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285 full-text articles. Page 13 of 14.

Bioluminescent Imaging Reveals Divergent Viral Pathogenesis In Two Strains Of Stat1-Deficient Mice, And In Αßγ Interferon Receptor-Deficient Mice, Tracy Jo Pasieka, Lynne Collins, Megan A. O'Connor, Yufei Chen, Zachary M. Parker, Brent L. Berwin, David R. Piwnica-Worms, David A. Leib 2011 Washington University School of Medicine

Bioluminescent Imaging Reveals Divergent Viral Pathogenesis In Two Strains Of Stat1-Deficient Mice, And In Αßγ Interferon Receptor-Deficient Mice, Tracy Jo Pasieka, Lynne Collins, Megan A. O'Connor, Yufei Chen, Zachary M. Parker, Brent L. Berwin, David R. Piwnica-Worms, David A. Leib

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Pivotal components of the IFN response to virus infection include the IFN receptors (IFNR), and the downstream factorsignal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (Stat1). Mice deficient for Stat1 and IFNR (Stat12/2 and IFNaßcR2/2 mice) lack responsiveness to IFN and exhibit high sensitivity to various pathogens. Here we examined herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) pathogenesis in Stat12/2 mice and in IFNaßcR2/2 mice following corneal infection and bioluminescent imaging. Two divergent and paradoxical patterns of infection were observed. Mice with an N-terminal deletion in Stat1 (129Stat12/2(N-term)) had transient infection of the liver and spleen ...


Triphasic Computed Tomography (Ct) Scan In Focal Tumoral Liver Lesions, Saima Hafeez, Muhammad Shahbaz Alam, Zafar Sajjad, Zahid Anwar Khan, Waseem Akhter, Fatima Mubarak 2011 Aga Khan University

Triphasic Computed Tomography (Ct) Scan In Focal Tumoral Liver Lesions, Saima Hafeez, Muhammad Shahbaz Alam, Zafar Sajjad, Zahid Anwar Khan, Waseem Akhter, Fatima Mubarak

Department of Radiology

OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnostic accuracy of triphasic spiral CT in differentiating benign from malignant focal tumoral liver lesions.

METHODS: The study was conducted in Department of Radiology of Aga Khan University Hospital and Sind Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi from Feb 2006 to Feb 2007. By convenient sampling, 45 patients found to have focal tumoral liver lesions were recruited for one year period and their triphasic CT scans findings were evaluated and later correlated with histopathology. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy of triphasic CT scan were calculated.

RESULTS: Among 45 patients, 136 ...


The Role Of Protein Kinase C Epsilon In Hydrogen Peroxide And Nitric Oxide Release During Oxidative Stress Caused By Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy, Edward S. Iames 2011 Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

The Role Of Protein Kinase C Epsilon In Hydrogen Peroxide And Nitric Oxide Release During Oxidative Stress Caused By Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy, Edward S. Iames

PCOM Biomedical Studies Student Scholarship

Clinical extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) treatment to ablate kidney stones can cause acute damage to the renal microvasculature. Accumulation of continued treatment with shockwave therapy can lead to chronic damage to the kidney, and lead to clinical hypertension. Shockwaves have been shown to stimulate endothelial cells to release superoxide (SO), which is converted to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and reacts with nitric oxide (NO) to produce peroxynitrite anion (OONO-), creating a powerful oxidant that increases oxidative stress while simultaneously reducing NO bioavailability. Increased oxidative stress during events such as ESWL, also uncouples NO production reaction in endothelial ...


Metabolic Regulation By C1q/Tnf-Related Protein-13 (Ctrp13): Activation Of Amp-Activated Protein Kinase And Suppression Of Fatty Acid-Induced Jnk Signaling, Zhikui Wei, Jonathan M. Peterson, G. William Wong 2011 Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

Metabolic Regulation By C1q/Tnf-Related Protein-13 (Ctrp13): Activation Of Amp-Activated Protein Kinase And Suppression Of Fatty Acid-Induced Jnk Signaling, Zhikui Wei, Jonathan M. Peterson, G. William Wong

Jonathan Peterson

Members of the C1q/TNF family play important and diverse roles in the immune, endocrine, skeletal, vascular, and sensory systems. Here, we identify and characterize CTRP13, a new and extremely conserved member of the C1q/TNF family. CTRP13 is preferentially expressed by adipose tissue and the brain in mice and predominantly by adipose tissue in humans. Within mouse adipose tissue, CTRP13 is largely expressed by cells of the stromal vascular compartment. Due to sexually dimorphic expression patterns, female mice have higher transcript and circulating CTRP13 levels than males. CTRP13 transcript and circulating levels are elevated in obese male mice, suggesting ...


A Novel Approach For A New Era: Successful Integration Of Multidisciplinary, Hepatitis C Care Within An Established Hiv Primary Care Practice, Joseph L. Yozviak DO, FACP, Orlando J. Penaloza MD, FACP, Timothy J. Friel MD 2011 Lehigh Valley Health Network

A Novel Approach For A New Era: Successful Integration Of Multidisciplinary, Hepatitis C Care Within An Established Hiv Primary Care Practice, Joseph L. Yozviak Do, Facp, Orlando J. Penaloza Md, Facp, Timothy J. Friel Md

Department of Medicine

No abstract provided.


Improving Outcomes For Hispanic Patients Undergoing Peginterferon/Ribavirin Therapy For Chronic Hepatitis C In An Internist-Led, Multidisciplinary, Multi-Cultural Practice: A Unique Application Of The Medical, Joseph L. Yozviak DO, FACP, Orlando J. Penaloza MD, FACP, Judith A. Knoop 2011 Lehigh Valley Health Network

Improving Outcomes For Hispanic Patients Undergoing Peginterferon/Ribavirin Therapy For Chronic Hepatitis C In An Internist-Led, Multidisciplinary, Multi-Cultural Practice: A Unique Application Of The Medical, Joseph L. Yozviak Do, Facp, Orlando J. Penaloza Md, Facp, Judith A. Knoop

Department of Medicine

No abstract provided.


Tissue-Specific Regulation Of Mouse Microrna Genes In Endoderm-Derived Tissues., Yan Gao, Jonathan Schug, Lindsay B McKenna, John Le Lay, Klaus H Kaestner, Linda E Greenbaum 2011 University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

Tissue-Specific Regulation Of Mouse Microrna Genes In Endoderm-Derived Tissues., Yan Gao, Jonathan Schug, Lindsay B Mckenna, John Le Lay, Klaus H Kaestner, Linda E Greenbaum

Department of Cancer Biology Faculty Papers

MicroRNAs fine-tune the activity of hundreds of protein-coding genes. The identification of tissue-specific microRNAs and their promoters has been constrained by the limited sensitivity of prior microRNA quantification methods. Here, we determine the entire microRNAome of three endoderm-derived tissues, liver, jejunum and pancreas, using ultra-high throughput sequencing. Although many microRNA genes are expressed at comparable levels, 162 microRNAs exhibited striking tissue-specificity. After mapping the putative promoters for these microRNA genes using H3K4me3 histone occupancy, we analyzed the regulatory modules of 63 microRNAs differentially expressed between liver and jejunum or pancreas. We determined that the same transcriptional regulatory mechanisms govern tissue-specific ...


C1q/Tnf-Related Protein-3 (Ctrp3), A Novel Adipokine That Regulates Hepatic Glucose Output, Jonathan M. Peterson, Zhikui Wei, G. William Wong 2010 Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

C1q/Tnf-Related Protein-3 (Ctrp3), A Novel Adipokine That Regulates Hepatic Glucose Output, Jonathan M. Peterson, Zhikui Wei, G. William Wong

Jonathan Peterson

Adipose tissue-derived adipokines play important roles in controlling systemic insulin sensitivity and energy balance. Our recent efforts to identify novel metabolic mediators produced by adipose tissue have led to the discovery of a highly conserved family of secreted proteins, designated as C1q/TNF-related proteins 1–10 (CTRP1 to -10). However, physiological functions regulated by CTRPs are largely unknown. Here we provide the first in vivo functional characterization of CTRP3. We show that circulating levels of CTRP3 are inversely correlated with leptin levels; CTRP3 increases with fasting, decreases in diet-induced obese mice with high leptin levels, and increases in leptin-deficient ob ...


Non-Contrast Mri May Predict Safety Of Gadolinium-Enhanced Mri In Patients With Cirrhosis, Jonathan M. Fenkel, MD, Colin L. Smith, MD, Leela Nayak, MD, Steven K. Herrine, MD, Donald G. Mitchell, MD 2010 Division of Gastroenterology and Hpatology, Thomas Jefferson University

Non-Contrast Mri May Predict Safety Of Gadolinium-Enhanced Mri In Patients With Cirrhosis, Jonathan M. Fenkel, Md, Colin L. Smith, Md, Leela Nayak, Md, Steven K. Herrine, Md, Donald G. Mitchell, Md

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Faculty Papers

Background:

Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a relative contraindication to receiving gadolinium-based contrast media secondary to risk of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF)

Patients with cirrhosis frequently undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for hepatocellular cancer screening and liver transplant evaluation.

Most centers require documented serum creatinine levels within 10-14 days of performing MRIs on patients with cirrhosis.

Ascites can be readily detected on MRI without contrast enhancement.

Objective:

To determine whether the presence of ascites on MRI can be used to recommend against a diagnosis of HRS without knowledge of a serum creatinine level.


The "Health" And Future Of The Physician-Scientist In Hepatology, Gyongyi Szabo 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The "Health" And Future Of The Physician-Scientist In Hepatology, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

No abstract provided.


Cytokines And Alcohol, Fulton Crews, Rabih Bechara, Lou Ann Brown, David Guidot, Pranoti Mandrekar, Shilpa Oak, Liya Qin, Gyongyi Szabo, Michael Wheeler, Jian Zou 2010 University of North Carolina

Cytokines And Alcohol, Fulton Crews, Rabih Bechara, Lou Ann Brown, David Guidot, Pranoti Mandrekar, Shilpa Oak, Liya Qin, Gyongyi Szabo, Michael Wheeler, Jian Zou

Gyongyi Szabo

Cytokines are multifunctional proteins that play a critical role in cellular communication and activation. Cytokines have been classified as being proinflammatory (T helper 1, Th1) or anti-inflammatory (T helper 2, Th2) depending on their effects on the immune system. However, cytokines impact a variety of tissues in a complex manner that regulates inflammation, cell death, and cell proliferation and migration as well as healing mechanisms. Ethanol (alcohol) is known to alter cytokine levels in a variety of tissues including plasma, lung, liver, and brain. Studies on human monocyte responses to pathogens reveal ethanol disruption of cytokine production depending upon the ...


Innate Immune Response And Hepatic Inflammation, Gyongyi Szabo, Pranoti Mandrekar, Angela Dolganiuc 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Innate Immune Response And Hepatic Inflammation, Gyongyi Szabo, Pranoti Mandrekar, Angela Dolganiuc

Gyongyi Szabo

Inflammation is a pathogenic component of various types of acute and chronic liver diseases, and it contributes to progressive liver damage and fibrosis. Cells of the innate immune system initiate and maintain hepatic inflammation though mediator production as a result of their activation by pathogen-derived products recognized by pattern recognition receptors. Innate immune cells, particularly dendritic cells, have a pivotal role in sensing pathogens and initiating adaptive immune responses by activation and regulation of T-lymphocyte responses. Although the liver provides a "tolerogenic" immune environment for antigen-specific T-cells, activation of Kupffer cells, recruited macrophages, and inflammatory cells results in production of ...


Altered Innate Immunity In Chronic Hepatitis C Infection: Cause Or Effect, Gyongyi Szabo, Serena Chang, Angela Dolganiuc 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Altered Innate Immunity In Chronic Hepatitis C Infection: Cause Or Effect, Gyongyi Szabo, Serena Chang, Angela Dolganiuc

Gyongyi Szabo

No abstract provided.


Signalling Pathways In Alcohol-Induced Liver Inflammation, Pranoti Mandrekar, Gyongyi Szabo 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Signalling Pathways In Alcohol-Induced Liver Inflammation, Pranoti Mandrekar, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

The pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury involves interactions of several intracellular signalling pathways in different cell types of the liver. Alcohol-induced sensitization of liver macrophages to portal endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is considered a hallmark of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Intracellular mechanisms associated with LPS-induced signalling play a crucial role in the initiation and progression of alcoholic liver injury, and are being extensively explored. LPS recognition by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on macrophages and other cell types in the liver, activation of downstream signalling pathways culminating in activation of transcription factors such as NFkappaB, AP-1 leads to increased inflammatory cytokine production ...


Liver In Sepsis And Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome, Gyongyi Szabo, Laszlo Romics, Gyorgy Frendl 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Liver In Sepsis And Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome, Gyongyi Szabo, Laszlo Romics, Gyorgy Frendl

Gyongyi Szabo

In patients with sepsis and SIRS, the liver has two opposing roles: a source of inflammatory mediators and a target organ for the effects of the inflammatory mediators. The liver is pivotal in modulating the systemic response to severe infection, because it contains the largest mass of macrophages (Kupffer cells) in the body; these macrophages can clear the endotoxin and bacteria that initiate the systemic inflammatory response. This article summarizes the functional changes that take place in the liver during sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome and discusses the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie clinical outcomes.


Alcohol-Induced Modulation Of Signaling Pathways In Liver Parenchymal And Nonparenchymal Cells: Implications For Immunity, Bharath Nath, Gyongyi Szabo 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Alcohol-Induced Modulation Of Signaling Pathways In Liver Parenchymal And Nonparenchymal Cells: Implications For Immunity, Bharath Nath, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

Alcoholic liver injury involves a complex array of derangements in cellular signaling of hepatic parenchymal and nonparenchymal cells as well as cells of the immune system. In the hepatocyte, chronic ethanol abuse leads to lipid accumulation and liver steatosis. Multiple pathways are affected to promote lipid accumulation in the ethanol-exposed hepatocyte. Chronic ethanol renders Kupffer cells hyperresponsive to endotoxin, which results in production of inflammatory cytokines and the tumor necrosis factor-alpha via a toll-like receptor 4 dependent pathway, leading to inflammation and hepatic necrosis. Dysfunction of the innate and adaptive immune responses caused by ethanol contributes to impaired antiviral response ...


Diverse Regulation Of Nf-Kappab And Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors In Murine Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver, Laszlo Romics, Karen Kodys, Angela Dolganiuc, Lucia Graham, Arumugam Velayudham, Pranoti Mandrekar, Gyongyi Szabo 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Diverse Regulation Of Nf-Kappab And Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors In Murine Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver, Laszlo Romics, Karen Kodys, Angela Dolganiuc, Lucia Graham, Arumugam Velayudham, Pranoti Mandrekar, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

Fatty liver is highly sensitive to inflammatory activation. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) have anti-inflammatory effects and regulate lipid metabolism in the fatty liver. We hypothesized that fatty liver leads to endotoxin sensitivity through an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory signals. Leptin-deficient, ob/ob mice and their lean littermates were challenged with single or double insults and pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways were tested on cytokine production and activation of nuclear regulatory factors NF-kappaB and peroxisome proliferator receptor element (PPRE). Ob/ob mice produced significantly higher serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin (IL) 6 and showed increased hepatic NF-kappaB activation ...


Management Of Recurrent Hepatitis C After Liver Transplantation: A Concise Review, Gyongyi Szabo, Eliezer Katz, Herbert Bonkovsky 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Management Of Recurrent Hepatitis C After Liver Transplantation: A Concise Review, Gyongyi Szabo, Eliezer Katz, Herbert Bonkovsky

Gyongyi Szabo

Recurrent hepatitis C infection and subsequent graft failure are increasingly recognized problems after orthotopic liver transplantation. Although many prospective therapeutic, controlled trials in primary hepatitis C disease have been reported, large-scale studies are yet to be performed in patients with posttransplant recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation. In this review, we summarize the current literature on the therapeutic approaches for recurrent hepatitis C and discuss the results of published studies on therapy with ribavirin or interferon (IFN) alone and on combination therapy with IFN plus ribavirin. Further, we discuss results of prophylactic approaches to the problem of recurrent hepatitis C ...


A Recent Perspective On Alcohol, Immunity, And Host Defense, Gyongyi Szabo, Pranoti Mandrekar 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Recent Perspective On Alcohol, Immunity, And Host Defense, Gyongyi Szabo, Pranoti Mandrekar

Gyongyi Szabo

BACKGROUND: Multiple line of clinical and experimental evidence demonstrates that both acute, moderate, and chronic, excessive alcohol use result in various abnormalities in the functions of the immune system.

METHODS: Medline and PubMed databases were used to identify published reports with particular interest in the period of 2000-2008 in the subject of alcohol use, infection, inflammation, innate, and adaptive immunity.

RESULTS: This review article summarizes recent findings relevant to acute or chronic alcohol use-induced immunomodulation and its consequences on host defense against microbial pathogens and tissue injury. Studies with in vivo and in vitro alcohol administration are both discussed. The ...


Pattern Recognition Receptors: A Contemporary View On Liver Diseases, Gyongyi Szabo, Angela Dolganiuc, Pranoti Mandrekar 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Pattern Recognition Receptors: A Contemporary View On Liver Diseases, Gyongyi Szabo, Angela Dolganiuc, Pranoti Mandrekar

Gyongyi Szabo

Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) function as sensors of microbial danger signals enabling the vertebrate host to initiate an immune response. PRRs are present not only in immune cells but also in liver parenchymal cells and the complexity of the cell populations provide unique aspects to pathogen recognition and tissue damage in the liver. This review discusses the role of different PRRs in pathogen recognition in the liver, and focuses on the role of PRRs in hepatic inflammation, cholestasis, ischemia, repair and fibrosis. PRRs as novel therapeutic targets are evaluated.


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