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Lysophosphatidic Acid Production And Signaling In Platelets, Zachary Bennett Fulkerson 2011 University of Kentucky

Lysophosphatidic Acid Production And Signaling In Platelets, Zachary Bennett Fulkerson

Theses and Dissertations--Physiology

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) belongs to a class of extracellular lipid signaling molecules. In the vasculature, LPA may regulate platelet activation and modulate endothelial and smooth muscle cell function. LPA has therefore been proposed as a mediator of cardiovascular disease.

The bulk of circulating LPA is produced from plasma lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) by autotaxin (ATX), a secreted lysophospholipase D (lysoPLD). Early studies suggest that some of the production of circulating LPA is platelet-dependent. ATX possesses an N-terminal somatomedin B-like domain suggesting the hypothesis that ATX interacts with platelet integrins which may localize ATX to substrate in the membrane and/or alter the catalytic …


Genome-Wide Association Studies At The Interface Of Alzheimer’S Disease And Epidemiologically Related Disorders, Christopher Ryan Simmons 2011 University of Kentucky

Genome-Wide Association Studies At The Interface Of Alzheimer’S Disease And Epidemiologically Related Disorders, Christopher Ryan Simmons

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS)s provide an unbiased means of exploring the landscape of complex genetic disease. As such, these studies have identified genetic variants that are robustly associated with a multitude of conditions. I hypothesize that these genetic variants serve as excellent tools for evaluation of the genetic interface between epidemiologically related conditions. Herein, I test the association between SNPs associated with either (i) plasma lipids, (ii) rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or (iii) diabetes mellitus (DM) and late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD) to identify shared genetic variants. Regarding the most significantly AD-associated variants, I have also attempted to elucidate their molecular function. …


Effect Of Type 2 Diabetes On The Dynamic Response Characteristics Of Leg Vascular Conductance During Exercise, Oscar Mac Ananey, H Reilly, D O'Shea, M Egana, S Green 2011 Technological University Dublin

Effect Of Type 2 Diabetes On The Dynamic Response Characteristics Of Leg Vascular Conductance During Exercise, Oscar Mac Ananey, H Reilly, D O'Shea, M Egana, S Green

Articles

Abstract

In this study we tested the hypothesis that type 2 diabetes impairs the dynamic response of leg vascular conductance (LVC) during exercise. LVC (leg blood flow/mean arterial pressure) responses were studied during intermittent contractions of the calf muscle in subjects with type 2 diabetes (n = 9), heavy controls (n = 10) and lean controls (n = 8) using a biexponential function and an estimate of the mean response time (MRT). The time constant of the second phase of LVC was significantly greater in type 2 diabetes (66.4 ± 29.2 s) than the heavy (22.2 ± 13.4 s) and …


How Loss Of Neurofibromin In Oligodendrocytes Affects The Brain, Debra A. Mayes, Tilat A. Rizvi, Nathan T. Kolasinski, S. Miller, Nancy Ratner 2011 Wright State University - Main Campus

How Loss Of Neurofibromin In Oligodendrocytes Affects The Brain, Debra A. Mayes, Tilat A. Rizvi, Nathan T. Kolasinski, S. Miller, Nancy Ratner

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

Neurofibromatosis type 1 patients are predisposed to central nervous system (CNS) phenotypes including enlarged brains, delayed acquisition of motor skills, brain tumors, and cognitive deficits. Imaging and pathologic analysis suggest that changes in white matter myelination may underlie both the enlargement of white matter tracts that contributes to megancephaly, and/or hyper-intense signals visualized on MRI. To study the role(s) of Nf1 and HRasin oligodendrocytes, we examined the optic nerve and corpus callosum,myelinated fiber tracts.We studiedNf1heterozygous mice,tamoxifen-induced Nf1 loss in mature oligodendrocytes (Plp-CreERT), and a new transgenic model in which the CNPase promoter drives expression of HRasG12V. Activated HRas and loss …


Perinatal Or Adult Nf1 Inactivation Using Tamoxifen-Inducible Plpcre Each Cause Neurofibroma Formation, Debra A. Mayes, Tilat A. Rizvi, Jose A. Cancelas, Nathan T. Kolasinski, Georgianne M. Ciraolo, Anat O. Stemmer-Rachamimov, Nancy Ratner 2011 Wright State University - Main Campus

Perinatal Or Adult Nf1 Inactivation Using Tamoxifen-Inducible Plpcre Each Cause Neurofibroma Formation, Debra A. Mayes, Tilat A. Rizvi, Jose A. Cancelas, Nathan T. Kolasinski, Georgianne M. Ciraolo, Anat O. Stemmer-Rachamimov, Nancy Ratner

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

OBJECTIVES

Neurofibromas are tumors initiated by biallelic mutation of the NF1 tumor suppressor gene in the Schwann cell lineage. One idea within the field suggests that Nf1loss must occur within progenitor cells present within a critical window during Schwann cell development in order for neurofibromas to form. To test this hypothesis and to examine whethermyelinating Schwann cells can serve as aneurofibroma cell of origin, Nf1 loss was induced at perinatal or adult timepoints using a tamoxifen-inducible Plp-CreERT driver.

RESULTS

Perinatal loss of Nf1 resulted in small neurofibromas late in life, while adult loss caused large neurofibromas and morbidity beginning …


Learning From Mistakes: Improving Initial Fingertip Force Scaling By Observing Lifting Errors, Gavin Buckingham, Minnie Tang, Paul Gribble, Melvyn A. Goodale 2011 The University of Western Ontario

Learning From Mistakes: Improving Initial Fingertip Force Scaling By Observing Lifting Errors, Gavin Buckingham, Minnie Tang, Paul Gribble, Melvyn A. Goodale

Psychology Presentations

• When lifting objects that are lighter or heaver than we expect them to be, individuals typically misapply forces in a way that reflects their prior expectations of heaviness.

• Because we lift in this predictive way, large and small cubes elicit these characteristic errors even when they are adjusted to have equal mass. Lifters will apply too much force to a large cube and substantially less force to a small cube – errors that are rapidly corrected with repeated lifts (Flanagan & Beltzner, 2000).

• When watching others lift objects, an observer’s motor system automatically reacts in a way …


Lesion Of Cholinergic Neurons In Nucleus Basalis Enhances Response To General Anesthetics, Leung L. Stan 2011 University of Western Ontario

Lesion Of Cholinergic Neurons In Nucleus Basalis Enhances Response To General Anesthetics, Leung L. Stan

Physiology and Pharmacology Publications

Acetylcholine in the brain has been associated with consciousness and general anesthesia effects. We tested the hypothesis that the integrity of the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) affects the response to general anesthetics. Cholinergic neurons in NBM were selectively lesioned by bilateral infusion of 192IgG-saporin in adult, male Long–Evans rats, and control rats were infused with saline. Depletion of choline-acetyltransferase (ChAT)-immunoreactive cells in the NBM and decrease in optical density of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) staining in the frontal and visual cortices confirmed a significant decrease in NBM cholinergic neurons in lesioned as compared to control rats. AChE staining in the hippocampus and …


Learning From Mistakes: Improving Initial Fingertip Force Scaling By Observing Lifting Errors, Gavin Buckingham, Minnie Tang, Paul Gribble, Melvyn Goodale 2010 The University of Western Ontario

Learning From Mistakes: Improving Initial Fingertip Force Scaling By Observing Lifting Errors, Gavin Buckingham, Minnie Tang, Paul Gribble, Melvyn Goodale

Gavin Buckingham

• When lifting objects that are lighter or heaver than we expect them to be, individuals typically misapply forces in a way that reflects their prior expectations of heaviness.

• Because we lift in this predictive way, large and small cubes elicit these characteristic errors even when they are adjusted to have equal mass. Lifters will apply too much force to a large cube and substantially less force to a small cube – errors that are rapidly corrected with repeated lifts (Flanagan & Beltzner, 2000).

• When watching others lift objects, an observer’s motor system automatically reacts in a way …


Von Willebrand Factor Expression In Vascular Endothelial Cells Of Cage Control And Antiorthostatic Cage Suspension Golden Hamster Ovaries., Kristan Provchy 2010 East Tennessee State University

Von Willebrand Factor Expression In Vascular Endothelial Cells Of Cage Control And Antiorthostatic Cage Suspension Golden Hamster Ovaries., Kristan Provchy

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The hamster estrous cycle lasts four days and is considered to be a physiological model for angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is the formation of new capillaries from preexisting vessels, and it occurs extensively during corpus luteum formation in the estrous cycle. Von Willebrand Factor (vWF) is a glycoprotein that is secreted uniquely in endothelial cells and megakaryocytes. It is frequently used as an endothelial cell marker and it is able to detect vessels within tissues when it is used in immunohistochemical staining techniques. This study explores von Willebrand Factor expression within Golden Hamster ovarian tissue. In particular, this study uses cage control …


Analysis Of Β8 Integrin In Neurogenesis And Neurovascular Homeostasis, Aaron K. Mobley 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Analysis Of Β8 Integrin In Neurogenesis And Neurovascular Homeostasis, Aaron K. Mobley

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Neurogenesis in the adult mouse brain occurs within the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle. In the SVZ, neural stem cells (NSC) reside in a specialized microenvironment, or vascular niche, consisting of blood vessels and their basement membranes. Most NSCs in the SVZ differentiate into progenitor cells, which further differentiate to generate neuroblasts, which then migrate from the SVZ to the olfactory bulbs (OB) along the rostral migratory stream (RMS). ECM-mediated adhesion and signaling within the vascular niche likely contribute to proper NSC self-renewal, survival, differentiation and neuroblast motility. The mechanisms that control these events are poorly understood. Previous …


Long-Term Hypoxia Regulates Cortisol Biosynthesis In The Ovine Fetal Adrenal Cortex, Vladimir Enrique Vargas 2010 Loma Linda University

Long-Term Hypoxia Regulates Cortisol Biosynthesis In The Ovine Fetal Adrenal Cortex, Vladimir Enrique Vargas

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

Previous studies demonstrated enhanced fetal adrenal cortisol biosynthesis following exposure to long-term hypoxia (LTH). The studies presented here were designed to determine the mechanism(s) regulating this important adaptive endocrine response. Ewes were maintained at high altitude (3,820 m) from approximately day 40 to 138-141 of gestation. Fetal adrenal glands were then collected from LTH and age matched normoxic controls. Dispersed fetal adrenal cortical cells (FACs) were untreated, treated with ACTH, treated in combination with ACTH precursors (POMC and 22-kDa pro-ACTH), or pre-treated with H-89 and or UO126 followed by ACTH treatment. Following ACTH treatment, cortisol biosynthesis increased in both groups …


Quantification Of Localized Brain Iron Sources Using Magnetic Resonance Phase, Grant Alexander McAuley 2010 Loma Linda University

Quantification Of Localized Brain Iron Sources Using Magnetic Resonance Phase, Grant Alexander Mcauley

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

Brain microbleeds (BMB), often present in cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative diseases and neurotrauma, are associated with both chronic and acute illness of significant social and economic impact. Because BMB present a source of potentially cyctotoxic iron to the brain proportional to the amount of extravasated blood, non-invasive quantification of this iron pool is potentially valuable both to assess tissue risk and as a biomarker to monitor disease progression, treatment efficacy, and inform treatment. Past efforts to quantify brain iron have focused on distributed (e.g., anatomical) brain regions. However, BMB represent localized sources of iron deposition. In addition, conventional "magnitude" MR images …


Pharmacologic Responses Of The Mouse Urinary Bladder, A. Erdem, Christopher Chapple, Russ Chess-Williams 2010 Bond University

Pharmacologic Responses Of The Mouse Urinary Bladder, A. Erdem, Christopher Chapple, Russ Chess-Williams

Russ Chess-Williams

The aim of the study was to determine pathways involved in contraction and relaxation of the mouse urinary bladder. Mouse bladder strips were set up in gassed Krebs-bicarbonate solution and responses to various drugs and electrical field stimulation were obtained. Isoprenaline (b-receptor agonist) caused a 63% inhibition of carbachol precontracted detrusor (EC50=2nM). Carbachol caused contraction (EC50=0.3µM), responses were antagonised more potently by 4-DAMP (M3-antagonist) than methoctramine (M2-antagonist). Electrical field stimulation caused contraction, which was inhibited by atropine (60%) and less by guanethidine and α,β-methylene-ATP. The neurogenic responses were not potentiated by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase. Presence of an intact …


Pharmacologic Responses Of The Mouse Urinary Bladder, A. Erdem, Christopher Chapple, Russ Chess-Williams 2010 Bond University

Pharmacologic Responses Of The Mouse Urinary Bladder, A. Erdem, Christopher Chapple, Russ Chess-Williams

Russ Chess-Williams

The aim of the study was to determine pathways involved in contraction and relaxation of the mouse urinary bladder. Mouse bladder strips were set up in gassed Krebs-bicarbonate solution and responses to various drugs and electrical field stimulation were obtained. Isoprenaline (b-receptor agonist) caused a 63% inhibition of carbachol precontracted detrusor (EC50=2nM). Carbachol caused contraction (EC50=0.3µM), responses were antagonised more potently by 4-DAMP (M3-antagonist) than methoctramine (M2-antagonist). Electrical field stimulation caused contraction, which was inhibited by atropine (60%) and less by guanethidine and α,β-methylene-ATP. The neurogenic responses were not potentiated by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase. Presence of an intact …


Cortisol Exerts Bi-Phasic Regulation Of Inflammation In Humans, Mark P. Yeager, Patricia Pioli, Paul M. Guyre 2010 Dartmouth College

Cortisol Exerts Bi-Phasic Regulation Of Inflammation In Humans, Mark P. Yeager, Patricia Pioli, Paul M. Guyre

Dartmouth Scholarship

Natural and synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs) have been used for decades to suppress inflammation. In this paper, we re-examine the role of the endogenous GC, cortisol, as a primary homeostatic regulator of the human inflammatory response to injury. Our data show that cortisol regulation of innate immunity can be both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory. Using a human model of in vivo cortisol depletion, we first show that baseline (diurnal) cortisol concentrations do not exert an anti-inflammatory effect. This is the first clue that cortisol regulation of inflammation is not represented by a linear dose-response relationship. We next show in surgical patients that …


Q-Ve-Oph, A Negative Control For O-Phenoxy-Conjugated Caspase Inhibitors, Benjamin Southerland, Kashmira Kulkarni-Datar, Chanel Keoni, Rebecca Bricker, William C. Grunwald Jr., Daniel M. Ketcha, Eugene Hern, David R. Cool, Thomas L. Brown 2010 Wright State University - Main Campus

Q-Ve-Oph, A Negative Control For O-Phenoxy-Conjugated Caspase Inhibitors, Benjamin Southerland, Kashmira Kulkarni-Datar, Chanel Keoni, Rebecca Bricker, William C. Grunwald Jr., Daniel M. Ketcha, Eugene Hern, David R. Cool, Thomas L. Brown

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

The broad-spectrum apoptosis (caspase) inhibitor, Q-VD-OPh, has been shown to have no side effects and is effective at a much lower concentration than other FMK-type caspase inhibitors. However, an appropriate negative control to use with this inhibi- tor has not been available. In this study, we developed and analyzed a new compound, based on the Q-VD-OPh backbone, which acts as a cognate negative control. To create the negative control, we substituted a glutamate residue for the aspartate residue to create Q-VE-OPh, thereby retaining the identical charge and molecular properties with only the addition of an extra –CH2 group. The purity …


De Novo Sequencing And Analysis Of The American Ginseng Root Transcriptome Using A Gs Flx Titanium Platform To Discover Putative Genes Involved In Ginsenoside Biosynthesis, Chao Sun, Ying Li, Qiong Wu, Hongmei Luo, Yongzhen Sun, Jingyuan Song, Ed Lui, Shilin Chen 2010 The University of Western Ontario

De Novo Sequencing And Analysis Of The American Ginseng Root Transcriptome Using A Gs Flx Titanium Platform To Discover Putative Genes Involved In Ginsenoside Biosynthesis, Chao Sun, Ying Li, Qiong Wu, Hongmei Luo, Yongzhen Sun, Jingyuan Song, Ed Lui, Shilin Chen

Edmund M. K. Lui

BACKGROUND: American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) is one of the most widely used herbal remedies in the world. Its major bioactive constituents are the triterpene saponins known as ginsenosides. However, little is known about ginsenoside biosynthesis in American ginseng, especially the late steps of the pathway. RESULTS: In this study, a one-quarter 454 sequencing run produced 209,747 high-quality reads with an average sequence length of 427 bases. De novo assembly generated 31,088 unique sequences containing 16,592 contigs and 14,496 singletons. About 93.1% of the high-quality reads were assembled into contigs with an average 8-fold coverage. A total of 21,684 (69.8%) …


Optimal Bone Strength And Mineralization Requires The Type 2 Iodothyronine Deiodinase In Osteoblasts, J. H. D. Bassett, Alan Boyde, Peter G. T. Howell, Richard H. Bassett, Thomas M. Galliford, Marta Archanco, Holly Evans, Michelle A. Lawson, Peter Croucher, Donald L. St. Germain, Valerie A. Galton, Graham R. Williams 2010 Imperial College London

Optimal Bone Strength And Mineralization Requires The Type 2 Iodothyronine Deiodinase In Osteoblasts, J. H. D. Bassett, Alan Boyde, Peter G. T. Howell, Richard H. Bassett, Thomas M. Galliford, Marta Archanco, Holly Evans, Michelle A. Lawson, Peter Croucher, Donald L. St. Germain, Valerie A. Galton, Graham R. Williams

Dartmouth Scholarship

Hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis are each associated with an increased risk of fracture. Although thyroxine (T4) is the predominant circulating thyroid hormone, target cell responses are determined by local intracellular availability of the active hormone 3,5,3'-L-triiodothyronine (T3), which is generated from T4 by the type 2 deiodinase enzyme (D2). To investigate the role of locally produced T3 in bone, we characterized mice deficient in D2 (D2KO) in which the serum T3 level is normal. Bones from adult D2KO mice have reduced toughness and are brittle, displaying an increased susceptibility to fracture. This phenotype is characterized by a 50% reduction in bone …


Bitc Sensitizes Pancreatic Adenocarcinomas To Trail-Induced Apoptosis, Christina A. Wicker, Ravi P. Sahu, Kashmira Kulkarni-Datar, Sanjay K. Srivastava, Thomas L. Brown 2010 Wright State University - Main Campus

Bitc Sensitizes Pancreatic Adenocarcinomas To Trail-Induced Apoptosis, Christina A. Wicker, Ravi P. Sahu, Kashmira Kulkarni-Datar, Sanjay K. Srivastava, Thomas L. Brown

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is an aggressive cancer with a greater than 95% mortality rate and short survival after diagnosis. Chemotherapeutic resistance hinders successful treatment. This resistance is often associated with mutations in codon 12 of the K-Ras gene (K-Ras 12), which is present in over 90% of all pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Codon 12 mutations maintain Ras in a constitutively active state leading to continuous cellular proliferation. Our study determined if TRAIL resistance in pancreatic adenocarcinomas with K-Ras 12 mutations could be overcome by first sensitizing the cells with Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC). BITC is a component of cruciferous vegetables and a cell cycle …


Electrospun Nanofibers For Neural Tissue Engineering, Jingwei Xie, Matthew R. MacEwan, Andrea G. Schwartz, Younan Xia 2010 Marshall University

Electrospun Nanofibers For Neural Tissue Engineering, Jingwei Xie, Matthew R. Macewan, Andrea G. Schwartz, Younan Xia

MIIR Faculty Research

Biodegradable nanofibers produced by electrospinning represent a new class of promising scaffolds to support nerve regeneration. We begin with a brief discussion on electrospinning of nanofibers and methods for controlling the structure, porosity, and alignment of the electrospun nanofibers. The methods include control of the nanoscale morphology and microscale alignment for the nanofibers, as well as the fabrication of macroscale, three-dimensional tubular structures. We then highlight recent studies that utilize electrospun nanofibers to manipulate biological processes relevant to nervous tissue regeneration, including stem cell differentiation, guidance of neurite extension, and peripheral nerve injury treatments. The main objective of this feature …


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