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Taranis Functions With Cyclin A And Cdk1 In A Novel Arousal Center To Control Sleep In Drosophila., Dinis J.S. Afonso, Die Liu, Daniel R. Machado, Huihui Pan, James E.C. Jepson, Dragana Rogulja, Kyunghee Koh 2015 Thomas Jefferson University

Taranis Functions With Cyclin A And Cdk1 In A Novel Arousal Center To Control Sleep In Drosophila., Dinis J.S. Afonso, Die Liu, Daniel R. Machado, Huihui Pan, James E.C. Jepson, Dragana Rogulja, Kyunghee Koh

Department of Neuroscience

Sleep is an essential and conserved behavior whose regulation at the molecular and anatomical level remains to be elucidated. Here, we identify TARANIS (TARA), a Drosophila homolog of the Trip-Br (SERTAD) family of transcriptional coregulators, as a molecule that is required for normal sleep patterns. Through a forward-genetic screen, we isolated tara as a novel sleep gene associated with a marked reduction in sleep amount. Targeted knockdown of tara suggests that it functions in cholinergic neurons to promote sleep. tara encodes a conserved cell-cycle protein that contains a Cyclin A (CycA)-binding homology domain. TARA regulates CycA protein levels and ...


Functional Capacity In Schizophrenia: Relationship Among Effort, Reinforcement Learning And Self-Beliefs, Sally J. Vogel 2015 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Functional Capacity In Schizophrenia: Relationship Among Effort, Reinforcement Learning And Self-Beliefs, Sally J. Vogel

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Individuals with schizophrenia exhibit a wide range of complex neurocognitive, psychiatric and behavioral impairments. Recent research suggests that this complex array of symptoms can be at least partially accounted for by dysfunction in more basic mechanisms, such as the ability to learn from positive and negative reinforcement, or the ability to exert adequate effort when completing simple tasks. Evidence also suggests that deficits in these basic mechanisms may contribute to more complex symptoms, such as functional impairment. Also, the relationship between neurocognitive deficits and functional impairment has been found to be mediated by defeatist performance beliefs. However, studies have not ...


A Comparison Of The Effects Of Different Doses Of Gabab Receptor Ligands On Spatial Learning And Memory And Memory Flexibility, Chelcie Heaney 2015 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

A Comparison Of The Effects Of Different Doses Of Gabab Receptor Ligands On Spatial Learning And Memory And Memory Flexibility, Chelcie Heaney

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, gamma amino-butyric acid (GABA), mediates several types of learning and memory. Of the two main receptor subtypes for GABA, the in vivo role of GABAB receptor in learning and memory is less well characterized and the current data often conflict. Based on the current literature, it is unclear, for instance, whether enhancing GABAergic activity via the GABAB receptor could be beneficial for or detrimental to learning and memory. Hippocampally-dependent learning and memory tasks are of particular interest due to their clinical relevance to patients with schizophrenia or Alzheimer’s disease, who exhibit impaired ...


Early Inflammatory Mediator Gene Expression In Two Models Of Traumatic Brain Injury: Ex Vivo Cortical Slice In Mice And In Vivo Cortical Impact In Piglets, David J. Graber, Beth A. Costine, William F. Hickey 2015 Dartmouth College

Early Inflammatory Mediator Gene Expression In Two Models Of Traumatic Brain Injury: Ex Vivo Cortical Slice In Mice And In Vivo Cortical Impact In Piglets, David J. Graber, Beth A. Costine, William F. Hickey

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Background: The immunological response during the first 24 hours after traumatic brain injury (TBI) may be a critical therapeutic interval for limiting the secondary neuronal damage that is influenced by enhanced inflammatory mediator expression.

Methods: To gain further insight of the early injury response, we examined the expression of several inflammatory genes by real-time qPCR as a function of time or distance from injury in two distinct mammalian models: an ex vivo mouse cortical slice injury system and an in vivo piglet model of brain injury.


The Preparatory Set: A Novel Approach To Understanding Stress, Trauma, And The Bodymind Therapies, Peter Payne, Mardi A. Crane-Godreau 2015 Dartmouth College

The Preparatory Set: A Novel Approach To Understanding Stress, Trauma, And The Bodymind Therapies, Peter Payne, Mardi A. Crane-Godreau

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Basic to all motile life is a differential approach/avoid response to perceived features of environment. The stages of response are initial reflexive noticing and orienting to the stimulus, preparation, and execution of response. Preparation involves a coordination of many aspects of the organism: muscle tone, posture, breathing, autonomic functions, motivational/emotional state, attentional orientation, and expectations. The organism organizes itself in relation to the challenge. We propose to call this the "preparatory set" (PS). We suggest that the concept of the PS can offer a more nuanced and flexible perspective on the stress response than do current theories. We ...


Sensory Neurons Respond To Neurocan Knock-Down In Reactive Astrocytes, Umang Khandpur 2015 University of Kentucky

Sensory Neurons Respond To Neurocan Knock-Down In Reactive Astrocytes, Umang Khandpur

Umang Khandpur

Spinal Cord Injury (SCI), in many cases due to trauma related events, is a potentially incapacitating affliction that can lead to immense physical, psychosocial and financial burdens for both individuals and society. Understanding the cellular and molecular changes that occur following SCI may lead to therapies for improved treatment. At the cellular level, contusive SCI often results in the formation of a glial (astrocyte) scar that blocks successful axonal regeneration, partly due to the up-regulation of inhibitory extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules like chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). The long-term goal is to encourage neuroregeneration in vivo by targeting specific inhibitory CSPGs ...


Brain Blast 2015 Speakers Poster, Annie Leslie 2015 University of New England

Brain Blast 2015 Speakers Poster, Annie Leslie

Brain Blast

Poster from UNE's Brain Blast 2015 listing the expected presenters at this event.*


A Comparison Of Four Electrical Stimulation Types On Staphylococcus Aureus Growth In Vitro, Harold Merriman, Chris Hegyi, Cheryl Albright-Overton, John Carlos, Robert Putnam, Janet Mulcare 2015 Wright State University - Main Campus

A Comparison Of Four Electrical Stimulation Types On Staphylococcus Aureus Growth In Vitro, Harold Merriman, Chris Hegyi, Cheryl Albright-Overton, John Carlos, Robert Putnam, Janet Mulcare

Harold L. Merriman

We evaluated the efficacy of common electrical stimulation (ES) types on bacterial growth in vitro using clinically relevant conditions. Four types of ES-continuous microamperage direct current (µADC), high-voltage pulsed current (HVPC), low-voltage monophasic milliamperage pulsed current (LVMmAPC), and low-voltage biphasic milliamperage pulsed current (LVBmAPC)-were each applied to a separate set of culture plates containing Staphylococcus aureus for 1 h at 37 °C on 3 consecutive days. After ES treatment, the zone of inhibition surrounding each electrode was measured. Zone of inhibition measurements showed a significant inhibitory effect for continuous µADC and HVPC (p < 0.05), but not for LVMmAPC ...


Method Of Treating Parkinson's Disease In Humans By Convection-Enhanced Infusion Of Glial Cell-Line Derived Neurotrophic Factor To The Putamen, Stephen S. Gill, Don M. Gash, Greg A. Gerhardt 2015 University of Kentucky

Method Of Treating Parkinson's Disease In Humans By Convection-Enhanced Infusion Of Glial Cell-Line Derived Neurotrophic Factor To The Putamen, Stephen S. Gill, Don M. Gash, Greg A. Gerhardt

Neuroscience Faculty Patents

A method of treating Parkinson's disease in humans is disclosed, wherein glial cell-line derive neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is chronically administered directly to one or both putamen of a human in need of treatment thereof via convection-enhanced infusion using at least one implantable pump and at least one catheter. In one aspect of the present invention the GDNF is infused directly into one or both putamen through one or more indwelling intraparenchymal multiport brain catheters connected to one or more implantable pumps wherein the flow rate is pulsed.


Method Of Treating Parkinson's Disease In Humans By Convection-Enhanced Infusion Of Glial Cell-Line Derived Neurotrophic Factor To The Putamen, Stephen S. Gill, Don M. Gash, Greg A. Gerhardt 2015 University of Kentucky

Method Of Treating Parkinson's Disease In Humans By Convection-Enhanced Infusion Of Glial Cell-Line Derived Neurotrophic Factor To The Putamen, Stephen S. Gill, Don M. Gash, Greg A. Gerhardt

Neuroscience Faculty Patents

A method of treating Parkinson's disease in humans is disclosed, wherein glial cell-line derive neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is chronically administered directly to one or both putamen of a human in need of treatment thereof via convection-enhanced infusion using at least one implantable pump and at least one catheter. In one aspect of the present invention the GDNF is infused directly into one or both putamen through one or more indwelling intraparenchymal mutitiport brain catheters connected to one or more implantable pumps wherein the flow rate is pulsed.


Reward Enhances Tic Suppression In Children Within Months Of Tic Disorder Onset, Deanna J. Greene, Jonathan M. Koller, Amy Robichaux-Viehoever, Emily C. Bihun, Bradley L. Schlaggar, Kevin J. Black 2015 Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis

Reward Enhances Tic Suppression In Children Within Months Of Tic Disorder Onset, Deanna J. Greene, Jonathan M. Koller, Amy Robichaux-Viehoever, Emily C. Bihun, Bradley L. Schlaggar, Kevin J. Black

Kevin J. Black, MD

Tic disorders are childhood onset neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by motor and/or vocal tics. Research has demonstrated that children with chronic tics (including Tourette syndrome and Chronic Tic Disorder: TS/CTD) can suppress tics, particularly when an immediate, contingent reward is given for successful tic suppression. As a diagnosis of TS/CTD requires tics to be present for at least one year, children in these tic suppression studies had been living with tics for quite some time. Thus, it is unclear whether the ability to inhibit tics is learned over time or present at tic onset. Resolving that issue would ...


Micrornas And Regeneration: Let-7 Members As Potential Regulators Of Dedifferentiation In Lens And Inner Ear Hair Cell Regeneration Of The Adult Newt, Panagiotis Tsonis, Mindy Call, Matthew Grogg, Maureen Sartor, Ruth Taylor, Andrew Forge, Robert Fyffe, Robert Goldenberg, Richard Cowper-Sallari, Craig Tomlinson 2015 Wright State University

Micrornas And Regeneration: Let-7 Members As Potential Regulators Of Dedifferentiation In Lens And Inner Ear Hair Cell Regeneration Of The Adult Newt, Panagiotis Tsonis, Mindy Call, Matthew Grogg, Maureen Sartor, Ruth Taylor, Andrew Forge, Robert Fyffe, Robert Goldenberg, Richard Cowper-Sallari, Craig Tomlinson

Panagiotis A. Tsonis

MicroRNAs are known to regulate the expression of many mRNAs by binding to complementary target sequences at the 3′UTRs. Because of such properties, miRNAs may regulate tissue-specific mRNAs as a cell undergoes transdifferentiation during regeneration. We have tested this hypothesis during lens and hair cell regeneration in newts using microarray analysis. We found that distinct sets of miRNAs are associated with lens and hair cell regeneration. Members of the let-7 family are expressed in both events and they are regulated in a similar fashion. All the let-7 members are down regulated during the initiation of regeneration, which is characterized ...


Strad Pseudokinases Are Critical In Embroyonic Brain Development And In Regulating Lkb1 Stability, Biliana O. Veleva-Rotse 2015 Oregon Health & Science University

Strad Pseudokinases Are Critical In Embroyonic Brain Development And In Regulating Lkb1 Stability, Biliana O. Veleva-Rotse

Scholar Archive

The STe20-Related ADapter (STRAD) pseudokinases are highly evolutionarily conserved regulators of the protein kinase LKB1, but the roles of the vertebrate paralogs STRADα and STRADβ in the developing nervous system are not fully defined, nor is it known whether they serve distinct functions given their high degree of homology. Our phylogenetic analysis indicates that STRADα is the primal STRAD gene with STRADβ appearing following a gene duplication event solely in vertebrate species. The discovery and description of a hereditary developmental epilepsy syndrome known as Polyhydramnios, Megalencephaly, and Symptomatic Epilepsy (PMSE) Syndrome caused by homozygous deletion of part of the STRADα ...


Exposure To Kynurenic Acid During Adolescence Increases Sign-Tracking And Impairs Long-Term Potentiation In Adulthood, Nicole E. DeAngeli, Travis P. Todd, Stephen E. Chang, Hermes H. Yeh, Pamela W. Yeh, David J. Bucci 2015 Dartmouth College

Exposure To Kynurenic Acid During Adolescence Increases Sign-Tracking And Impairs Long-Term Potentiation In Adulthood, Nicole E. Deangeli, Travis P. Todd, Stephen E. Chang, Hermes H. Yeh, Pamela W. Yeh, David J. Bucci

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Changes in brain reward systems are thought to contribute significantly to the cognitive and behavioral impairments of schizophrenia, as well as the propensity to develop co-occurring substance abuse disorders. Presently, there are few treatments for persons with a dual diagnosis and little is known about the neural substrates that underlie co-occurring schizophrenia and substance abuse. One goal of the present study was to determine if a change in the concentration of kynurenic acid (KYNA), a tryptophan metabolite that is increased in the brains of people with schizophrenia, affects reward-related behavior. KYNA is an endogenous antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors and ...


Targeting Methylglyoxal And Ppar Gamma To Alleviate Neuropathic Pain Associated With Type 2 Diabetes, Ryan B. Griggs 2015 University of Kentucky

Targeting Methylglyoxal And Ppar Gamma To Alleviate Neuropathic Pain Associated With Type 2 Diabetes, Ryan B. Griggs

Theses and Dissertations--Physiology

Neuropathic pain affects up to 50% of the 29 million diabetic patients in the United States. Neuropathic pain in diabetes manifests as a disease of the peripheral and central nervous systems. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is far greater than type 1 (90%), yet the overwhelming focus on type 1 models this has left the mechanisms of pain in type 2 diabetes largely unknown. Therefore I aimed to improve the current mechanistic understanding of pain associated with type 2 diabetes using two preclinical rodent models: Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats and db/db mice. In addition, I highlight the translational ...


Appropriate Timing Of Fluoxetine And Statin Delivery Reduces The Risk Of Secondary Bleeding In Ischemic Stroke Rats, Maria Helen Harley Balch, Moner A. Ragas, Danny Wright, Kenny Reynolds, Bryce Kerr, Adrian M. Corbett 2015 Wright State University

Appropriate Timing Of Fluoxetine And Statin Delivery Reduces The Risk Of Secondary Bleeding In Ischemic Stroke Rats, Maria Helen Harley Balch, Moner A. Ragas, Danny Wright, Kenny Reynolds, Bryce Kerr, Adrian M. Corbett

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

Background: Ongoing clinical trials are testing the effect of fluoxetine delivered post-stroke where a majority of patients are taking statins. This study determined the influence of the timing of administration of fluoxetine and statin on the final infarct volume and the risk of secondary bleeding in an animal model of ischemic stroke.

Methods and findings: Ischemic strokes were induced by endothelin-1 injection into two cortical sites of 10-12 month old female rats, targeting the forelimb motor cortex. Combined medications (5 mg/kg fluoxetine and 1 mg/kg simvastatin) were orally administered either beginning 6-12 hours or 20-26 hours after stroke ...


Axon Initial Segment Stability In Multiple Sclerosis, Suneel K. Thummala 2015 Virginia Commonwealth University

Axon Initial Segment Stability In Multiple Sclerosis, Suneel K. Thummala

Theses and Dissertations

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system characterized by inflammation and demyelination. In addition to these hallmark features, MS also presents with axonal pathology, which is likely responsible for the signs and symptoms of the disease. Although prominent in MS, axonal pathology is frequently considered a consequence of demyelination and not a primary event. This conclusion is consistent with demyelination inducing the loss of specific axonal domains, known as the nodes of Ranvier that are responsible for the propagation of action potentials along the axon. In contrast, we propose that axonal pathology associated with MS ...


Neuronal Migration: How Do You Build A Brain?, Sravya Uppalapati 2015 Virginia Commonwealth University

Neuronal Migration: How Do You Build A Brain?, Sravya Uppalapati

Auctus: The Journal of Undergraduate Research and Creative Scholarship

Senior biology major Alex Burkard is working in the Walsh Neurodevelopment Laboratory at VCU to help answer the question, ‘How do you build a brain?’ Burkard is researching neuronal migration in Zebrafish and how cellular polarity affects hindbrain development.


Alzheimer's Disease Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers Are Not Influenced By Gravity Drip Or Aspiration Extraction Methodology, Alan Rembach, Lisbeth A. Evered, Qiao-Xin Li, Tabitha Nash, Lesley Vidaurre, Christopher J. Fowler, Kelly K. Pertile, Rebecca L. Rumble, Brett O. Trounson, Sarah Maher, Francis Mooney, Maree Farrow, Kevin Taddei, Stephanie Rainey-Smith, Simon Laws, S. Lance Macaulay, William Wilson, David G. Darby, Ralph N. Martins, David Ames, Steven Collins, Brendon Silbert, Colin L. Masters, James D. Doecke 2015 Edith Cowan University

Alzheimer's Disease Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers Are Not Influenced By Gravity Drip Or Aspiration Extraction Methodology, Alan Rembach, Lisbeth A. Evered, Qiao-Xin Li, Tabitha Nash, Lesley Vidaurre, Christopher J. Fowler, Kelly K. Pertile, Rebecca L. Rumble, Brett O. Trounson, Sarah Maher, Francis Mooney, Maree Farrow, Kevin Taddei, Stephanie Rainey-Smith, Simon Laws, S. Lance Macaulay, William Wilson, David G. Darby, Ralph N. Martins, David Ames, Steven Collins, Brendon Silbert, Colin L. Masters, James D. Doecke

ECU Publications Post 2013

Introduction Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, although of established utility in the diagnostic evaluation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), are known to be sensitive to variation based on pre-analytical sample processing. We assessed whether gravity droplet collection versus syringe aspiration was another factor influencing CSF biomarker analyte concentrations and reproducibility. Methods Standardized lumbar puncture using small calibre atraumatic spinal needles and CSF collection using gravity fed collection followed by syringe aspirated extraction was performed in a sample of elderly individuals participating in a large long-term observational research trial. Analyte assay concentrations were compared. Results For the 44 total paired samples of ...


Morphometric Analysis Of Left & Right Tonsils In Adult Symptomatic Type 1 Chiari Patients And Healthy Controls, Louis J. Konstan 2015 University of Akron Main Campus

Morphometric Analysis Of Left & Right Tonsils In Adult Symptomatic Type 1 Chiari Patients And Healthy Controls, Louis J. Konstan

Honors Research Projects

Historically, CMI has been radiographically defined by cerebellar tonsillar descent below the foramen magnum (FM) more than 5 mm (2). This measurement is typically made with a single sagittal plane T1-or T2-weighted MR image. Studies have obtained additional morphometric measurements to help diagnose CMI, and establish normal values (3,4). These studies were somewhat These studies were somewhat successful in differentiating CMI patients from healthy subjects. However, results from these studies have shown that the standard TD measurement does not necessarily correlate with neurological symptom severity as patients with CMI-like symptoms have been found with a TD of less than ...


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