Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Medical Neurobiology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

593 Full-Text Articles 1404 Authors 97908 Downloads 58 Institutions

All Articles in Medical Neurobiology

Faceted Search

593 full-text articles. Page 6 of 22.

Swimming Against The Tide: Investigations Of The C-Bouton Synapse, Adam S. Deardorff, Shannon H. Romer, Patrick M. Sonner, Robert E. W. Fyffe 2014 Wright State University

Swimming Against The Tide: Investigations Of The C-Bouton Synapse, Adam S. Deardorff, Shannon H. Romer, Patrick M. Sonner, Robert E. W. Fyffe

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

C-boutons are important cholinergic modulatory loci for state-dependent alterations in motoneuron firing rate. m2 receptors are concentrated postsynaptic to C-boutons, and m2 receptor activation increases motoneuron excitability by reducing the action potential afterhyperpolarization. Here, using an intensive review of the current literature as well as data from our laboratory, we illustrate that C-bouton postsynaptic sites comprise a unique structural/functional domain containing appropriate cellular machinery (a “signaling ensemble”) for cholinergic regulation of outward K+ currents. Moreover, synaptic reorganization at these critical sites has been observed in a variety of pathologic states. Yet despite recent advances, there are still great challenges ...


Multiple Myeloma And Its Treatment Alter Peripheral Nervous System Structure And Function, Alyssa K. Kosturakis 2014 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Multiple Myeloma And Its Treatment Alter Peripheral Nervous System Structure And Function, Alyssa K. Kosturakis

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

MULTIPLE MYELOMA AND ITS TREATMENT ALTER PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

Alyssa Katarina Kosturakis, BA

Supervisory Professor: Patrick M. Dougherty, PhD

Peripheral neuropathy is among the most deleterious side effects of frontline chemotherapeutics used to treat prevalent cancers. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) refers to the collection of symptoms (e.g. pain, paresthesias and dysesthesias) that develop in distal, glabrous (non-hairy) skin of 20 to 100% of patients treated with chemotherapy. Peripheral neuropathy negatively impacts quality of life in cancer patients and survivors, is refractory to treatment, and is the impetus for dose-reduction and/or cessation of chemotherapy, thereby limiting ...


Effects Of Passive Immobilization On Locomotor Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury In Adult Rats., Kelsey Lee Stipp 2014 University of Louisville

Effects Of Passive Immobilization On Locomotor Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury In Adult Rats., Kelsey Lee Stipp

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: Spontaneous locomotor recovery in spinal rats has been attributed to animals moving freely in-cage. Environmental enrichment has been shown to increase in-cage movement and functional recovery subsequently. Anxiety has been shown to decrease overnight activity in rats. Methods: Rats were double-housed in medium cages (MC) or single-housed in tiny sized cages (TC). Slotted dividers allowed for partial isolation in TC. Overnight activity was monitored bi-weekly. The open field test and BBB’s were taken weekly. Gait analysis was performed at weeks six and eight. Results: MC showed higher overnight activity and improved gait overtime. No differences were found in ...


Craniodental Anatomy Of A New Late Cretaceous Multituberculate Mammal From Udan Sayr, Mongolia., Amir Subhash Sheth 1988- 2014 University of Louisville

Craniodental Anatomy Of A New Late Cretaceous Multituberculate Mammal From Udan Sayr, Mongolia., Amir Subhash Sheth 1988-

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Multituberculates were the longest-lived group of early mammals, with a nearly worldwide distribution, and a temporal range from the Middle Jurassic to the Late Eocene. Multituberculates are typically represented by isolated teeth and jaw fragments; however, several localities in Mongolia revealed abundant, well-preserved multituberculate skulls and partial skeletons from the Late Cretaceous. This study is centered on two specimens of a new multituberculate taxon from a locality in the Gobi desert, Udan Sayr. Included is a (1) bone-by-bone description of the cranial and mandibular elements, as well as the dental features of both specimens, PSS-MAE 141 (holotype) and PSS-MAE 142 ...


The Effect Of Acute Lps-Induced Immune Activation And Brain Insulin Signaling Disruption In A Diabetic Model Of Alzheimer's Disease, Andrew Scott Murtishaw 2014 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

The Effect Of Acute Lps-Induced Immune Activation And Brain Insulin Signaling Disruption In A Diabetic Model Of Alzheimer's Disease, Andrew Scott Murtishaw

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder marked by progressive cognitive impairments and pathological hallmarks that include amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuronal loss. Several well-known mutations exist that lead to early-onset familial AD (fAD). However, these cases only account for a small percentage of total AD cases. The vast majority of AD cases are sporadic in origin (sAD) and are less clearly influenced by a single mutation but rather some combination of genetic and environmental risk.

The etiology of sAD remains unclear but numerous risk factors have been identified that increase the chance of developing AD. Among these ...


Frontal White Matter Integrity In Adults With Down Syndrome With And Without Dementia, David K. Powell, Allison Caban-Holt, Greg A. Jicha, William C. Robertson, Roberta Davis, Brian T. Gold, Frederick A. Schmitt, Elizabeth Head 2014 University of Kentucky

Frontal White Matter Integrity In Adults With Down Syndrome With And Without Dementia, David K. Powell, Allison Caban-Holt, Greg A. Jicha, William C. Robertson, Roberta Davis, Brian T. Gold, Frederick A. Schmitt, Elizabeth Head

Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy Center Faculty Publications

Adults with Down syndrome (DS) are at high risk for developing Alzheimer's disease after the age of 40 years. To detect white matter (WM) changes in the brain linked to dementia, fractional anisotropy (FA) from diffusion tensor imaging was used. We hypothesized that adults with DS without dementia (DS n = 10), DS with dementia (DSAD n = 10) and age matched non-DS subjects (CTL n = 10) would show differential levels of FA and an association with scores from the Brief Praxis Test and the Severe Impairment Battery. WM integrity differences in DS compared with CTL were found predominantly in the ...


Fty720 (Fingolimod) Provides Insight Into The Molecular Mechanisms Of Multiple Sclerosis, Madelyn Elizabeth Crawford 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Fty720 (Fingolimod) Provides Insight Into The Molecular Mechanisms Of Multiple Sclerosis, Madelyn Elizabeth Crawford

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a prolonged immune- mediated inflammatory response that targets myelin. Nearly all of the drugs approved for the treatment of MS are general immunosuppressants or only function in symptom management. The oral medication fingolimod, however, is reported to have direct therapeutic effects on cells of the central nervous system in addition to immunomodulatory functions. Fingolimod is known to interact with sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors, and the most widely- accepted theory for its mechanism of action is functional antagonism of the receptor. This review examines significant neuromodulatory effects achieved by functional antagonism of the ...


Motor Axon Synapses On Renshaw Cells Contain Higher Levels Of Aspartate Than Glutamate, Dannette Shanon Richards, Ronald W. Griffith, Shannon H. Romer, Francisco J. Alvarez 2014 Wright State University

Motor Axon Synapses On Renshaw Cells Contain Higher Levels Of Aspartate Than Glutamate, Dannette Shanon Richards, Ronald W. Griffith, Shannon H. Romer, Francisco J. Alvarez

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

Motoneuron synapses on spinal cord interneurons known as Renshaw cells activate nicotinic, AMPA and NMDA receptors consistent with co-release of acetylcholine and excitatory amino acids (EAA). However, whether these synapses express vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) capable of accumulating glutamate into synaptic vesicles is controversial. An alternative possibility is that these synapses release other EAAs, like aspartate, not dependent on VGLUTs. To clarify the exact EAA concentrated at motor axon synapses we performed a quantitative postembedding colloidal gold immunoelectron analysis for aspartate and glutamate on motor axon synapses (identified by immunoreactivity to the vesicular acetylcholine transporter; VAChT) contacting calbindin-immunoreactive (-IR) Renshaw ...


Adenosine Production Is Essential For Closing The Critical Period Of Cortical Plasticity, Rachel A. Chassan 2014 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Adenosine Production Is Essential For Closing The Critical Period Of Cortical Plasticity, Rachel A. Chassan

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Sensory inputs from the external world are represented as highly organized systems in the adult brain for effective adaptation to the environment. At the cortical level, this organization is referred to as cortical maps. The establishment of cortical maps begins with early life experiences during the critical period, a brief period during development of heightened sensitivity to sensory stimuli. During this time, organization of cortical maps is plastic and highly subject to change through passive sensory experience. As an animal matures, the critical period closes and changes to cortical maps occur less freely. The cellular mechanisms of cortical map plasticity ...


Neuroprotective Properties Of Sigma-1 Receptor In Glaucoma, Brett H. Mueller III 2014 UNTHSC

Neuroprotective Properties Of Sigma-1 Receptor In Glaucoma, Brett H. Mueller Iii

Theses and Dissertations

Glaucoma is an optic neuropathy commonly associated with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) that affects over 70 million individuals worldwide. Glaucoma pathology is manifested as cupping of the optic disk, damage to the nerve fiber layer, and visual field deficits. The final pathological step of this disease contributing to visual field loss is the apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Currently, the only therapeutic agents that are used to treat glaucoma are IOP lowering drugs. However, even when IOP is brought within normal range, a significant number of patients still have progression of visual deficits. Currently, there are no treatment options ...


Role Of Catecholaminergic A2 Neurons Of Nucleus Of The Solitary Tract(Nts) In Cardiovascular And Respiratory Adaptations To Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia (Cih) In Rats, Chandra Sekhar Bathina 2014 University of North Texas Health Science Center

Role Of Catecholaminergic A2 Neurons Of Nucleus Of The Solitary Tract(Nts) In Cardiovascular And Respiratory Adaptations To Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia (Cih) In Rats, Chandra Sekhar Bathina

Theses and Dissertations

This study examined the role played by the catecholaminergic A2 neurons of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) of adult male Sprague- Dawley rats in the increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) noticed following exposure to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), a rodent model to simulate arterial hypoxemic conditions occurring in humans suffering from sleep apnea. In one study, we tested the hypothesis that tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) knockdown in NTS reduces the sustained elevation in MAP noticed in the rats exposed to CIH. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with radiotelemetry transmitters and adeno-associated viral constructs with a GFP reporter having ...


Identifying Unique Therapeutic Targets To Rescue Retinal Ganglion Cells From Degeneration After Optic Nerve Crush, Tasneem P. Sharma 2014 tputliwa@live.unthsc.edu

Identifying Unique Therapeutic Targets To Rescue Retinal Ganglion Cells From Degeneration After Optic Nerve Crush, Tasneem P. Sharma

Theses and Dissertations

Central nervous system (CNS) trauma and neurodegenerative disorders trigger a cascade of cellular and molecular events resulting in neuronal apoptosis and regenerative failure. The pathogenic mechanisms and gene expression changes associated with these detrimental events can be effectively studied using a rodent optic nerve crush (ONC) model. The purpose of this study was to use a mouse ONC model to: (a) evaluate changes in retina and ON gene expression, (b) identify neurodegenerative pathogenic pathways, (c) discover potential new therapeutic targets, and (d) evaluate the neuroprotective and axogenic properties of one selected therapeutic target on axotomized RGCs in vitro and the ...


Antioxidant Gene Therapy Against Neuronal Cell Death, Juliana Navarro-Yepes, Laura Zavala-Flores, Anandhan Annadurai, Fang Wang, Maciej Skotak, Namas Chandra, Ming Li, Aglaia Pappa, Daniel Martinez-Fong, Luz Maria Del Razo, Betzabet Quintanilla-Vega, Rodrigo Franco 2014 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Antioxidant Gene Therapy Against Neuronal Cell Death, Juliana Navarro-Yepes, Laura Zavala-Flores, Anandhan Annadurai, Fang Wang, Maciej Skotak, Namas Chandra, Ming Li, Aglaia Pappa, Daniel Martinez-Fong, Luz Maria Del Razo, Betzabet Quintanilla-Vega, Rodrigo Franco

Faculty Publications, Department of Psychology

Oxidative stress is a common hallmark of neuronal cell death associated with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, as well as brain stroke/ischemia and traumatic brain injury. Increased accumulation of reactive species of both oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) has been implicated inmitochondrial dysfunction, energy impairment, alterations in metal homeostasis and accumulation of aggregated proteins observed in neurodegenerative disorders, which lead to the activation/modulation of cell death mechanisms that include apoptotic, necrotic and autophagic pathways. Thus, the design of novel antioxidant strategies to selectively target oxidative stress and redox imbalance might represent important therapeutic ...


Mechanically- And Chemically-Tunable Cell Culture System To Study Myofibroblast Phenotype, Michele K. Saums, Weifeng Wang, Biao Han, Lakshmi Madhavan, Lin Han, Daeyeon Lee, Rebecca G. Wells 2014 University of Pennsylvania

Mechanically- And Chemically-Tunable Cell Culture System To Study Myofibroblast Phenotype, Michele K. Saums, Weifeng Wang, Biao Han, Lakshmi Madhavan, Lin Han, Daeyeon Lee, Rebecca G. Wells

BBB Major Publications

Cell culture systems for studying the combined effects of matrix proteins and mechanical forces on the behavior of soft tissue cells have not been well developed. Here, we describe a new biomimetic cell culture system that allows for the study of mixtures of matrix proteins while controlling mechanical stiffness in a range that is physiological for soft tissues. This system consists of layer-by-layer (LbL)-assembled films of native matrix proteins atop mechanically tunable soft supports. We used hepatic stellate cells, which differentiate to myofibroblasts in liver fibrosis, for proof-of-concept studies. By culturing cells on collagen and lumican LbL-modified hydrogels, we ...


Using Zebrafish To Do Good: Scientific Data Management, Julie Goldman 2014 Simmons College

Using Zebrafish To Do Good: Scientific Data Management, Julie Goldman

University of Massachusetts and New England Area Librarian e-Science Symposium

E-science expands the scope of science library practices and promotes, among medical and graduate/undergraduate science students, the preservation of scientific data in relevant repositories/archives. Case studies can be used as a tool to educate and teach both medical and library science graduate/undergraduate students about the preservation of scientific data. In the medical sciences, researchers must submit a data management plan in order to secure funding for a research project. Therefore, they must understand the best practices that should be followed in their different disciplines.

This case study addresses institutional research in a biomedical neuroscience laboratory at a ...


Brain Blast 2014 Speakers Poster, Annie Leslie 2014 University of New England

Brain Blast 2014 Speakers Poster, Annie Leslie

Brain Blast

Poster from UNE's Brain Blast 2014 listing the presenters at this event.


Brain Blast 2014 Poster, Annie Leslie 2014 University of New England

Brain Blast 2014 Poster, Annie Leslie

Brain Blast

Announcement poster for UNE's Brain Blast 2014, a pechakucha-style brain health and safety awareness and learning event.


Adult Spinal Motoneurones Are Not Hyperexcitable In A Mouse Model Of Inherited Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Nicolas Delestrée, Marin Manuel, Caroline Iglesias, Sherif M. Elbasiouny, C. J. Heckman, Daniel Zytnicki 2014 Wright State University - Main Campus

Adult Spinal Motoneurones Are Not Hyperexcitable In A Mouse Model Of Inherited Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Nicolas Delestrée, Marin Manuel, Caroline Iglesias, Sherif M. Elbasiouny, C. J. Heckman, Daniel Zytnicki

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), an adult onset disease in which there is progressive degeneration of motoneurones, it has been suggested that an intrinsic hyperexcitability of motoneurones (i.e. an increase in their firing rates), contributes to excitotoxicity and to disease onset. Here we show that there is no such intrinsic hyperexcitability in spinal motoneurones. Our studies were carried out in an adult mouse model of ALS with a mutated form of superoxide dismutase 1 around the time of the first muscle fibre denervations. We showed that the recruitment current, the voltage threshold for spiking and the frequency–intensity gain ...


Resting State Functional Magnetic Resonance And Diffusion Tensor Imaging Of Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy Patients Treated With Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy: Predictors And Clinically Correlated Evidence Of Neuroplasticity, Kathryn Y. Manning 2014 The University of Western Ontario

Resting State Functional Magnetic Resonance And Diffusion Tensor Imaging Of Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy Patients Treated With Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy: Predictors And Clinically Correlated Evidence Of Neuroplasticity, Kathryn Y. Manning

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Hemiplegic cerebral palsy is characterized by unilateral upper limb impairment and patients often compensate by performing most tasks with their unaffected arm. Constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) directly combats this learned non-use by casting the unaffected arm and forcing the patient to repetitively practice skills with the hemiplegic limb. Subjects with hemiplegic cerebral palsy were recruited from Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital, Thames Valley Children’s Centre and McMaster Children’s Hospital. MRI acquisitions and clinical evaluations were collected at baseline, 1 and 6-months later. The case group participated in a CIMT camp after baseline evaluations and was compared to an ...


Impact Testing Of Youth-Level Helmets Versus College-Level Helmets, Nicole Hermann 2014 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Impact Testing Of Youth-Level Helmets Versus College-Level Helmets, Nicole Hermann

Industrial Technology

With so many studies being conducted on professional football players regarding concussions and other related brain injuries, it’s amazing that such an important demographic has been missed. While NFL players are just as subjected to serious injuries as anyone else or even more so, it is important to remember that these players are outfitted, in most cases, with top-of-the-line equipment -- especially their helmets. If the focus is shifted to a younger demographic, youth football players in middle school and high school, the equipment is far less advanced and in a vast majority of cases, has been previously used by ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress