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The Piriform, Perirhinal, And Entorhinal Cortex In Seizure Generation., Marta S Vismer, Patrick A Forcelli, Mark D Skopin, Karen Gale, Mohamad Z. Koubeissi 2015 George Washington University

The Piriform, Perirhinal, And Entorhinal Cortex In Seizure Generation., Marta S Vismer, Patrick A Forcelli, Mark D Skopin, Karen Gale, Mohamad Z. Koubeissi

Neurology Faculty Publications

Understanding neural network behavior is essential to shed light on epileptogenesis and seizure propagation. The interconnectivity and plasticity of mammalian limbic and neocortical brain regions provide the substrate for the hypersynchrony and hyperexcitability associated with seizure activity. Recurrent unprovoked seizures are the hallmark of epilepsy, and limbic epilepsy is the most common type of medically-intractable focal epilepsy in adolescents and adults that necessitates surgical evaluation. In this review, we describe the role and relationships among the piriform (PIRC), perirhinal (PRC), and entorhinal cortex (ERC) in seizure-generation and epilepsy. The inherent function, anatomy, and histological composition of these cortical regions are ...


Alzheimer's Disease Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers Are Not Influenced By Gravity Drip Or Aspiration Extraction Methodology, Alan Rembach, Lisbeth A. Evered, Qiao-Xin Li, Tabitha Nash, Lesley Vidaurre, Christopher J. Fowler, Kelly K. Pertile, Rebecca L. Rumble, Brett O. Trounson, Sarah Maher, Francis Mooney, Maree Farrow, Kevin Taddei, Stephanie Rainey-Smith, Simon Laws, S. Lance Macaulay, William Wilson, David G. Darby, Ralph N. Martins, David Ames, Steven Collins, Brendon Silbert, Colin L. Masters, James D. Doecke 2015 Edith Cowan University

Alzheimer's Disease Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers Are Not Influenced By Gravity Drip Or Aspiration Extraction Methodology, Alan Rembach, Lisbeth A. Evered, Qiao-Xin Li, Tabitha Nash, Lesley Vidaurre, Christopher J. Fowler, Kelly K. Pertile, Rebecca L. Rumble, Brett O. Trounson, Sarah Maher, Francis Mooney, Maree Farrow, Kevin Taddei, Stephanie Rainey-Smith, Simon Laws, S. Lance Macaulay, William Wilson, David G. Darby, Ralph N. Martins, David Ames, Steven Collins, Brendon Silbert, Colin L. Masters, James D. Doecke

ECU Publications Post 2013

Introduction Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, although of established utility in the diagnostic evaluation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), are known to be sensitive to variation based on pre-analytical sample processing. We assessed whether gravity droplet collection versus syringe aspiration was another factor influencing CSF biomarker analyte concentrations and reproducibility. Methods Standardized lumbar puncture using small calibre atraumatic spinal needles and CSF collection using gravity fed collection followed by syringe aspirated extraction was performed in a sample of elderly individuals participating in a large long-term observational research trial. Analyte assay concentrations were compared. Results For the 44 total paired samples of ...


Accommodating Hyperaroused Information Processing In Persons At Risk For Alcoholism, Kellianne Clark, Jaclyn Cutler 2014 Chapman University

Accommodating Hyperaroused Information Processing In Persons At Risk For Alcoholism, Kellianne Clark, Jaclyn Cutler

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

In the search for the factors related to the heightened alcoholism risk in adult children of alcoholics (ACOA), it has been reported that these persons possess a high incidence of attention deficit disorders (ADD) as determined by clinical assessment instruments. However, investigations of alcoholism risk and ADD indicate that, in contrast to the hypoarousal model of ADD, the ACOA’s attention problems represent hyperarousal of attention mechanisms resulting in reduced ability to select and encode relevant information. If true, then unlike persons with ADD, clinical and cognitive assessments of ACOAs would benefit if the ACOA was provided with more time ...


Loss Of Renal Allografts Secondary To Candida Vascular Complications In Two Recipients From The Same Donor, Govardhana R. Yannam, Lucile E. Wrenshall, R. Brian Stevens 2014 Wright State University - Main Campus

Loss Of Renal Allografts Secondary To Candida Vascular Complications In Two Recipients From The Same Donor, Govardhana R. Yannam, Lucile E. Wrenshall, R. Brian Stevens

R. Brian Stevens

Infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in transplant patients. Organ recipients are also susceptible to donor-derived pathogens and the majority of donor infections are easily treatable. Rarely, some pathogens have produced life-threatening complications by compromising the vascular anastomosis. In this case series we report loss of two kidney allografts secondary to vascular complications due to Candida albicans. Both recipients received grafts from a common donor, in whom Candida bacteremia in the donor was not apparent at the time of organ acceptance but became apparent on delayed cultures.


Postural Sway And Brain Hemispheric Power Spectral Density Under Different Attentional Focus Conditions, Sharon Jalene 2014 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Postural Sway And Brain Hemispheric Power Spectral Density Under Different Attentional Focus Conditions, Sharon Jalene

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of this study was to determine the differences, if any, in the root mean square error (RMSE) of postural sway and hemispheric power spectral density (PSD) in the alpha and beta bands (8-12Hz and 12-25Hz) during different conditions of attentional focus (i.e., internal focus (IF), and external focus (EF) and a control condition (C)). Previous studies have shown that the adoption of IF and EF significantly alter motor performance and that EF promotes automaticity (Wulf, 2013). Sports performance and balance studies utilizing EEG spectral analyses report increased alpha oscillations during expert performance and stable balance and increased ...


Hemispheric Asymmetry In The Perception Of Musical Pitch Structure, Matthew Adam Rosenthal 2014 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Hemispheric Asymmetry In The Perception Of Musical Pitch Structure, Matthew Adam Rosenthal

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Both the left and right hemispheres contribute to the perception of pitch structure

in music. Music researchers have attempted to explain the observed asymmetries in the perception of musical pitch structure by characterizing the dominant processing style of each hemisphere. However, no existing characterizations have been able to account for all of the empirical findings. To better explain existing empirical findings, this dissertation characterizes the left hemisphere as dominant in temporal pitch processing (i.e. with respect to the sequential ordering of pitches) and the right hemisphere as dominant in non-temporal pitch processing (i.e. without respect to the sequential ...


The Effect Of Spinal Cord Injury On Vagal Afferents., April N. Herrity 2014 University of Louisville

The Effect Of Spinal Cord Injury On Vagal Afferents., April N. Herrity

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a significant public health concern that leaves patients with a multitude of life-long disabilities. Major complications of SCI apart from paralysis, include deficits in bladder and bowel function. Lower urinary tract dysfunction continues to remain a top priority issue affecting quality of life for this population. The majority of visceral organs receive a dual sensory innervation from both spinal nerves as well as the vagus nerve. Following SCI, the vagus nerve is a potential pathway through which information from regions below the level of a spinal injury can travel directly to the brainstem, bypassing the ...


A Pilot Study Of Basal Ganglia And Thalamus Structure By High Dimensional Mapping In Children With Tourette Syndrome, Alton C. Williams, Marie E. McNeely, Deanna J. Greene, Jessica A. Church, Stacie L. Warren, Johanna M. Hartlein, Bradley L. Schlaggar, Kevin J. Black, Lei Wang 2014 Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis

A Pilot Study Of Basal Ganglia And Thalamus Structure By High Dimensional Mapping In Children With Tourette Syndrome, Alton C. Williams, Marie E. Mcneely, Deanna J. Greene, Jessica A. Church, Stacie L. Warren, Johanna M. Hartlein, Bradley L. Schlaggar, Kevin J. Black, Lei Wang

Kevin J. Black, MD

No abstract provided.


Fat-Mass And Obesity-Associated Gene Polymorphisms And Weight Gain After Risperidone Treatment In First Episode Schizophrenia, Xueqin Song, Lijuan Pang, Yufang Feng, Xiaoduo Fan, Xue Li, Wei Zhang, Jinsong Gao, Jianjiang Zhang, Katlyn Nemani, Hua Zhang, Luxian Lv 2014 Zhengzhou University

Fat-Mass And Obesity-Associated Gene Polymorphisms And Weight Gain After Risperidone Treatment In First Episode Schizophrenia, Xueqin Song, Lijuan Pang, Yufang Feng, Xiaoduo Fan, Xue Li, Wei Zhang, Jinsong Gao, Jianjiang Zhang, Katlyn Nemani, Hua Zhang, Luxian Lv

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Obesity induced by antipsychotics severely increases the risk of many diseases and significantly reduces quality of life. Genome Wide Association Studies has identified fat-mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene associated with obesity. The relationship between the FTO gene and drug-induced obesity is unclear.

METHOD: Two hundred and fifty drug naive, Chinese Han patients with first-episode schizophrenia were enrolled in the study, and genotyped for four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs rs9939609, rs8050136, rs1421085 and rs9930506) by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and direct sequencing. Body weight and body mass index (BMI) were measured at baseline and six months ...


Analysis Of Differential Mrna And Mirna Expression In An Alzheimer’S Disease Mouse Model, Amanda Hazy, Matthew Dalton 2014 Liberty University

Analysis Of Differential Mrna And Mirna Expression In An Alzheimer’S Disease Mouse Model, Amanda Hazy, Matthew Dalton

Other Undergraduate Scholarship

Research has shown that changes in gene expression play a critical role in the development of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Our project will evaluate genome-wide RNA expression patterns from brain and blood in an AD mouse model. This analysis will provide insight regarding the mechanisms of AD pathology as well as determine a possible diagnostic tool utilizing RNA expression patterns found in the blood as biomarkers for AD.


Finding The Goldilocks Zone: New Surfaces For Cell Survival And Growth, Chris Corkery 2014 McGill University

Finding The Goldilocks Zone: New Surfaces For Cell Survival And Growth, Chris Corkery

Chris Corkery

No abstract provided.


Swimming Against The Tide: Investigations Of The C-Bouton Synapse, Adam S. Deardorff, Shannon H. Romer, Patrick M. Sonner, Robert E. W. Fyffe 2014 Wright State University

Swimming Against The Tide: Investigations Of The C-Bouton Synapse, Adam S. Deardorff, Shannon H. Romer, Patrick M. Sonner, Robert E. W. Fyffe

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

C-boutons are important cholinergic modulatory loci for state-dependent alterations in motoneuron firing rate. m2 receptors are concentrated postsynaptic to C-boutons, and m2 receptor activation increases motoneuron excitability by reducing the action potential afterhyperpolarization. Here, using an intensive review of the current literature as well as data from our laboratory, we illustrate that C-bouton postsynaptic sites comprise a unique structural/functional domain containing appropriate cellular machinery (a “signaling ensemble”) for cholinergic regulation of outward K+ currents. Moreover, synaptic reorganization at these critical sites has been observed in a variety of pathologic states. Yet despite recent advances, there are still great challenges ...


Activity-Dependent Serotonergic Excitation Of Callosal Projection Neurons In The Mouse Prefrontal Cortex, Emily K. Stephens, Daniel Avesar, Allan T. Gulledge 2014 Dartmouth College

Activity-Dependent Serotonergic Excitation Of Callosal Projection Neurons In The Mouse Prefrontal Cortex, Emily K. Stephens, Daniel Avesar, Allan T. Gulledge

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Layer 5 pyramidal neurons (L5PNs) in the mouse prefrontal cortex respond to serotonin (5-HT) according to their long-distance axonal projections; 5-HT1A (1A) receptors mediate inhibitory responses in corticopontine (CPn) L5PNs, while 5-HT2A (2A) receptors can enhance action potential (AP) output in callosal/commissural (COM) L5PNs, either directly (in "COM-excited" neurons), or following brief 1A-mediated inhibition (in "COM-biphasic" neurons). Here we compare the impact of 5-HT on the excitability of CPn and COM L5PNs experiencing variable excitatory drive produced by current injection (DC current or simulated synaptic current) or with exogenous glutamate. 5-HT delivered at resting membrane potentials, or paired with ...


Multiple Myeloma And Its Treatment Alter Peripheral Nervous System Structure And Function, Alyssa K. Kosturakis 2014 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Multiple Myeloma And Its Treatment Alter Peripheral Nervous System Structure And Function, Alyssa K. Kosturakis

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

MULTIPLE MYELOMA AND ITS TREATMENT ALTER PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

Alyssa Katarina Kosturakis, BA

Supervisory Professor: Patrick M. Dougherty, PhD

Peripheral neuropathy is among the most deleterious side effects of frontline chemotherapeutics used to treat prevalent cancers. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) refers to the collection of symptoms (e.g. pain, paresthesias and dysesthesias) that develop in distal, glabrous (non-hairy) skin of 20 to 100% of patients treated with chemotherapy. Peripheral neuropathy negatively impacts quality of life in cancer patients and survivors, is refractory to treatment, and is the impetus for dose-reduction and/or cessation of chemotherapy, thereby limiting ...


The Effect Of Acute Lps-Induced Immune Activation And Brain Insulin Signaling Disruption In A Diabetic Model Of Alzheimer's Disease, Andrew Scott Murtishaw 2014 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

The Effect Of Acute Lps-Induced Immune Activation And Brain Insulin Signaling Disruption In A Diabetic Model Of Alzheimer's Disease, Andrew Scott Murtishaw

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder marked by progressive cognitive impairments and pathological hallmarks that include amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuronal loss. Several well-known mutations exist that lead to early-onset familial AD (fAD). However, these cases only account for a small percentage of total AD cases. The vast majority of AD cases are sporadic in origin (sAD) and are less clearly influenced by a single mutation but rather some combination of genetic and environmental risk.

The etiology of sAD remains unclear but numerous risk factors have been identified that increase the chance of developing AD. Among these ...


Craniodental Anatomy Of A New Late Cretaceous Multituberculate Mammal From Udan Sayr, Mongolia., Amir Subhash Sheth 1988- 2014 University of Louisville

Craniodental Anatomy Of A New Late Cretaceous Multituberculate Mammal From Udan Sayr, Mongolia., Amir Subhash Sheth 1988-

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Multituberculates were the longest-lived group of early mammals, with a nearly worldwide distribution, and a temporal range from the Middle Jurassic to the Late Eocene. Multituberculates are typically represented by isolated teeth and jaw fragments; however, several localities in Mongolia revealed abundant, well-preserved multituberculate skulls and partial skeletons from the Late Cretaceous. This study is centered on two specimens of a new multituberculate taxon from a locality in the Gobi desert, Udan Sayr. Included is a (1) bone-by-bone description of the cranial and mandibular elements, as well as the dental features of both specimens, PSS-MAE 141 (holotype) and PSS-MAE 142 ...


Effects Of Passive Immobilization On Locomotor Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury In Adult Rats., Kelsey Lee Stipp 2014 University of Louisville

Effects Of Passive Immobilization On Locomotor Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury In Adult Rats., Kelsey Lee Stipp

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: Spontaneous locomotor recovery in spinal rats has been attributed to animals moving freely in-cage. Environmental enrichment has been shown to increase in-cage movement and functional recovery subsequently. Anxiety has been shown to decrease overnight activity in rats. Methods: Rats were double-housed in medium cages (MC) or single-housed in tiny sized cages (TC). Slotted dividers allowed for partial isolation in TC. Overnight activity was monitored bi-weekly. The open field test and BBB’s were taken weekly. Gait analysis was performed at weeks six and eight. Results: MC showed higher overnight activity and improved gait overtime. No differences were found in ...


Frontal White Matter Integrity In Adults With Down Syndrome With And Without Dementia, David K. Powell, Allison Caban-Holt, Greg A. Jicha, William C. Robertson, Roberta Davis, Brian T. Gold, Frederick A. Schmitt, Elizabeth Head 2014 University of Kentucky

Frontal White Matter Integrity In Adults With Down Syndrome With And Without Dementia, David K. Powell, Allison Caban-Holt, Greg A. Jicha, William C. Robertson, Roberta Davis, Brian T. Gold, Frederick A. Schmitt, Elizabeth Head

Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy Center Faculty Publications

Adults with Down syndrome (DS) are at high risk for developing Alzheimer's disease after the age of 40 years. To detect white matter (WM) changes in the brain linked to dementia, fractional anisotropy (FA) from diffusion tensor imaging was used. We hypothesized that adults with DS without dementia (DS n = 10), DS with dementia (DSAD n = 10) and age matched non-DS subjects (CTL n = 10) would show differential levels of FA and an association with scores from the Brief Praxis Test and the Severe Impairment Battery. WM integrity differences in DS compared with CTL were found predominantly in the ...


Fty720 (Fingolimod) Provides Insight Into The Molecular Mechanisms Of Multiple Sclerosis, Madelyn Elizabeth Crawford 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Fty720 (Fingolimod) Provides Insight Into The Molecular Mechanisms Of Multiple Sclerosis, Madelyn Elizabeth Crawford

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a prolonged immune- mediated inflammatory response that targets myelin. Nearly all of the drugs approved for the treatment of MS are general immunosuppressants or only function in symptom management. The oral medication fingolimod, however, is reported to have direct therapeutic effects on cells of the central nervous system in addition to immunomodulatory functions. Fingolimod is known to interact with sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors, and the most widely- accepted theory for its mechanism of action is functional antagonism of the receptor. This review examines significant neuromodulatory effects achieved by functional antagonism of the ...


Motor Axon Synapses On Renshaw Cells Contain Higher Levels Of Aspartate Than Glutamate, Dannette Shanon Richards, Ronald W. Griffith, Shannon H. Romer, Francisco J. Alvarez 2014 Wright State University

Motor Axon Synapses On Renshaw Cells Contain Higher Levels Of Aspartate Than Glutamate, Dannette Shanon Richards, Ronald W. Griffith, Shannon H. Romer, Francisco J. Alvarez

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

Motoneuron synapses on spinal cord interneurons known as Renshaw cells activate nicotinic, AMPA and NMDA receptors consistent with co-release of acetylcholine and excitatory amino acids (EAA). However, whether these synapses express vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) capable of accumulating glutamate into synaptic vesicles is controversial. An alternative possibility is that these synapses release other EAAs, like aspartate, not dependent on VGLUTs. To clarify the exact EAA concentrated at motor axon synapses we performed a quantitative postembedding colloidal gold immunoelectron analysis for aspartate and glutamate on motor axon synapses (identified by immunoreactivity to the vesicular acetylcholine transporter; VAChT) contacting calbindin-immunoreactive (-IR) Renshaw ...


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