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Method Of Treating Parkinson's Disease In Humans By Convection-Enhanced Infusion Of Glial Cell-Line Derived Neurotrophic Factor To The Putamen, Stephen S. Gill, Don M. Gash, Greg A. Gerhardt 2015 University of Kentucky

Method Of Treating Parkinson's Disease In Humans By Convection-Enhanced Infusion Of Glial Cell-Line Derived Neurotrophic Factor To The Putamen, Stephen S. Gill, Don M. Gash, Greg A. Gerhardt

Neuroscience Faculty Patents

A method of treating Parkinson's disease in humans is disclosed, wherein glial cell-line derive neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is chronically administered directly to one or both putamen of a human in need of treatment thereof via convection-enhanced infusion using at least one implantable pump and at least one catheter. In one aspect of the present invention the GDNF is infused directly into one or both putamen through one or more indwelling intraparenchymal mutitiport brain catheters connected to one or more implantable pumps wherein the flow rate is pulsed.


Reward Enhances Tic Suppression In Children Within Months Of Tic Disorder Onset, Deanna J. Greene, Jonathan M. Koller, Amy Robichaux-Viehoever, Emily C. Bihun, Bradley L. Schlaggar, Kevin J. Black 2015 Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis

Reward Enhances Tic Suppression In Children Within Months Of Tic Disorder Onset, Deanna J. Greene, Jonathan M. Koller, Amy Robichaux-Viehoever, Emily C. Bihun, Bradley L. Schlaggar, Kevin J. Black

Kevin J. Black, MD

Tic disorders are childhood onset neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by motor and/or vocal tics. Research has demonstrated that children with chronic tics (including Tourette syndrome and Chronic Tic Disorder: TS/CTD) can suppress tics, particularly when an immediate, contingent reward is given for successful tic suppression. As a diagnosis of TS/CTD requires tics to be present for at least one year, children in these tic suppression studies had been living with tics for quite some time. Thus, it is unclear whether the ability to inhibit tics is learned over time or present at tic onset. Resolving that issue would ...


Micrornas And Regeneration: Let-7 Members As Potential Regulators Of Dedifferentiation In Lens And Inner Ear Hair Cell Regeneration Of The Adult Newt, Panagiotis Tsonis, Mindy Call, Matthew Grogg, Maureen Sartor, Ruth Taylor, Andrew Forge, Robert Fyffe, Robert Goldenberg, Richard Cowper-Sallari, Craig Tomlinson 2015 Wright State University

Micrornas And Regeneration: Let-7 Members As Potential Regulators Of Dedifferentiation In Lens And Inner Ear Hair Cell Regeneration Of The Adult Newt, Panagiotis Tsonis, Mindy Call, Matthew Grogg, Maureen Sartor, Ruth Taylor, Andrew Forge, Robert Fyffe, Robert Goldenberg, Richard Cowper-Sallari, Craig Tomlinson

Panagiotis A. Tsonis

MicroRNAs are known to regulate the expression of many mRNAs by binding to complementary target sequences at the 3′UTRs. Because of such properties, miRNAs may regulate tissue-specific mRNAs as a cell undergoes transdifferentiation during regeneration. We have tested this hypothesis during lens and hair cell regeneration in newts using microarray analysis. We found that distinct sets of miRNAs are associated with lens and hair cell regeneration. Members of the let-7 family are expressed in both events and they are regulated in a similar fashion. All the let-7 members are down regulated during the initiation of regeneration, which is characterized ...


Strad Pseudokinases Are Critical In Embroyonic Brain Development And In Regulating Lkb1 Stability, Biliana O. Veleva-Rotse 2015 Oregon Health & Science University

Strad Pseudokinases Are Critical In Embroyonic Brain Development And In Regulating Lkb1 Stability, Biliana O. Veleva-Rotse

Scholar Archive

The STe20-Related ADapter (STRAD) pseudokinases are highly evolutionarily conserved regulators of the protein kinase LKB1, but the roles of the vertebrate paralogs STRADα and STRADβ in the developing nervous system are not fully defined, nor is it known whether they serve distinct functions given their high degree of homology. Our phylogenetic analysis indicates that STRADα is the primal STRAD gene with STRADβ appearing following a gene duplication event solely in vertebrate species. The discovery and description of a hereditary developmental epilepsy syndrome known as Polyhydramnios, Megalencephaly, and Symptomatic Epilepsy (PMSE) Syndrome caused by homozygous deletion of part of the STRADα ...


Exposure To Kynurenic Acid During Adolescence Increases Sign-Tracking And Impairs Long-Term Potentiation In Adulthood, Nicole E. DeAngeli, Travis P. Todd, Stephen E. Chang, Hermes H. Yeh, Pamela W. Yeh, David J. Bucci 2015 Dartmouth College

Exposure To Kynurenic Acid During Adolescence Increases Sign-Tracking And Impairs Long-Term Potentiation In Adulthood, Nicole E. Deangeli, Travis P. Todd, Stephen E. Chang, Hermes H. Yeh, Pamela W. Yeh, David J. Bucci

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Changes in brain reward systems are thought to contribute significantly to the cognitive and behavioral impairments of schizophrenia, as well as the propensity to develop co-occurring substance abuse disorders. Presently, there are few treatments for persons with a dual diagnosis and little is known about the neural substrates that underlie co-occurring schizophrenia and substance abuse. One goal of the present study was to determine if a change in the concentration of kynurenic acid (KYNA), a tryptophan metabolite that is increased in the brains of people with schizophrenia, affects reward-related behavior. KYNA is an endogenous antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors and ...


Targeting Methylglyoxal And Ppar Gamma To Alleviate Neuropathic Pain Associated With Type 2 Diabetes, Ryan B. Griggs 2015 University of Kentucky

Targeting Methylglyoxal And Ppar Gamma To Alleviate Neuropathic Pain Associated With Type 2 Diabetes, Ryan B. Griggs

Theses and Dissertations--Physiology

Neuropathic pain affects up to 50% of the 29 million diabetic patients in the United States. Neuropathic pain in diabetes manifests as a disease of the peripheral and central nervous systems. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is far greater than type 1 (90%), yet the overwhelming focus on type 1 models this has left the mechanisms of pain in type 2 diabetes largely unknown. Therefore I aimed to improve the current mechanistic understanding of pain associated with type 2 diabetes using two preclinical rodent models: Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats and db/db mice. In addition, I highlight the translational ...


Appropriate Timing Of Fluoxetine And Statin Delivery Reduces The Risk Of Secondary Bleeding In Ischemic Stroke Rats, Maria Helen Harley Balch, Moner A. Ragas, Danny Wright, Kenny Reynolds, Bryce Kerr, Adrian M. Corbett 2015 Wright State University

Appropriate Timing Of Fluoxetine And Statin Delivery Reduces The Risk Of Secondary Bleeding In Ischemic Stroke Rats, Maria Helen Harley Balch, Moner A. Ragas, Danny Wright, Kenny Reynolds, Bryce Kerr, Adrian M. Corbett

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

Background: Ongoing clinical trials are testing the effect of fluoxetine delivered post-stroke where a majority of patients are taking statins. This study determined the influence of the timing of administration of fluoxetine and statin on the final infarct volume and the risk of secondary bleeding in an animal model of ischemic stroke.

Methods and findings: Ischemic strokes were induced by endothelin-1 injection into two cortical sites of 10-12 month old female rats, targeting the forelimb motor cortex. Combined medications (5 mg/kg fluoxetine and 1 mg/kg simvastatin) were orally administered either beginning 6-12 hours or 20-26 hours after stroke ...


Neuronal Migration: How Do You Build A Brain?, Sravya Uppalapati 2015 Virginia Commonwealth University

Neuronal Migration: How Do You Build A Brain?, Sravya Uppalapati

Auctus: The Journal of Undergraduate Research and Creative Scholarship

Senior biology major Alex Burkard is working in the Walsh Neurodevelopment Laboratory at VCU to help answer the question, ‘How do you build a brain?’ Burkard is researching neuronal migration in Zebrafish and how cellular polarity affects hindbrain development.


Modulation Of Sensory And Pain Perception With Successive Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation, Brookes Gregory Folmli 2015 Bond University

Modulation Of Sensory And Pain Perception With Successive Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation, Brookes Gregory Folmli

Theses

Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques are being trialed to induce neuroplasticity for meaningful purposes. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is one such brain stimulatory technique, which involves delivering low amplitude direct current (1-2mA) to the brain via scalp electrodes. A review of the literature has suggested that repeated daily tDCS could induce lasting effects in the motor domain in a healthy population and in both the sensory and motor domains in a clinical population. Of interest was whether increasing tDCS dose could evoke cumulative body sensory system function alteration in a healthy population.


Morphometric Analysis Of Left & Right Tonsils In Adult Symptomatic Type 1 Chiari Patients And Healthy Controls, Louis J. Konstan 2015 University of Akron Main Campus

Morphometric Analysis Of Left & Right Tonsils In Adult Symptomatic Type 1 Chiari Patients And Healthy Controls, Louis J. Konstan

Honors Research Projects

Historically, CMI has been radiographically defined by cerebellar tonsillar descent below the foramen magnum (FM) more than 5 mm (2). This measurement is typically made with a single sagittal plane T1-or T2-weighted MR image. Studies have obtained additional morphometric measurements to help diagnose CMI, and establish normal values (3,4). These studies were somewhat These studies were somewhat successful in differentiating CMI patients from healthy subjects. However, results from these studies have shown that the standard TD measurement does not necessarily correlate with neurological symptom severity as patients with CMI-like symptoms have been found with a TD of less than ...


The Piriform, Perirhinal, And Entorhinal Cortex In Seizure Generation., Marta S Vismer, Patrick A Forcelli, Mark D Skopin, Karen Gale, Mohamad Z. Koubeissi 2015 George Washington University

The Piriform, Perirhinal, And Entorhinal Cortex In Seizure Generation., Marta S Vismer, Patrick A Forcelli, Mark D Skopin, Karen Gale, Mohamad Z. Koubeissi

Neurology Faculty Publications

Understanding neural network behavior is essential to shed light on epileptogenesis and seizure propagation. The interconnectivity and plasticity of mammalian limbic and neocortical brain regions provide the substrate for the hypersynchrony and hyperexcitability associated with seizure activity. Recurrent unprovoked seizures are the hallmark of epilepsy, and limbic epilepsy is the most common type of medically-intractable focal epilepsy in adolescents and adults that necessitates surgical evaluation. In this review, we describe the role and relationships among the piriform (PIRC), perirhinal (PRC), and entorhinal cortex (ERC) in seizure-generation and epilepsy. The inherent function, anatomy, and histological composition of these cortical regions are ...


Enhanced Cgmp-Dependent Signaling In Astrocytes: Novel Therapeutic Target In Alzheimer's Disease, Nyema M. Woart 2015 Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

Enhanced Cgmp-Dependent Signaling In Astrocytes: Novel Therapeutic Target In Alzheimer's Disease, Nyema M. Woart

PCOM Biomedical Studies Student Scholarship

Over five million Americans suffer from Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), with an expected 34% increase in the incidence in this disease over the next decade. Unfortunately, there is no cure for AD. Recent studies have indicated that drugs which increase the levels of cyclic guanosine-3’5’-monophosphate (cGMP) may help preserve learning and memory in AD and enhance cognition in the aging brain; however, the mechanism(s) of how cGMP exerts this beneficial effect is unknown. The present findings now suggest that elevation of cGMP in astrocytes depresses inhibitory potassium currents in these cells to stimulate their protective influence on ...


Mitochondrial And Neuroprotective Effects Of Phenelzine Related To Scavenging Of Neurotoxic Lipid Peroxidation Products, John Cebak 2015 University of Kentucky

Mitochondrial And Neuroprotective Effects Of Phenelzine Related To Scavenging Of Neurotoxic Lipid Peroxidation Products, John Cebak

Theses and Dissertations--Neuroscience

Lipid peroxidation is a key contributor to the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Traditional antioxidant therapies are intended to scavenge the free radicals responsible for either the initiation or propagation of lipid peroxidation (LP). However, targeting free radicals after TBI is difficult as they rapidly react with other cellular macromolecules, and thus has a limited post-injury time window in which they may be intercepted by a radical scavenging agent. In contrast, our laboratory has begun testing an antioxidant approach that scavenges the final stages of LP i.e. formation of carbonyl-containing breakdown products. By scavenging breakdown products such as ...


Gene Expression And Alzheimer's Disease: Evaluation Of Gene Expression Patterns In Brain And Blood For An Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Model, Amanda Hazy 2015 Liberty University

Gene Expression And Alzheimer's Disease: Evaluation Of Gene Expression Patterns In Brain And Blood For An Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Model, Amanda Hazy

Senior Honors Theses

Previous studies have established a causative role for altered gene expression in development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). These changes can be affected by methylation and miRNA regulation. In this study, expression of miRNA known to change methylation status in AD was assessed by qPCR. Genome-wide expression changes were determined by RNA-sequencing of mRNA from hippocampus and blood of control and AD mice. The qPCR data showed significantly increased expression of Mir 17 in AD, and sequencing data revealed 230 genes in hippocampus, 58 genes in blood, and 8 overlapping genes showing significant differential expression (p value ≤ 0.05). Expression ...


Neural Function, Injury, And Stroke Subtype Predict Treatment Gains After Stroke, Erin Burke Quinlan, Lucy Dodakian, Jill See, Alison Mackenzie, Vu Le, Mike Wojnowicz, Babak Shahbaba, Steven C. Cramer 2015 University of California - Irvine

Neural Function, Injury, And Stroke Subtype Predict Treatment Gains After Stroke, Erin Burke Quinlan, Lucy Dodakian, Jill See, Alison Mackenzie, Vu Le, Mike Wojnowicz, Babak Shahbaba, Steven C. Cramer

Physical Therapy Faculty Articles and Research

Objective

This study was undertaken to better understand the high variability in response seen when treating human subjects with restorative therapies poststroke. Preclinical studies suggest that neural function, neural injury, and clinical status each influence treatment gains; therefore, the current study hypothesized that a multivariate approach incorporating these 3 measures would have the greatest predictive value.

Methods

Patients 3 to 6 months poststroke underwent a battery of assessments before receiving 3 weeks of standardized upper extremity robotic therapy. Candidate predictors included measures of brain injury (including to gray and white matter), neural function (cortical function and cortical connectivity), and clinical ...


Axon Initial Segment Stability In Multiple Sclerosis, Suneel K. Thummala 2015 Virginia Commonwealth University

Axon Initial Segment Stability In Multiple Sclerosis, Suneel K. Thummala

Theses and Dissertations

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system characterized by inflammation and demyelination. In addition to these hallmark features, MS also presents with axonal pathology, which is likely responsible for the signs and symptoms of the disease. Although prominent in MS, axonal pathology is frequently considered a consequence of demyelination and not a primary event. This conclusion is consistent with demyelination inducing the loss of specific axonal domains, known as the nodes of Ranvier that are responsible for the propagation of action potentials along the axon. In contrast, we propose that axonal pathology associated with MS ...


Alzheimer's Disease Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers Are Not Influenced By Gravity Drip Or Aspiration Extraction Methodology, Alan Rembach, Lisbeth A. Evered, Qiao-Xin Li, Tabitha Nash, Lesley Vidaurre, Christopher J. Fowler, Kelly K. Pertile, Rebecca L. Rumble, Brett O. Trounson, Sarah Maher, Francis Mooney, Maree Farrow, Kevin Taddei, Stephanie Rainey-Smith, Simon Laws, S. Lance Macaulay, William Wilson, David G. Darby, Ralph N. Martins, David Ames, Steven Collins, Brendon Silbert, Colin L. Masters, James D. Doecke 2015 Edith Cowan University

Alzheimer's Disease Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers Are Not Influenced By Gravity Drip Or Aspiration Extraction Methodology, Alan Rembach, Lisbeth A. Evered, Qiao-Xin Li, Tabitha Nash, Lesley Vidaurre, Christopher J. Fowler, Kelly K. Pertile, Rebecca L. Rumble, Brett O. Trounson, Sarah Maher, Francis Mooney, Maree Farrow, Kevin Taddei, Stephanie Rainey-Smith, Simon Laws, S. Lance Macaulay, William Wilson, David G. Darby, Ralph N. Martins, David Ames, Steven Collins, Brendon Silbert, Colin L. Masters, James D. Doecke

ECU Publications Post 2013

Introduction Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, although of established utility in the diagnostic evaluation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), are known to be sensitive to variation based on pre-analytical sample processing. We assessed whether gravity droplet collection versus syringe aspiration was another factor influencing CSF biomarker analyte concentrations and reproducibility. Methods Standardized lumbar puncture using small calibre atraumatic spinal needles and CSF collection using gravity fed collection followed by syringe aspirated extraction was performed in a sample of elderly individuals participating in a large long-term observational research trial. Analyte assay concentrations were compared. Results For the 44 total paired samples of ...


Accommodating Hyperaroused Information Processing In Persons At Risk For Alcoholism, Kellianne Clark, Jaclyn Cutler 2014 Chapman University

Accommodating Hyperaroused Information Processing In Persons At Risk For Alcoholism, Kellianne Clark, Jaclyn Cutler

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

In the search for the factors related to the heightened alcoholism risk in adult children of alcoholics (ACOA), it has been reported that these persons possess a high incidence of attention deficit disorders (ADD) as determined by clinical assessment instruments. However, investigations of alcoholism risk and ADD indicate that, in contrast to the hypoarousal model of ADD, the ACOA’s attention problems represent hyperarousal of attention mechanisms resulting in reduced ability to select and encode relevant information. If true, then unlike persons with ADD, clinical and cognitive assessments of ACOAs would benefit if the ACOA was provided with more time ...


Loss Of Renal Allografts Secondary To Candida Vascular Complications In Two Recipients From The Same Donor, Govardhana R. Yannam, Lucile E. Wrenshall, R. Brian Stevens 2014 Wright State University - Main Campus

Loss Of Renal Allografts Secondary To Candida Vascular Complications In Two Recipients From The Same Donor, Govardhana R. Yannam, Lucile E. Wrenshall, R. Brian Stevens

R. Brian Stevens

Infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in transplant patients. Organ recipients are also susceptible to donor-derived pathogens and the majority of donor infections are easily treatable. Rarely, some pathogens have produced life-threatening complications by compromising the vascular anastomosis. In this case series we report loss of two kidney allografts secondary to vascular complications due to Candida albicans. Both recipients received grafts from a common donor, in whom Candida bacteremia in the donor was not apparent at the time of organ acceptance but became apparent on delayed cultures.


Postural Sway And Brain Hemispheric Power Spectral Density Under Different Attentional Focus Conditions, Sharon Jalene 2014 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Postural Sway And Brain Hemispheric Power Spectral Density Under Different Attentional Focus Conditions, Sharon Jalene

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of this study was to determine the differences, if any, in the root mean square error (RMSE) of postural sway and hemispheric power spectral density (PSD) in the alpha and beta bands (8-12Hz and 12-25Hz) during different conditions of attentional focus (i.e., internal focus (IF), and external focus (EF) and a control condition (C)). Previous studies have shown that the adoption of IF and EF significantly alter motor performance and that EF promotes automaticity (Wulf, 2013). Sports performance and balance studies utilizing EEG spectral analyses report increased alpha oscillations during expert performance and stable balance and increased ...


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