC Assessment iN pregnancy anD neonataL Echocardiography assessment (HANDLE) study, consolidate knowledge of the haemodynamics of normal pregnancy and the changes and predictive capability in those affected by PE & FGR.
The HANDLE study recruited 422 low risk nulliparous women at their first antenatal visit. Following exclusion and patient self-withdrawal a total of 366 women completed the study; 1.6% (n=6) had a pregnancy complicated by PE; 4.9% (n=18) by gestational hypertension (GH) and 6.6% (n=24) by FGR.
The objective of the primary analyses of this study was to assess the haemodynamics of pregnancy ...
Platelet Function In Normal Pregnancy, 2018 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
Platelet Function In Normal Pregnancy, Naomi Burke
The concept for this thesis arose after a collaboration between the Platelet Biology Laboratory and the Department of Obstetrics and Gyanecology in the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. They discovered a significant difference in platelet aggregation in women with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss using a novel platelet assay. This posed the question as to whether or not this platelet assay would eludicate different platelet reactivity at different time points in a normal, heathy pregnancy. The objective was to critically evaluate platelet reactivity in normal pregnancy using this assay which assessed platelet aggregation to several agonists at multiple ...
Improving The Sensitivity Of Real-Time Pcr Detection Of Group B Streptococcus Using Consensus Sequence-Derived Oligonucleotides, Ameneh Khatami, Tara M Randis, Anna Chamby, Thomas A Hooven, Margaret Gegick, Evan Suzman, Brady A'Hearn-Thomas, Andrew P Steenhoff, Adam J Ratner
Stead Family Department of Pediatrics Publications
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a perinatal pathogen and an emerging cause of disease in adults. Culture-independent GBS detection relies on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of conserved genes, including sip. We demonstrate suboptimal sensitivity of the existing sip PCR strategy and validate an improved method based on consensus sequences from >100 GBS genomes.
Early Gestational Mesenchymal Stem Cell Secretome Attenuates Experimental Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia In Part Via Exosome-Associated Factor Tsg-6., Sushma Chaubey, Sam Thueson, Devasena Ponnalagu, Mohammad Afaque Alam, Ciprian P. Gheorghe, Zubair Aghai, Harpreet Singh, Vineet Bhandari
Department of Pediatrics Faculty Papers
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising tools for the treatment of human lung disease and other pathologies relevant to newborn medicine. Recent studies have established MSC exosomes (EXO), as one of the main therapeutic vectors of MSCs in mouse models of multifactorial chronic lung disease of preterm infants, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). However, the mechanisms underlying MSC-EXO therapeutic action are not completely understood. Using a neonatal mouse model of human BPD, we evaluated the therapeutic efficiency of early gestational age (GA) human umbilical cord (hUC)-derived MSC EXO fraction and its exosomal factor, tumor necrosis factor alpha-stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6).
Availability And Use Of Magnesium Sulphate At Health Care Facilities In Two Selected Districts Of North Karnataka, India, Geetanjali Katageri, Umesh Charantimath, Anjali Joshi, Marianne Vidler, Umesh Ramadurg, Sumedha Sharma, Sheshidhar Bannale, Beth A. Payne, Sangamesh Rakaraddi, Rahat Qureshi
Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Background: Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are major causes of maternal morbidity and mortality. Magnesium sulphate is accepted as the anticonvulsant of choice in these conditions and is present on the WHO essential medicines list and the Indian National List of Essential Medicines, 2015. Despite this, magnesium sulphate is not widely used in India for pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. In addition to other factors, lack of availability may be a reason for sub-optimal usage. This study was undertaken to assess the availability and use of magnesium sulphate at public and private health care facilities in two districts of North Karnataka, India. Methods: A ...
The Feasibility Of Task-Sharing The Identification, Emergency Treatment, And Referral For Women With Pre-Eclampsia By Community Health Workers In India., Umesh Charanthimath, Marianne Vidler, Geetanjali Katageri, Umesh Ramadurg, Chandrashekhar Karadiguddi, Avinash Kavi, Anjali Joshi, Geetanjali Mungarwadi, Sheshidhar Bannale, Sangamesh Rakaraddi, Diane Sawchuck, Rahat Qureshi, Sumedha Sharma, Beth A. Payne, Peter Von Dadelszen, Richard Derman, Laura A. Magee, Shivaprasad Goudar, Ashalata Mallapur, Mrutyunjaya Bellad, Zulfiqar Bhutta, Sheela Naik, Anis Mulla, Namdev Kamle, Vaibhav Dhamanekar, Sharla K. Drebit, Chirag Kariya, Tang Lee, Jing Li, Mansun Lui, Asif R Khowaja, Domena K. Tu, Amit Revankar
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Faculty Papers
BACKGROUND: Hypertensive disorders are the second highest direct obstetric cause of maternal death after haemorrhage, accounting for 14% of maternal deaths globally. Pregnancy hypertension contributes to maternal deaths, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, due to a scarcity of doctors providing evidence-based emergency obstetric care. Task-sharing some obstetric responsibilities may help to reduce the mortality rates. This study was conducted to assess acceptability by the community and other healthcare providers, for task-sharing by community health workers (CHW) in the identification and initial care in hypertensive disorders in pregnancy.
METHODS: This study was conducted in two districts of Karnataka state in ...
The Feasibility Of Task-Sharing The Identification, Emergency Treatment, And Referral For Women With Pre-Eclampsia By Community Health Workers In India, Umesh Charanthimath, Marianne Vidler, Geetanjali Katageri, Umesh Ramadurg, Chandrashekhar Karadiguddi, Avinash Kavi, Anjali Joshi, Geetanjali Mungarwadi, Rahat Qureshi, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta
Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Background: Hypertensive disorders are the second highest direct obstetric cause of maternal death after haemorrhage, accounting for 14% of maternal deaths globally. Pregnancy hypertension contributes to maternal deaths, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, due to a scarcity of doctors providing evidence-based emergency obstetric care. Task-sharing some obstetric responsibilities may help to reduce the mortality rates. This study was conducted to assess acceptability by the community and other healthcare providers, for task-sharing by community health workers (CHW) in the identification and initial care in hypertensive disorders in pregnancy.
Methods: This study was conducted in two districts of Karnataka state in ...
Trends And Determinants Of Stillbirth In Developing Countries: Results From The Global Network's Population-Based Birth Registry., Sarah Saleem, Shiyam Sunder Tikmani, Elizabeth M. Mcclure, Janet L. Moore, Syed Iqbal Azam, Sangappa M. Dhaded, Shivaprasad S. Goudar, Ana Garces, Lester Figueroa, Irene Marete, Constance Tenge, Fabian Esamai, Archana B. Patel, Sumera Aziz Ali, Farnaz Naqvi, Musaku Mwenchanya, Elwyn Chomba, Waldemar A. Carlo, Richard Derman, Patricia L. Hibberd, Sherri Bucher, Edward A. Liechty, Nancy Krebs, K. Michael Hambidge, Dennis D. Wallace, Marion Koso-Thomas, Menachem Miodovnik, Robert L. Goldenberg
Global Health Articles
BACKGROUND: Stillbirth rates remain high, especially in low and middle-income countries, where rates are 25 per 1000, ten-fold higher than in high-income countries. The United Nations' Every Newborn Action Plan has set a goal of 12 stillbirths per 1000 births by 2030 for all countries.
METHODS: From a population-based pregnancy outcome registry, including data from 2010 to 2016 from two sites each in Africa (Zambia and Kenya) and India (Nagpur and Belagavi), as well as sites in Pakistan and Guatemala, we evaluated the stillbirth rates and rates of annual decline as well as risk factors for 427,111 births of ...
Early Pregnancy Loss In Belagavi, Karnataka, India 2014-2017: A Prospective Population-Based Observational Study In A Low-Resource Setting., Sangappa M. Dhaded, Manjunath S. Somannavar, Jane P. Jacob, Elizabeth M. Mcclure, Sunil S. Vernekar, S. Yogesh Kumar, Avinash Kavi, Umesh Y. Ramadurg, Janet L. Moore, Dennis P. Wallace, Richard J. Derman, Robert L Goldenberg, Shivaprasad S. Goudar
Global Health Articles
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of early pregnancy loss through miscarriage and medically terminated pregnancy (MTP) is largely unknown due to lack of early registration of pregnancies in most regions, and especially in low- and middle-income countries. Understanding the rates of early pregnancy loss as well as the characteristics of pregnant women who experience miscarriage or MTP can assist in better planning of reproductive health needs of women.
METHODS: A prospective, population-based study was conducted in Belagavi District, south India. Using an active surveillance system of women of childbearing age, all women were enrolled as soon as possible during pregnancy. We evaluated ...
Endometrial Response To Conceptus-Derived Estrogen And Interleukin-1Β At The Time Of Implantation In Pigs, 2018 Yonsei University, South Korea
Endometrial Response To Conceptus-Derived Estrogen And Interleukin-1Β At The Time Of Implantation In Pigs, Hakhyun Ka, Heewon Seo, Yohan Choi, Inkyu Yoo, Jisoo Han
Obstetrics and Gynecology Faculty Publications
The establishment of pregnancy is a complex process that requires a well-coordinated interaction between the implanting conceptus and the maternal uterus. In pigs, the conceptus undergoes dramatic morphological and functional changes at the time of implantation and introduces various factors, including estrogens and cytokines, interleukin-1β2 (IL1B2), interferon-γ (IFNG), and IFN-δ (IFND), into the uterine lumen. In response to ovarian steroid hormones and conceptus-derived factors, the uterine endometrium becomes receptive to the implanting conceptus by changing its expression of cell adhesion molecules, secretory activity, and immune response. Conceptus-derived estrogens act as a signal for maternal recognition of pregnancy by changing the ...
Why Pregnant Women With Depression Often Slip Through The Cracks, 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Why Pregnant Women With Depression Often Slip Through The Cracks, Tiffany A. Moore Simas, Nancy Byatt
Psychiatry Publications and Presentations
One in seven women experience depression during pregnancy and after they give birth. This article explains how a model the authors created in Massachusetts to ensure that women with depression get the help they need is being implemented in other states.
Prevalence Of Overweight And Obesity Based On The Body Mass Index; A Cross-Sectional Study In Alkharj, Saudi Arabia, Sameer Al-Ghamdi, Mamdouh M. Shubair, Abdulrahman Aldiab, Jamaan M. Al-Zahrani, Khaled K. Aldossari, Mowafa Househ, Shanila Nooruddin, Hira Abdul Razzak, Ashraf El-Metwally
Department of Paediatrics and Child Health
Background: Obesity and overweight are accompanied with several different chronic diseases. Overweight and obesity can be measured by using body mass index (BMI) and is also used widely as an index of relative adiposity among any population. The aim of the study is to evaluate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among general population in Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia.
Methods: Cross-sectional analysis was undertaken from a representative sample (N = 1019) of the Al Kharj population. Anthropometric measurements including the waist circumference (in centimeters), height (in meters), and weight (in kilograms) of the subjects were undertaken by means of standard apparatus. SPSS ...
Amniotic Fluid Embolism, 2018 Aga Khan University
Amniotic Fluid Embolism, Nadia Nawaz, Ahmed Raheem Buksh
Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Amniotic fluid embolism is a rare and severe problem in obstetric patients. We experienced a 21-year primigravida who underwent emergency cesarean section due to sudden collapse and fetal distress after rupture of membranes in labour. Subsequently, she developed intraoperative coagulopathy, hemorrhage, hypotension, and respiratory collapse requiring ventilation. Both maternal and neonatal lives were saved with full recovery and discharged in stable condition. The clinical diagnosis of amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) was made, which is a very rare complication of pregnancy/puerperium with varying presentation, ranging from cardiac arrest, circulatory collapse and death through mild degrees of organ system dysfunction with ...
Improving Pregnancy Outcomes In Low- And Middle-Income Countries, 2018 Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.
Improving Pregnancy Outcomes In Low- And Middle-Income Countries, Robert L. Goldenberg, Elizabeth M. Mcclure, Sarah Saleem
Community Health Sciences
This paper reviews the very large discrepancies in pregnancy outcomes between high, low and middle-income countries and then presents the medical causes of maternal mortality, stillbirth and neonatal mortality in low-and middle-income countries. Next, we explore the medical interventions that were associated with the very rapid and very large declines in maternal, fetal and neonatal mortality rates in the last eight decades in high-income countries. The medical interventions likely to achieve similar declines in pregnancy-related mortality in low-income countries are considered. Finally, the quality of providers and the data to be collected necessary to achieve these reductions are discussed. It ...
Monitoring Of Birth Registry Coverage And Data Quality Utilizing Lot Quality Assurance Sampling Methodology: A Pilot Study, Shiyam Sunder Tikmani, Sarah Saleem, Elizabeth Mcclure, Farnaz Naqvi, Farina Abrejo, Zahid Soomro, Dennis Wallace, Robert L. Goldenberg
Community Health Sciences
Background: Effectively monitoring the coverage and quality of data in low-resource settings is challenging. Lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) is a method to classify coverage as adequate or inadequate. The aim of this pilot study is sought to determine the coverage and quality of a birth registry in a rural district in Pakistan.
Methods: This survey was conducted in 14 clusters of Thatta, Pakistan. LQAS methodology was used to monitor the birth registry from December 2015 to February 2016. We randomly selected 19 villages from each cluster. We used a short questionnaire to review the quality of data collection for ...
Trends And Determinants Of Stillbirth In Developing Countries: Results From The Global Network’S Population-Based Birth Registry, Sarah Saleem, Shiyam Sunder Tikmani, Elizabeth M. Mcclure, Janet L. Moore, Iqbal Azam Syed, Sangappa M. Dhaded, Shivaprasad S. Goudar, Ana Garces, Sumera Aziz Ali, Farnaz Naqvi
Community Health Sciences
Background: Stillbirth rates remain high, especially in low and middle-income countries, where rates are 25 per 1000, ten-fold higher than in high-income countries. The United Nations' Every Newborn Action Plan has set a goal of 12 stillbirths per 1000 births by 2030 for all countries.
Methods: From a population-based pregnancy outcome registry, including data from 2010 to 2016 from two sites each in Africa (Zambia and Kenya) and India (Nagpur and Belagavi), as well as sites in Pakistan and Guatemala, we evaluated the stillbirth rates and rates of annual decline as well as risk factors for 427,111 ...
The Project To Understand And Research Preterm Pregnancy Outcomes And Stillbirths In South Asia (Purpose): A Protocol Of A Prospective, Cohort Study Of Causes Of Mortality Among Preterm Births And Stillbirths, 2018 RTI International, 3040 Cornwallis Road, Durham, NC 27709 USA
The Project To Understand And Research Preterm Pregnancy Outcomes And Stillbirths In South Asia (Purpose): A Protocol Of A Prospective, Cohort Study Of Causes Of Mortality Among Preterm Births And Stillbirths, Elizabeth M. Mcclure, Sarah Saleem, Shivaprasad S. Goudar, Sangappa Dhaded, G. Guruprasad, Yogesh Kumar, Shiyam Sunder Tikmani, Muhammad Masood Kadir, Jamal Raza, Haleema Yasmin
Community Health Sciences
Background: In South Asia, where most stillbirths and neonatal deaths occur, much remains unknown about the causes of these deaths. About one-third of neonatal deaths are attributed to prematurity, yet the specific conditions which cause these deaths are often unclear as is the etiology of stillbirths. In low-resource settings, most women are not routinely tested for infections and autopsy is rare.
Methods: This prospective, cohort study will be conducted in hospitals in Davengere, India and Karachi, Pakistan. All women who deliver either a stillbirth or a preterm birth at one of the hospitals will be eligible for enrollment ...
Incidence Of Postpartum Infection, Outcomes And Associated Risk Factors At Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital In Uganda, 2018 Mbarara University of Science and Technology
Incidence Of Postpartum Infection, Outcomes And Associated Risk Factors At Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital In Uganda, Joseph Ngonzi, Lisa M. Bebell, Yarine Fajardo, Adeline A. Boatin, Mark J. Siedner, Ingrid V. Bassett, Yves Jacquemyn, Jean-Pierre Van Geertruyden, Jerome Kabakyenga, Blair J. Wylie, David R. Bangsberg, Laura E. Riley
OHSU-PSU School of Public Health Faculty Publications and Presentations
Background: There is a paucity of recent prospective data on the incidence of postpartum infections and associated risk factors in sub-Saharan Africa. Retrospective studies estimate that puerperal sepsis causes approximately 10% of maternal deaths in Africa.
Methods: We enrolled 4231 women presenting to a Ugandan regional referral hospital for delivery or postpartum care into a prospective cohort and measured vital signs postpartum. Women developing fever (> 38.0 °C) or hypothermia (< 36.0 °C) underwent symptom questionnaire, structured physical exam, malaria testing, blood, and urine cultures. Demographic, treatment, and post-discharge outcomes data were collected from febrile/hypothermic women and a random sample of 1708 normothermic women. The primary outcome was in-hospital postpartum infection. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine factors independently associated with postpartum fever/ hypothermia and with confirmed infection.
Results: Overall, 4176/4231 (99%) had ≥1 temperature measured and 205/4231 (5%) were febrile or hypothermic. An additional 1708 normothermic women were randomly selected for additional data collection, for ...
Stratification Of Ovarian Tumor Pathology By Expression Of Programmed Cell Death-1 (Pd-1) And Pd-Ligand- 1 (Pd-L1) In Ovarian Cancer, Maureen L. Drakes, Swati Mehrotra, Monica Aldulescu, Ronald K. Potkul, Yueying Liu, Anne Grisoli, Cara Joyce, Timothy O'Brien, M. Sharon Stack, Patrick J. Stiff
Mathematics and Statistics: Faculty Publications and Other Works
Ovarian cancer is the major cause of death among gynecologic cancers with 75% of patients diagnosed with advanced disease, and only 20% of these patients having a survival duration of five years. Treatments blocking immune checkpoint molecules, programmed cell death (PD-1) or its ligand PD-ligand- I (PD-L1) have produced a beneficial and prolonged effect in a subgroup of these patients. However, there is debate in the literature concerning the prognostic value of the expression of these molecules in tumors, with immunotherapy responsiveness, and survival.
We evaluated the immune landscape of the ovarian tumor microenvironment of patients, by measuring the ...
Banning Abortion In Cases Of Down Syndrome: Important Lessons For Advances In Genetic Diagnosis, 2018 Georgetown University Law Center
Banning Abortion In Cases Of Down Syndrome: Important Lessons For Advances In Genetic Diagnosis, Rebecca Reingold, Lawrence O. Gostin
Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works
In December 2017, Ohio passed into law legislation that prohibited physicians from performing abortions if the pregnant woman’s decision was influenced by her belief that the fetus has Down syndrome. Physicians who perform abortions in these cases would face fourth-degree felony charges and revocation of their medical license. No other state bans abortion specifically for Down syndrome, but several ban abortions in cases of genetic diseases. Lower courts have struck down most such laws, holding they violate the constitutional rights of women. In February 2018, a federal district court judge blocked enforcement of Ohio’s law pending a final ...