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The Neurochemistry Of Group Singing: Bonding And Oxytocin, Jason Keeler 2015 Western Michigan University

The Neurochemistry Of Group Singing: Bonding And Oxytocin, Jason Keeler

Master's Theses

The purpose of this study was to examine the neurochemical correlates of group vocal improvisation and to determine the feasibility of the research methods. One group of four participants sang together in two conditions: pre-composed and improvised. Concentrations of plasma oxytocin and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were measured before and after each singing condition to assess levels of hormones associated with social affiliation, engagement and arousal. Successful implementation of the methodology, including recruitment, data collection, and sample analysis, served as the primary outcome of this study. ACTH concentrations decreased in both conditions, and significantly so in the pre-composed singing condition. Mean ...


Mice Deficient In Endothelial Α5 Integrin Are Profoundly Resistant To Experimental Ischemic Stroke, Jill Roberts, Leon de Hoog, Gregory J. Bix 2015 University of Kentucky

Mice Deficient In Endothelial Α5 Integrin Are Profoundly Resistant To Experimental Ischemic Stroke, Jill Roberts, Leon De Hoog, Gregory J. Bix

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

Stroke is a disease in dire need of better therapies. We have previously shown that a fragment of the extracellular matrix proteoglycan, perlecan, has beneficial effects following cerebral ischemia via the α5β1 integrin receptor. We now report that endothelial cell selective α5 integrin deficient mice (α5 KO) are profoundly resistant to ischemic infarct after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Specifically, α5 KOs had little to no infarct 2–3 days post-stroke, whereas controls had an increase in mean infarct volume over the same time period as expected. Functional outcome is also improved in the α5 KOs compared with controls. Importantly ...


Loss Of Vglut3 Produces Circadian-Dependent Hyperdopaminergia And Ameliorates Motor Dysfunction And L-Dopa-Mediated Dyskinesias In A Model Of Parkinson's Disease., Christopher B. Divito, Kathy Steece-Collier, Daniel T. Case, Sean-Paul G. Williams, Jennifer A. Stancati, Lianteng Zhi, Maria E. Rubio, Caryl E. Sortwell, Timothy J. Collier, David Sulzer, Robert H. Edwards, Hui Zhang, Rebecca P. Seal 2015 University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine

Loss Of Vglut3 Produces Circadian-Dependent Hyperdopaminergia And Ameliorates Motor Dysfunction And L-Dopa-Mediated Dyskinesias In A Model Of Parkinson's Disease., Christopher B. Divito, Kathy Steece-Collier, Daniel T. Case, Sean-Paul G. Williams, Jennifer A. Stancati, Lianteng Zhi, Maria E. Rubio, Caryl E. Sortwell, Timothy J. Collier, David Sulzer, Robert H. Edwards, Hui Zhang, Rebecca P. Seal

Department of Neuroscience

UNLABELLED: The striatum is essential for many aspects of mammalian behavior, including motivation and movement, and is dysfunctional in motor disorders such as Parkinson's disease. The vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGLUT3) is expressed by striatal cholinergic interneurons (CINs) and is thus well positioned to regulate dopamine (DA) signaling and locomotor activity, a canonical measure of basal ganglia output. We now report that VGLUT3 knock-out (KO) mice show circadian-dependent hyperlocomotor activity that is restricted to the waking cycle and is due to an increase in striatal DA synthesis, packaging, and release. Using a conditional VGLUT3 KO mouse, we show that ...


Kisspeptin Receptor Agonist (Ftm080) Increased Plasma Concentrations Of Luteinizing Hormone In Anestrous Ewes, Brian Whitlock, Joseph Daniel, Lisa Amelse, Valeria Tanco, Kelly Chameroy, F Schrick 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Kisspeptin Receptor Agonist (Ftm080) Increased Plasma Concentrations Of Luteinizing Hormone In Anestrous Ewes, Brian Whitlock, Joseph Daniel, Lisa Amelse, Valeria Tanco, Kelly Chameroy, F Schrick

Brian K Whitlock, PhD, DVM, DACT

Kisspeptin receptor (KISS1R) agonists with increased half-life and similar efficacy to kisspeptin in vitro may provide beneficial applications in breeding management of many species. However, many of these agonists have not been tested in vivo. These studies were designed to test and compare the effects of a KISS1R agonist (FTM080) and kisspeptin on luteinizing hormone (LH) in vivo. In experiment 1 (pilot study), sheep were treated with FTM080 (500 pmol/kg BW) or sterile water (VEH) intravenosuly. Blood was collected every 15 min before (1 h) and after (1 h) treatment. In experiment 2, sheep were treated with KP-10 (human ...


Steroid Receptor Isoform Expression In Drosophila Nociceptor Neurons Is Required For Normal Dendritic Arbor And Sensitivity, Aidan L. McParland, Taylor L. Follansbee, Gwendolyn D. Vesenka, Alexandra E. Panaitiu, Geoffrey K. Ganter 2015 University of New England

Steroid Receptor Isoform Expression In Drosophila Nociceptor Neurons Is Required For Normal Dendritic Arbor And Sensitivity, Aidan L. Mcparland, Taylor L. Follansbee, Gwendolyn D. Vesenka, Alexandra E. Panaitiu, Geoffrey K. Ganter

Biology Student Publications

Steroid hormones organize many aspects of development, including that of the nervous system. Steroids also play neuromodulatory and other activational roles, including regulation of sensitivity to painful stimuli in mammals. In Drosophila, ecdysteroids are the only steroid hormones, and therefore the fly represents a simplified model system in which to explore mechanisms of steroid neuromodulation of nociception. In this report, we present evidence that ecdysteroids, acting through two isoforms of their nuclear ecdysone receptor (EcR), modulate sensitivity to noxious thermal and mechanical stimuli in the fly larva. We show that EcRA and EcRB1 are expressed by third instar larvae in ...


Complementary Control Of Sensory Adaptation By Two Types Of Cortical Interneurons, Ryan G. Natan, John J. Briguglio, Laetitia Mwilambwe-Tshilobo, Sara I. Jones, Mark Aizenberg, Ethan M. Goldberg, Maria N. Geffen 2015 University of Pennsylvania

Complementary Control Of Sensory Adaptation By Two Types Of Cortical Interneurons, Ryan G. Natan, John J. Briguglio, Laetitia Mwilambwe-Tshilobo, Sara I. Jones, Mark Aizenberg, Ethan M. Goldberg, Maria N. Geffen

BBB Major Publications

Reliably detecting unexpected sounds is important for environmental awareness and survival. By selectively reducing responses to frequently, but not rarely, occurring sounds, auditory cortical neurons are thought to enhance the brain's ability to detect unexpected events through stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA). The majority of neurons in the primary auditory cortex exhibit SSA, yet little is known about the underlying cortical circuits. We found that two types of cortical interneurons differentially amplify SSA in putative excitatory neurons. Parvalbumin-positive interneurons (PVs) amplify SSA by providing non-specific inhibition: optogenetic suppression of PVs led to an equal increase in responses to frequent and rare ...


The Relationship Of Spasticity And Impairments In Force Regulation And Neuromuscular Fatigue Post Stroke, Reivian Berrios Barillas 2015 Marquette University

The Relationship Of Spasticity And Impairments In Force Regulation And Neuromuscular Fatigue Post Stroke, Reivian Berrios Barillas

Dissertations (2009 -)

Hyperreflexia that causes muscle spasticity may contribute to limitations in force regulation and walking ability post stroke. Additionally, neuromuscular fatigue may reduce force regulation, which is important because fatigue can assist to strengthen muscles that control walking. Hyperreflexia may be caused by cortical disinhibition that allows Ia afferents to amplify excitatory synaptic inputs to motoneuron pools. Cortical disinhibition is presumably caused by stroke-related motor cortex damage. Although, other excitatory synaptic sources to motoneurons contribute to motor control, hyperreflexia may be one contributor that affects stroke survivors. However, hyperreflexia is reported infrequently to effect force regulation post stroke. The goal was ...


A Neurobiological Pathway That Mediates Stress-Induced Drug Use, Oliver Vranjkovic 2015 Marquette University

A Neurobiological Pathway That Mediates Stress-Induced Drug Use, Oliver Vranjkovic

Dissertations (2009 -)

Cocaine addiction represents a tremendous health and financial burden on our society and the high rate of relapse to cocaine use in abstinent addicts represents a major barrier to effective therapy. Thus, understanding the factors that contribute to relapse and the underlying neurobiological processes is important for guiding the development of treatment for addiction. Stressful life events often trigger drug use in recovering addicts. The contribution of stress to drug use is problematic due to the unpredictable and often uncontrollable nature of stress. A growing literature indicates that norepinephrine and corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in the brain play key roles ...


Role Of Cerebrovascular Abnormality In Neurodegenerative Disease And Subcortical Ischemic Disease: Ct Perfusion And Pet Imaging, Jun Yang 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Role Of Cerebrovascular Abnormality In Neurodegenerative Disease And Subcortical Ischemic Disease: Ct Perfusion And Pet Imaging, Jun Yang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Clinical studies indicate that about 30% ~ 50% of patients have cognitive impairment after the first or recurrent stroke. Ischemic injury, particularly subcortical lesions, caused by stroke has been demonstrated to further exacerbate cognitive impairment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular dementia. However, the mechanisms whereby cerebrovascular abnormalities contribute to neurodegeneration at early stage of disease and eventually to cognitive decline remain unclear. CT perfusion and positron emission tomography (PET) were used to investigate early mechanisms in a rat comorbid model of cerebral ischemia (CI) and β-amyloid (Aβ, a pathological hallmark of AD) toxicity, and in patients with small subcortical ...


An Overview Of Leber’S Hereditary Optic Neuropathy, Matthew R. Dalton 2015 Liberty University

An Overview Of Leber’S Hereditary Optic Neuropathy, Matthew R. Dalton

The Kabod

Typically affecting males ranging from 20 to 24 years of age, Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) is a disorder that is characterized by an acute loss of central vision. Although a heritable disease, LHON does not follow the patterns of classical Mendelian genetics. In fact, one of the most striking characteristics of LHON is that the disease is virtually always inherited maternally. Unlike most genetic disorders that result from a mutation in genomic DNA, LHON is caused by a mutation in the genetic information of mitochondria (mtDNA). Currently there is no treatment for LHON. Despite this, pharmaceutical interventions and ...


Isoflurane Inhibits Synaptic Vesicle Exocytosis Through Reduced Ca2+ Influx, Not Ca2+-Exocytosis Coupling, Joel Baumgart, Zhen-Yu Zhou, Masato Hara, Daniel Cook, Michael Hoppa 2015 Weill Cornell Medical College

Isoflurane Inhibits Synaptic Vesicle Exocytosis Through Reduced Ca2+ Influx, Not Ca2+-Exocytosis Coupling, Joel Baumgart, Zhen-Yu Zhou, Masato Hara, Daniel Cook, Michael Hoppa

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Identifying presynaptic mechanisms of general anesthetics is critical to understanding their effects on synaptic transmission. We show that the volatile anesthetic isoflurane inhibits synaptic vesicle (SV) exocytosis at nerve terminals in dissociated rat hippocampal neurons through inhibition of presynaptic Ca2+ influx without significantly altering the Ca2+ sensitivity of SV exocytosis. A clinically relevant concentration of isoflurane (0.7 mM) inhibited changes in [Ca2+]i driven by single action potentials (APs) by 25 ± 3%, which in turn led to 62 ± 3% inhibition of single AP-triggered exocytosis at 4 mM extracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]e). Lowering external Ca2+ to match the isoflurane-induced reduction ...


The Role Of Glutaminase 1 In Hiv-1 Associated Neurocognitive Disorders And In Brain Development, Yi Wang 2015 University of Nebraska Medical Center

The Role Of Glutaminase 1 In Hiv-1 Associated Neurocognitive Disorders And In Brain Development, Yi Wang

Theses & Dissertations

Glutaminase is the enzyme that converts glutamine into glutamate, which serves as a key excitatory neurotransmitter and one of the energy providers for cellular metabolism. Glutamate is essential for proper brain functioning but at excess levels, it is neurotoxic and has a key role in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases, including HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). However, the detailed mechanism of glutamate-mediated neurotoxicity remains unclear. In part I, we identified the regulation of glutaminase 1 (GLS1) in the central nervous system (CNS) of HAND animal models including HIV-Tat transgenic (Tg) mouse and HIVE-SCID mouse, since GLS1 is the dominant ...


The Effect Of Sleep On Perceptual Learning And Memory Consolidation, Vanessa Claire Irsik 2015 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

The Effect Of Sleep On Perceptual Learning And Memory Consolidation, Vanessa Claire Irsik

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

An ability to segregate speech accurately is essential given that most auditory environments contain other overlapping conversations or environmental noise. While perceiving speech among background noise can be difficult in and of itself, those with hearing impairments can experience considerable difficulty. While training has been shown to benefit perceptual segregation of trained sounds, it is unclear how such training transfers to sounds not included in a training regimen. The current study aimed to address this question by training listeners on a portion of sounds during a vowel segregation task, and subsequently testing on both the trained sounds and untrained sounds ...


Plastin 3 Expression Does Not Modify Spinal Muscular Atrophy Severity In The ∆7 Sma Mouse, Vicki L. McGovern, Aurelie Massoni-Laporte, Xueyong Wang, Thanh T. Le, Hao T. Le, Mark M. Rich, Arthur H. M. Burghes 2015 Wright State University - Main Campus

Plastin 3 Expression Does Not Modify Spinal Muscular Atrophy Severity In The ∆7 Sma Mouse, Vicki L. Mcgovern, Aurelie Massoni-Laporte, Xueyong Wang, Thanh T. Le, Hao T. Le, Mark M. Rich, Arthur H. M. Burghes

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

Spinal muscular atrophy is caused by loss of the SMN1 gene and retention of SMN2. TheSMN2 copy number inversely correlates with phenotypic severity and is a modifier of disease outcome. The SMN2 gene essentially differs from SMN1 by a single nucleotide in exon 7 that modulates the incorporation of exon 7 into the final SMN transcript. The majority of the SMN2transcripts lack exon 7 and this leads to a SMN protein that does not effectively oligomerize and is rapidly degraded. However theSMN2 gene does produce some full-length SMN and theSMN2 copy number along with how much ...


Taranis Functions With Cyclin A And Cdk1 In A Novel Arousal Center To Control Sleep In Drosophila., Dinis J.S. Afonso, Die Liu, Daniel R. Machado, Huihui Pan, James E.C. Jepson, Dragana Rogulja, Kyunghee Koh 2015 Thomas Jefferson University

Taranis Functions With Cyclin A And Cdk1 In A Novel Arousal Center To Control Sleep In Drosophila., Dinis J.S. Afonso, Die Liu, Daniel R. Machado, Huihui Pan, James E.C. Jepson, Dragana Rogulja, Kyunghee Koh

Department of Neuroscience

Sleep is an essential and conserved behavior whose regulation at the molecular and anatomical level remains to be elucidated. Here, we identify TARANIS (TARA), a Drosophila homolog of the Trip-Br (SERTAD) family of transcriptional coregulators, as a molecule that is required for normal sleep patterns. Through a forward-genetic screen, we isolated tara as a novel sleep gene associated with a marked reduction in sleep amount. Targeted knockdown of tara suggests that it functions in cholinergic neurons to promote sleep. tara encodes a conserved cell-cycle protein that contains a Cyclin A (CycA)-binding homology domain. TARA regulates CycA protein levels and ...


A Comparison Of The Effects Of Different Doses Of Gabab Receptor Ligands On Spatial Learning And Memory And Memory Flexibility, Chelcie Heaney 2015 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

A Comparison Of The Effects Of Different Doses Of Gabab Receptor Ligands On Spatial Learning And Memory And Memory Flexibility, Chelcie Heaney

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, gamma amino-butyric acid (GABA), mediates several types of learning and memory. Of the two main receptor subtypes for GABA, the in vivo role of GABAB receptor in learning and memory is less well characterized and the current data often conflict. Based on the current literature, it is unclear, for instance, whether enhancing GABAergic activity via the GABAB receptor could be beneficial for or detrimental to learning and memory. Hippocampally-dependent learning and memory tasks are of particular interest due to their clinical relevance to patients with schizophrenia or Alzheimer’s disease, who exhibit impaired ...


Functional Capacity In Schizophrenia: Relationship Among Effort, Reinforcement Learning And Self-Beliefs, Sally J. Vogel 2015 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Functional Capacity In Schizophrenia: Relationship Among Effort, Reinforcement Learning And Self-Beliefs, Sally J. Vogel

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Individuals with schizophrenia exhibit a wide range of complex neurocognitive, psychiatric and behavioral impairments. Recent research suggests that this complex array of symptoms can be at least partially accounted for by dysfunction in more basic mechanisms, such as the ability to learn from positive and negative reinforcement, or the ability to exert adequate effort when completing simple tasks. Evidence also suggests that deficits in these basic mechanisms may contribute to more complex symptoms, such as functional impairment. Also, the relationship between neurocognitive deficits and functional impairment has been found to be mediated by defeatist performance beliefs. However, studies have not ...


Early Inflammatory Mediator Gene Expression In Two Models Of Traumatic Brain Injury: Ex Vivo Cortical Slice In Mice And In Vivo Cortical Impact In Piglets, David J. Graber, Beth A. Costine, William F. Hickey 2015 Dartmouth College

Early Inflammatory Mediator Gene Expression In Two Models Of Traumatic Brain Injury: Ex Vivo Cortical Slice In Mice And In Vivo Cortical Impact In Piglets, David J. Graber, Beth A. Costine, William F. Hickey

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Background: The immunological response during the first 24 hours after traumatic brain injury (TBI) may be a critical therapeutic interval for limiting the secondary neuronal damage that is influenced by enhanced inflammatory mediator expression.

Methods: To gain further insight of the early injury response, we examined the expression of several inflammatory genes by real-time qPCR as a function of time or distance from injury in two distinct mammalian models: an ex vivo mouse cortical slice injury system and an in vivo piglet model of brain injury.


The Preparatory Set: A Novel Approach To Understanding Stress, Trauma, And The Bodymind Therapies, Peter Payne, Mardi A. Crane-Godreau 2015 Dartmouth College

The Preparatory Set: A Novel Approach To Understanding Stress, Trauma, And The Bodymind Therapies, Peter Payne, Mardi A. Crane-Godreau

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Basic to all motile life is a differential approach/avoid response to perceived features of environment. The stages of response are initial reflexive noticing and orienting to the stimulus, preparation, and execution of response. Preparation involves a coordination of many aspects of the organism: muscle tone, posture, breathing, autonomic functions, motivational/emotional state, attentional orientation, and expectations. The organism organizes itself in relation to the challenge. We propose to call this the "preparatory set" (PS). We suggest that the concept of the PS can offer a more nuanced and flexible perspective on the stress response than do current theories. We ...


Sensory Neurons Respond To Neurocan Knock-Down In Reactive Astrocytes, Umang Khandpur 2015 University of Kentucky

Sensory Neurons Respond To Neurocan Knock-Down In Reactive Astrocytes, Umang Khandpur

Umang Khandpur

Spinal Cord Injury (SCI), in many cases due to trauma related events, is a potentially incapacitating affliction that can lead to immense physical, psychosocial and financial burdens for both individuals and society. Understanding the cellular and molecular changes that occur following SCI may lead to therapies for improved treatment. At the cellular level, contusive SCI often results in the formation of a glial (astrocyte) scar that blocks successful axonal regeneration, partly due to the up-regulation of inhibitory extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules like chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). The long-term goal is to encourage neuroregeneration in vivo by targeting specific inhibitory CSPGs ...


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