Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Reproductive and Urinary Physiology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

211 Full-Text Articles 571 Authors 60,445 Downloads 73 Institutions

All Articles in Reproductive and Urinary Physiology

Faceted Search

211 full-text articles. Page 7 of 9.

Exploring Egr-1 As A Master Regulator Of Prostate Field Cancerization, Kristin Gabriel, Marco Bisoffi 2015 Chapman University

Exploring Egr-1 As A Master Regulator Of Prostate Field Cancerization, Kristin Gabriel, Marco Bisoffi

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Field cancerization denotes the presence of molecular aberrations (genetic, epigenetic, biochemical) in structurally intact cells residing in histologically normal tissues adjacent to tumors. Markers of field cancerization in prostate tissues have the potential to improve the clinical management of this malignancy through their potential to act as indicators of early disease and to serve as molecular targets for early intervention. However, for this, a detailed understanding of the functional pathways underlying field cancerization is necessary. We have recently identified four protein markers of prostate field cancerization, i.e. the key transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR-1), the lipogenic enzyme fatty …


Prostate Field Cancerization – Thinking Outside The Tumor, Dor Shoshan 2015 Chapman University

Prostate Field Cancerization – Thinking Outside The Tumor, Dor Shoshan

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Analysis of tumor adjacent tissue is assumed to reveal a temporal record of molecular pathways that define oncogenesis. The present study determines expression of the key transcription factor and potential marker of field cancerization early growth response 1 (EGR-1) in human prostate tissues derived from prostatectomies and biopsies. Expression was detected using immunofluorescence and quantified using ImageJ software. Accordingly, EGR-1 expression was similar in cancerous and in histologically normal adjacent tissues from prostatectomy and biopsy specimens. EGR-1 could be exploited as pre-surgical disease indicator in false negative biopsies, identify areas of repeat biopsy, and add molecular information to surgical margins.


Effect Of Curcumin Analog Ca27 On Androgen Receptor Translocation In Prostate Cancer Cells, Lijah Vann Gardner 2015 Chapman University

Effect Of Curcumin Analog Ca27 On Androgen Receptor Translocation In Prostate Cancer Cells, Lijah Vann Gardner

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

The androgen receptor (AR) plays an essential role in promoting the development and progression of metastatic prostate cancer and represents an important molecular target for therapeutic intervention. We have recently described a series of synthetic analogs of the natural product diferuloylmethane (curcumin), some of which induce the down-regulation of AR expression in prostate cancer cells by an as yet largely unknown mechanism of action. While such analogs may in the long term be lead structures for the development of therapeutic drugs, we hypothesize here that they represent ideal molecular probes to identify the mechanism(s) of action for AR down-regulation. We …


Intentions And Attitudes Towards Parenthood And Fertility Awareness Among Chinese University Students In Hong Kong: A Comparison With Western Samples, C. H. Y. Chan, T. H. Y. Chan, Brennan Peterson, C. Lampic, M. Y. J. Tam 2015 University of Hong Kong

Intentions And Attitudes Towards Parenthood And Fertility Awareness Among Chinese University Students In Hong Kong: A Comparison With Western Samples, C. H. Y. Chan, T. H. Y. Chan, Brennan Peterson, C. Lampic, M. Y. J. Tam

Marriage and Family Therapy Faculty Articles and Research

STUDY QUESTION What are the levels of awareness regarding female fertility and the intentions and attitudes towards parenthood among Chinese university students in Hong Kong compared with their counterparts in the West?

SUMMARY ANSWER Chinese university students in Hong Kong were similarly over-optimistic about the age-related fertility decline, although they were less inclined to have children and undergo fertility treatment compared with their Western counterparts.

WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Past studies of highly educated young adults in Europe and the USA have found that they are not sufficiently aware of the age-related decline in female fertility, and falsely believe that …


Normalizing Disability In Families, Mary Crossley 2015 University of Pittsburgh School of Law

Normalizing Disability In Families, Mary Crossley

Articles

In “Selection against Disability: Abortion, ART, and Access,” Alicia Ouellette probes a particularly vexing point of intersection between ART (assisted reproductive technology) and abortion: how negative assumptions about the capacities of disabled persons and the value of life with disability infect both prospective parents’ prenatal decisions about what pregnancies to pursue and fertility doctors’ decisions about providing services to disabled adults. This commentary on Ouellette’s contribution to the symposium titled “Intersections in Reproduction: Perspectives on Abortion and Assisted Reproductive Technologies" first briefly describes Ouellette’s key points and her article’s most valuable contributions. It then suggests further expanding the frame of …


A Modular One-Generation Reproduction Study As A Flexible Testing System For Regulatory Safety Assessment, Richard Vogel, Troy Seidle, Horst Spielmann 2014 Humane Society International

A Modular One-Generation Reproduction Study As A Flexible Testing System For Regulatory Safety Assessment, Richard Vogel, Troy Seidle, Horst Spielmann

Troy Seidle, PhD

The European Union’s Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals (REACH) legislation mandates testing and evaluation of approximately 30,000 existing substances within a short period of time, beginning with the most widely used “high production volume” (HPV) chemicals. REACH testing requirements for the roughly 3000 HPV chemicals specify three separate tests for reproductive toxicity: two developmental toxicity studies on different animal species (OECD Test Guideline 414) and a two-generation reproduction toxicity study (OECD TG 416). These studies are highly costly in both economic and animal welfare terms. OECD TG 416 is a fertility study intended to evaluate reproductive performance of animals …


La Cesárea Y El Parto Natural: Las Opiniones De Profesionales De La Salud En La Provincia De Buenos Aires / Cesarean Section And Natural Birth: The Opinions Of Health Provinces In The Province Of Buenos Aires, Jacqueline Chipkin 2014 SIT Study Abroad

La Cesárea Y El Parto Natural: Las Opiniones De Profesionales De La Salud En La Provincia De Buenos Aires / Cesarean Section And Natural Birth: The Opinions Of Health Provinces In The Province Of Buenos Aires, Jacqueline Chipkin

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Introduction: The ways in which women of society give birth have the power to influence maternal-infant health and shape the economy of the healthcare system. Today, the rates of cesarean sections are increasing throughout the world. In Argentina, on average, more than 35% of pregnant women received cesarean sections in 2008, with large differences observed in the rates between the public and private health sectors. The World Health Organization (WHO) has established that healthcare systems should only employ a cesarean section if labor cannot progress safely. According to this standard, the organization estimates that cesarean sections should only be utilized …


Associations Of Adipose Tissue Architecture, Adipokines And Inflammatory Markers With Body Mass Index And Gestational Weight Gain In Non-Diabetic Pregnancies, Tiffany A. Moore Simas, Crina Boeras, Ningning Zhang, Olga Gaelikman, Katherine G. Leung, Nicole M. Wedick, Laura Robidoux, Jodi Adams Puleo, Mary M. Lee, Silvia Corvera, Milagros C. Rosal 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Associations Of Adipose Tissue Architecture, Adipokines And Inflammatory Markers With Body Mass Index And Gestational Weight Gain In Non-Diabetic Pregnancies, Tiffany A. Moore Simas, Crina Boeras, Ningning Zhang, Olga Gaelikman, Katherine G. Leung, Nicole M. Wedick, Laura Robidoux, Jodi Adams Puleo, Mary M. Lee, Silvia Corvera, Milagros C. Rosal

Mary M. Lee

Background: Some pregnancy weight gain is stored as adipose tissue (AT). Human AT depots vary in their capacity for expansion. Data suggests that subcutaneous (SQ) is adapted for healthy lipid storage. Conversely visceral (V) accumulation is associated with inflammation, obesity-related co-morbidities and Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) risk. We investigated SQ and VAT histologic architecture along with insulin, adipokines and inflammatory markers in relationship to prepregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG). Methods: Subset of non-diabetic singleton gravidas from the Pregnancy & Postpartum Observational Dietary Study (PPODS), undergoing Cesareans and consenting to SQ & VAT biopsies were included. Average adipocyte size …


The Mucosal Expression Pattern Of Interferon-Ε In Rhesus Macaques, Andrew Demers, Guobin Kang, Fangrui Ma, Wuxun Lu, Zhe Yuan, Yue Li, Mark Lewis, Edmundo N. Kraiselburd, Luis Montaner, Qingsheng Li 2014 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Mucosal Expression Pattern Of Interferon-Ε In Rhesus Macaques, Andrew Demers, Guobin Kang, Fangrui Ma, Wuxun Lu, Zhe Yuan, Yue Li, Mark Lewis, Edmundo N. Kraiselburd, Luis Montaner, Qingsheng Li

Qingsheng Li Publications

Type I IFNs play an important role in innate and adaptive immunity against viral infections. A novel type I IFN, namely IFN-ε, which can protect against vaginal transmission of HSV2 and Chlamydia muridarum bacterial infection, has been described in mice and humans. Nevertheless, the principle cell type and the expression pattern of IFN-ε in tissues remain uncertain. In addition, the expression of IFN-ε in Indian rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) has not been reported. Here, we analyzed IFN-ε expression in multiple mucosal sites of uninfected or SIV-infected Indian rhesus macaques using IHCS. We report for the first time the …


Cryptorchidism And Infertility In Rats With Targeted Disruption Of The Adamts16 Locus, Shakila Abdul-Majeed, Blair Mell, Surya M. Nauli, Bina Joe 2014 University of Toledo

Cryptorchidism And Infertility In Rats With Targeted Disruption Of The Adamts16 Locus, Shakila Abdul-Majeed, Blair Mell, Surya M. Nauli, Bina Joe

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase with ThromboSpondin motifs16 (ADAMTS-16) is a member of a family of metalloproteinases. Using a novel zinc-finger nuclease based gene-edited rat model harboring a targeted mutation of the Adamts16 locus, we previously reported this gene to be linked to blood pressure regulation. Here we document our observation with this model that Adamts16 is essential for normal development of the testis. Absence of Adamts16 in the homozygous Adamts16(mutant) males resulted in cryptorchidism and male sterility. Heterozygous Adamts16(mutant) males were normal, indicating that this is a recessive trait. Testes of homozygous Adamts16(mutant) males were significantly smaller with significant histological …


Paternal Poly (Adp-Ribose) Metabolism Modulates Retention Of Inheritable Sperm Histones And Early Embryonic Gene Expression, Motomasa Ihara, Mirella L. Meyer-Ficca, N. A. Leu, Shilpa Rao, Fan Li, Brian D. Gregory, Irina A. Zalenskaya, Richard M. Schultz, Ralph G. Meyer 2014 University of Pennsylvania

Paternal Poly (Adp-Ribose) Metabolism Modulates Retention Of Inheritable Sperm Histones And Early Embryonic Gene Expression, Motomasa Ihara, Mirella L. Meyer-Ficca, N. A. Leu, Shilpa Rao, Fan Li, Brian D. Gregory, Irina A. Zalenskaya, Richard M. Schultz, Ralph G. Meyer

Departmental Papers (Biology)

To achieve the extreme nuclear condensation necessary for sperm function, most histones are replaced with protamines during spermiogenesis in mammals. Mature sperm retain only a small fraction of nucleosomes, which are, in part, enriched on gene regulatory sequences, and recent findings suggest that these retained histones provide epigenetic information that regulates expression of a subset of genes involved in embryo development after fertilization. We addressed this tantalizing hypothesis by analyzing two mouse models exhibiting abnormal histone positioning in mature sperm due to impaired poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) metabolism during spermiogenesis and identified altered sperm histone retention in specific gene loci genome-wide using …


Maternal Biomarkers Of Endothelial Dysfunction And Preterm Delivery, Xinhua Chen, Theresa O Scholl 2014 Rowan University

Maternal Biomarkers Of Endothelial Dysfunction And Preterm Delivery, Xinhua Chen, Theresa O Scholl

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction is key to the development of atherosclerosis. Preterm delivery foreshadows later maternal cardiovascular disease (CVD), but it is not known if endothelial dysfunction also occurs. We prospectively measured circulating biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction in pregnant women with preterm or term delivery.

METHODS: We conducted a case-control study nested within a large prospective epidemiological study of young, generally healthy pregnant women. Women who delivered preterm (gestation, n = 240) and controls who delivered at term (n = 439) were included. Pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia were analyzed separately. Circulating endothelial dysfunction biomarkers included soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), vascular …


Anti-Müllerian Hormone In Stallions And Mares: Physiological Variations, Clinical Applications, And Molecular Aspects, Anthony N.J. Claes 2014 University of Kentucky

Anti-Müllerian Hormone In Stallions And Mares: Physiological Variations, Clinical Applications, And Molecular Aspects, Anthony N.J. Claes

Theses and Dissertations--Veterinary Science

Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is a homodimeric glycoprotein that is best known for its role in regression of the Müllerian duct in the male fetus. Accumulating evidence indicates that AMH also has an important role during different physiological processes after birth. In contrast to other species, relatively little is known about AMH in the horse. In chapter one, developmental and seasonal changes in serum AMH concentrations in male horses were determined, and the use of AMH for determination of retained cryptorchid testes was established. In chapter two, the interrelationship between plasma AMH concentrations, antral follicle counts (AFC), and age in mares …


Jordanian Ethical Perceptions Of Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis, Sarah C. Miller 2013 SIT Study Abroad

Jordanian Ethical Perceptions Of Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis, Sarah C. Miller

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) is a procedure that can be done during In Vitro Fertilization (IVF), involving genetic and chromosomal screening of fertilized embryos prior to implantation into a woman’s uterus. After PGD, only the embryos possessing the desired characteristics are implanted, while the other embryos are frozen for future use, or discarded. PGD is used for family balancing (gender selection for balancing the gender dynamic within a family), gender selection to screen out sex-linked diseases, or a broader genetic screening for diseases known to be present in the patient’s family history.

Many ethical questions have been raised about PGD, …


Kisspeptin Receptor Agonist (Ftm080) Increased Plasma Concentrations Of Luteinizing Hormone In Anestrous Ewes, Brian K. Whitlock, Kelly A. Chameroy, Rebecca R. Payton, Shinya Oishi, Nobutaka Fujii, Joseph A. Daniel 2013 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Kisspeptin Receptor Agonist (Ftm080) Increased Plasma Concentrations Of Luteinizing Hormone In Anestrous Ewes, Brian K. Whitlock, Kelly A. Chameroy, Rebecca R. Payton, Shinya Oishi, Nobutaka Fujii, Joseph A. Daniel

Brian K Whitlock, PhD, DVM, DACT

Kisspeptin (KP) and the KP receptor (Kiss1r) are integral to central regulation of the gonadotropic-axis. The demonstration that intravenous infusion of KP can stimulate gonadotropin secretion and ovulation in seasonally anestrous female sheep offers a means of manipulating the reproductive axis. However, KP may be of limited clinical use because of the short circulating half-life. Kiss1r agonists with increased half-life and similar efficacy to KP in vitro potentially may provide beneficial applications in breeding management of many species. However, many of these agonists have not been tested in vivo. This study was designed to test and compare the effects of …


Effect Of Meloxicam On Gain And Inflammatory Response Of Calves Castrated By Banding Post-Weaning, Brian K. Whitlock, Peter D. Krawczel, Jeff A. Carroll, Nicole C. Burdick Sanchez, Jeff W. Dailey, Joseph A. Daniel, Johann F. Coetzee 2013 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Effect Of Meloxicam On Gain And Inflammatory Response Of Calves Castrated By Banding Post-Weaning, Brian K. Whitlock, Peter D. Krawczel, Jeff A. Carroll, Nicole C. Burdick Sanchez, Jeff W. Dailey, Joseph A. Daniel, Johann F. Coetzee

Brian K Whitlock, PhD, DVM, DACT

Castration may detrimentally affect the health and performance of weaned calves, and painful procedures are increasingly becoming a public concern. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of castration (by banding) with or without administration of meloxicam, a non-steroid anti-inflammatory, on performance and inflammatory response in weaned beef calves. Forty-eight (weaned) beef calves [10.0±0.2 mo old; 304±6 kg BW] were blocked by age, BW, wither height, scrotal circumference, and source, then randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments (n=16 calves per treatment: 1) intact bulls (BULL), 2) castration by banding (BAN), or 3) castration by banding with …


Effect Of Meloxicam On Gain And Behavior Of Calves Castrated By Banding Pre-Weaning, Joseph A. Daniel, Peter D. Krawczel, Brian K. Whitlock 2013 Berry College

Effect Of Meloxicam On Gain And Behavior Of Calves Castrated By Banding Pre-Weaning, Joseph A. Daniel, Peter D. Krawczel, Brian K. Whitlock

Brian K Whitlock, PhD, DVM, DACT

The objective was to determine if oral meloxicam (M; a non-steroid anti-inflammatory) administered at castration of pre-weaning calves affected ADG or behavior. Prior to castration (14 d), Angus bulls were assigned to bull (BULL; n = 7; age 106 ± 6 d; BW = 174.2 ±7.7 kg; scrotal circumference 17.7 ± 0.4 cm), castrated (BAN; n = 12; age = 105 ± 5 d; BW = 144.5 ± 7.6 kg; scrotal circumference = 16 ± 0.4 cm) or castrated with meloxicam (BAN+M; n = 13; age = 121 ± 6 d; BW = 145.8 ± 6 kg; scrotal circumference = …


Meloxicam Mediates Short-Term Behavioral Changes Of Castrated Calves, Peter D. Krawczel, Jeff A. Carroll, Nicole C. Burdick Sanchez, Jeff W. Dailey, Joseph A. Daniel, Johann F. Coetzee, Brian K. Whitlock 2013 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Meloxicam Mediates Short-Term Behavioral Changes Of Castrated Calves, Peter D. Krawczel, Jeff A. Carroll, Nicole C. Burdick Sanchez, Jeff W. Dailey, Joseph A. Daniel, Johann F. Coetzee, Brian K. Whitlock

Brian K Whitlock, PhD, DVM, DACT

Castration may detrimentally affect the health and performance of weaned calves and painful procedures are increasingly a public concern. Therefore, practical pain mitigation is critical. The objective was to determine the effects of castration (by banding) with or without administration of NSAID, meloxicam, on the behavior of weaned beef calves. Forty-eight (56 d post-weaning) beef calves [10.0 ± 0.2 (mean ± SE) mo old; 304 ± 6 kg BW] were blocked by multiple factors then randomly assigned to 3 treatments (n = 16 calves per treatment: 1) intact bulls (BULL), 2) castration by banding (BAN), or 3) castration by banding …


Effects Of Dietary Magnesium On Testicular Histology, Steroidogenesis, Spermatogenesis And Oxidative Stress Markers In Adult Rats, Amar K. Chandra, Pallav Sengupta, Haimanti Goswami, Mahitosh Sarkar 2012 University of Calcutta

Effects Of Dietary Magnesium On Testicular Histology, Steroidogenesis, Spermatogenesis And Oxidative Stress Markers In Adult Rats, Amar K. Chandra, Pallav Sengupta, Haimanti Goswami, Mahitosh Sarkar

Pallav Sengupta, PhD

Magnesium is an essential nutrient that acts as a cofactor in numerous enzymatic reactions including energy metabolism, protein and nucleic acid biosynthesis. Its supplementation has shown to be advantageous in hypertension and treatment of angina. The intricate mechanistic aspects of excess dietary magnesium in testicular morphology and functions have been investigated, as the available information found insufficient. Adult male Wister strain rats were fed magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) with standard diet at diverse doses for one and two consecutive seminiferous cycles (13 and 26 days respectively). Significant increase in the activities of testicular Δ 5 3β - hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17β …


A 'Snip' In Time: What Is The Best Age To Circumcise?, Brian J. Morris, Jake H. Waskett, Joya Banerjee, Richard G. Wamai, Aaron A. R. Tobian, Ronald H. Gray, Stefan A. Bailis, Robert C. Bailey, Jeffrey D. Klausner, Robin J. Willcourt, Daniel T. Halperin, Thomas E. Wiswell, Adrian Mindel 2012 University of Sydney

A 'Snip' In Time: What Is The Best Age To Circumcise?, Brian J. Morris, Jake H. Waskett, Joya Banerjee, Richard G. Wamai, Aaron A. R. Tobian, Ronald H. Gray, Stefan A. Bailis, Robert C. Bailey, Jeffrey D. Klausner, Robin J. Willcourt, Daniel T. Halperin, Thomas E. Wiswell, Adrian Mindel

Richard G. Wamai

Background Circumcision is a common procedure, but regional and societal attitudes differ on whether there is a need for a male to be circumcised and, if so, at what age. This is an important issue for many parents, but also pediatricians, other doctors, policy makers, public health authorities, medical bodies, and males themselves. Discussion We show here that infancy is an optimal time for clinical circumcision because an infant's low mobility facilitates the use of local anesthesia, sutures are not required, healing is quick, cosmetic outcome is usually excellent, costs are minimal, and complications are uncommon. The benefits of infant …


Digital Commons powered by bepress