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Complementary Control Of Sensory Adaptation By Two Types Of Cortical Interneurons, Ryan G. Natan, John J. Briguglio, Laetitia Mwilambwe-Tshilobo, Sara I. Jones, Mark Aizenberg, Ethan M. Goldberg, Maria N. Geffen 2015 University of Pennsylvania

Complementary Control Of Sensory Adaptation By Two Types Of Cortical Interneurons, Ryan G. Natan, John J. Briguglio, Laetitia Mwilambwe-Tshilobo, Sara I. Jones, Mark Aizenberg, Ethan M. Goldberg, Maria N. Geffen

BBB Major Publications

Reliably detecting unexpected sounds is important for environmental awareness and survival. By selectively reducing responses to frequently, but not rarely, occurring sounds, auditory cortical neurons are thought to enhance the brain's ability to detect unexpected events through stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA). The majority of neurons in the primary auditory cortex exhibit SSA, yet little is known about the underlying cortical circuits. We found that two types of cortical interneurons differentially amplify SSA in putative excitatory neurons. Parvalbumin-positive interneurons (PVs) amplify SSA by providing non-specific inhibition: optogenetic suppression of PVs led to an equal increase in responses to frequent and rare ...


A Neurobiological Pathway That Mediates Stress-Induced Drug Use, Oliver Vranjkovic 2015 Marquette University

A Neurobiological Pathway That Mediates Stress-Induced Drug Use, Oliver Vranjkovic

Dissertations (2009 -)

Cocaine addiction represents a tremendous health and financial burden on our society and the high rate of relapse to cocaine use in abstinent addicts represents a major barrier to effective therapy. Thus, understanding the factors that contribute to relapse and the underlying neurobiological processes is important for guiding the development of treatment for addiction. Stressful life events often trigger drug use in recovering addicts. The contribution of stress to drug use is problematic due to the unpredictable and often uncontrollable nature of stress. A growing literature indicates that norepinephrine and corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in the brain play key roles ...


Role Of Cerebrovascular Abnormality In Neurodegenerative Disease And Subcortical Ischemic Disease: Ct Perfusion And Pet Imaging, Jun Yang 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Role Of Cerebrovascular Abnormality In Neurodegenerative Disease And Subcortical Ischemic Disease: Ct Perfusion And Pet Imaging, Jun Yang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Clinical studies indicate that about 30% ~ 50% of patients have cognitive impairment after the first or recurrent stroke. Ischemic injury, particularly subcortical lesions, caused by stroke has been demonstrated to further exacerbate cognitive impairment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular dementia. However, the mechanisms whereby cerebrovascular abnormalities contribute to neurodegeneration at early stage of disease and eventually to cognitive decline remain unclear. CT perfusion and positron emission tomography (PET) were used to investigate early mechanisms in a rat comorbid model of cerebral ischemia (CI) and β-amyloid (Aβ, a pathological hallmark of AD) toxicity, and in patients with small subcortical ...


An Overview Of Leber’S Hereditary Optic Neuropathy, Matthew R. Dalton 2015 Liberty University

An Overview Of Leber’S Hereditary Optic Neuropathy, Matthew R. Dalton

The Kabod

Typically affecting males ranging from 20 to 24 years of age, Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) is a disorder that is characterized by an acute loss of central vision. Although a heritable disease, LHON does not follow the patterns of classical Mendelian genetics. In fact, one of the most striking characteristics of LHON is that the disease is virtually always inherited maternally. Unlike most genetic disorders that result from a mutation in genomic DNA, LHON is caused by a mutation in the genetic information of mitochondria (mtDNA). Currently there is no treatment for LHON. Despite this, pharmaceutical interventions and ...


The Role Of Glutaminase 1 In Hiv-1 Associated Neurocognitive Disorders And In Brain Development, Yi Wang 2015 University of Nebraska Medical Center

The Role Of Glutaminase 1 In Hiv-1 Associated Neurocognitive Disorders And In Brain Development, Yi Wang

Theses & Dissertations

Glutaminase is the enzyme that converts glutamine into glutamate, which serves as a key excitatory neurotransmitter and one of the energy providers for cellular metabolism. Glutamate is essential for proper brain functioning but at excess levels, it is neurotoxic and has a key role in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases, including HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). However, the detailed mechanism of glutamate-mediated neurotoxicity remains unclear. In part I, we identified the regulation of glutaminase 1 (GLS1) in the central nervous system (CNS) of HAND animal models including HIV-Tat transgenic (Tg) mouse and HIVE-SCID mouse, since GLS1 is the dominant ...


The Effect Of Sleep On Perceptual Learning And Memory Consolidation, Vanessa Claire Irsik 2015 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

The Effect Of Sleep On Perceptual Learning And Memory Consolidation, Vanessa Claire Irsik

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

An ability to segregate speech accurately is essential given that most auditory environments contain other overlapping conversations or environmental noise. While perceiving speech among background noise can be difficult in and of itself, those with hearing impairments can experience considerable difficulty. While training has been shown to benefit perceptual segregation of trained sounds, it is unclear how such training transfers to sounds not included in a training regimen. The current study aimed to address this question by training listeners on a portion of sounds during a vowel segregation task, and subsequently testing on both the trained sounds and untrained sounds ...


Plastin 3 Expression Does Not Modify Spinal Muscular Atrophy Severity In The ∆7 Sma Mouse, Vicki L. McGovern, Aurelie Massoni-Laporte, Xueyong Wang, Thanh T. Le, Hao T. Le, Mark M. Rich, Arthur H. M. Burghes 2015 Wright State University - Main Campus

Plastin 3 Expression Does Not Modify Spinal Muscular Atrophy Severity In The ∆7 Sma Mouse, Vicki L. Mcgovern, Aurelie Massoni-Laporte, Xueyong Wang, Thanh T. Le, Hao T. Le, Mark M. Rich, Arthur H. M. Burghes

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

Spinal muscular atrophy is caused by loss of the SMN1 gene and retention of SMN2. TheSMN2 copy number inversely correlates with phenotypic severity and is a modifier of disease outcome. The SMN2 gene essentially differs from SMN1 by a single nucleotide in exon 7 that modulates the incorporation of exon 7 into the final SMN transcript. The majority of the SMN2transcripts lack exon 7 and this leads to a SMN protein that does not effectively oligomerize and is rapidly degraded. However theSMN2 gene does produce some full-length SMN and theSMN2 copy number along with how much ...


Taranis Functions With Cyclin A And Cdk1 In A Novel Arousal Center To Control Sleep In Drosophila., Dinis J.S. Afonso, Die Liu, Daniel R. Machado, Huihui Pan, James E.C. Jepson, Dragana Rogulja, Kyunghee Koh 2015 Thomas Jefferson University

Taranis Functions With Cyclin A And Cdk1 In A Novel Arousal Center To Control Sleep In Drosophila., Dinis J.S. Afonso, Die Liu, Daniel R. Machado, Huihui Pan, James E.C. Jepson, Dragana Rogulja, Kyunghee Koh

Department of Neuroscience

Sleep is an essential and conserved behavior whose regulation at the molecular and anatomical level remains to be elucidated. Here, we identify TARANIS (TARA), a Drosophila homolog of the Trip-Br (SERTAD) family of transcriptional coregulators, as a molecule that is required for normal sleep patterns. Through a forward-genetic screen, we isolated tara as a novel sleep gene associated with a marked reduction in sleep amount. Targeted knockdown of tara suggests that it functions in cholinergic neurons to promote sleep. tara encodes a conserved cell-cycle protein that contains a Cyclin A (CycA)-binding homology domain. TARA regulates CycA protein levels and ...


Functional Capacity In Schizophrenia: Relationship Among Effort, Reinforcement Learning And Self-Beliefs, Sally J. Vogel 2015 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Functional Capacity In Schizophrenia: Relationship Among Effort, Reinforcement Learning And Self-Beliefs, Sally J. Vogel

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Individuals with schizophrenia exhibit a wide range of complex neurocognitive, psychiatric and behavioral impairments. Recent research suggests that this complex array of symptoms can be at least partially accounted for by dysfunction in more basic mechanisms, such as the ability to learn from positive and negative reinforcement, or the ability to exert adequate effort when completing simple tasks. Evidence also suggests that deficits in these basic mechanisms may contribute to more complex symptoms, such as functional impairment. Also, the relationship between neurocognitive deficits and functional impairment has been found to be mediated by defeatist performance beliefs. However, studies have not ...


A Comparison Of The Effects Of Different Doses Of Gabab Receptor Ligands On Spatial Learning And Memory And Memory Flexibility, Chelcie Heaney 2015 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

A Comparison Of The Effects Of Different Doses Of Gabab Receptor Ligands On Spatial Learning And Memory And Memory Flexibility, Chelcie Heaney

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, gamma amino-butyric acid (GABA), mediates several types of learning and memory. Of the two main receptor subtypes for GABA, the in vivo role of GABAB receptor in learning and memory is less well characterized and the current data often conflict. Based on the current literature, it is unclear, for instance, whether enhancing GABAergic activity via the GABAB receptor could be beneficial for or detrimental to learning and memory. Hippocampally-dependent learning and memory tasks are of particular interest due to their clinical relevance to patients with schizophrenia or Alzheimer’s disease, who exhibit impaired ...


Validated Automatic Brain Extraction Of Head Ct Images, John Muschelli, Natalie Ullman, Daniel Hanley, Paul Vespa, Ciprian Crainiceanu 2015 Johns Hopkins University

Validated Automatic Brain Extraction Of Head Ct Images, John Muschelli, Natalie Ullman, Daniel Hanley, Paul Vespa, Ciprian Crainiceanu

John Muschelli III

Background

X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) imaging of the brain is commonly used in diagnostic settings. Al- though CT scans are primarily used in clinical practice, they are increasingly used in research. A fundamental processing step in brain imaging research is brain extraction – the process of separating the brain tissue from all other tissues. Methods for brain extraction have either been validated but not fully automated, or have been fully automated and informally proposed, but never formally validated.

Aim

To systematically analyze and validate the performance of FSL’s brain extraction tool (BET) on head CT images of patients with intracranial ...


Sensory Neurons Respond To Neurocan Knock-Down In Reactive Astrocytes, Umang Khandpur 2015 University of Kentucky

Sensory Neurons Respond To Neurocan Knock-Down In Reactive Astrocytes, Umang Khandpur

Umang Khandpur

Spinal Cord Injury (SCI), in many cases due to trauma related events, is a potentially incapacitating affliction that can lead to immense physical, psychosocial and financial burdens for both individuals and society. Understanding the cellular and molecular changes that occur following SCI may lead to therapies for improved treatment. At the cellular level, contusive SCI often results in the formation of a glial (astrocyte) scar that blocks successful axonal regeneration, partly due to the up-regulation of inhibitory extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules like chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). The long-term goal is to encourage neuroregeneration in vivo by targeting specific inhibitory CSPGs ...


Brain Blast 2015 Speakers Poster, Annie Leslie 2015 University of New England

Brain Blast 2015 Speakers Poster, Annie Leslie

Brain Blast

Poster from UNE's Brain Blast 2015 listing the expected presenters at this event.*


A Comparison Of Four Electrical Stimulation Types On Staphylococcus Aureus Growth In Vitro, Harold Merriman, Chris Hegyi, Cheryl Albright-Overton, John Carlos, Robert Putnam, Janet Mulcare 2015 Wright State University - Main Campus

A Comparison Of Four Electrical Stimulation Types On Staphylococcus Aureus Growth In Vitro, Harold Merriman, Chris Hegyi, Cheryl Albright-Overton, John Carlos, Robert Putnam, Janet Mulcare

Harold L. Merriman

We evaluated the efficacy of common electrical stimulation (ES) types on bacterial growth in vitro using clinically relevant conditions. Four types of ES-continuous microamperage direct current (µADC), high-voltage pulsed current (HVPC), low-voltage monophasic milliamperage pulsed current (LVMmAPC), and low-voltage biphasic milliamperage pulsed current (LVBmAPC)-were each applied to a separate set of culture plates containing Staphylococcus aureus for 1 h at 37 °C on 3 consecutive days. After ES treatment, the zone of inhibition surrounding each electrode was measured. Zone of inhibition measurements showed a significant inhibitory effect for continuous µADC and HVPC (p < 0.05), but not for LVMmAPC ...


Method Of Treating Parkinson's Disease In Humans By Convection-Enhanced Infusion Of Glial Cell-Line Derived Neurotrophic Factor To The Putamen, Stephen S. Gill, Don M. Gash, Greg A. Gerhardt 2015 University of Kentucky

Method Of Treating Parkinson's Disease In Humans By Convection-Enhanced Infusion Of Glial Cell-Line Derived Neurotrophic Factor To The Putamen, Stephen S. Gill, Don M. Gash, Greg A. Gerhardt

Neuroscience Faculty Patents

A method of treating Parkinson's disease in humans is disclosed, wherein glial cell-line derive neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is chronically administered directly to one or both putamen of a human in need of treatment thereof via convection-enhanced infusion using at least one implantable pump and at least one catheter. In one aspect of the present invention the GDNF is infused directly into one or both putamen through one or more indwelling intraparenchymal multiport brain catheters connected to one or more implantable pumps wherein the flow rate is pulsed.


Method Of Treating Parkinson's Disease In Humans By Convection-Enhanced Infusion Of Glial Cell-Line Derived Neurotrophic Factor To The Putamen, Stephen S. Gill, Don M. Gash, Greg A. Gerhardt 2015 University of Kentucky

Method Of Treating Parkinson's Disease In Humans By Convection-Enhanced Infusion Of Glial Cell-Line Derived Neurotrophic Factor To The Putamen, Stephen S. Gill, Don M. Gash, Greg A. Gerhardt

Neuroscience Faculty Patents

A method of treating Parkinson's disease in humans is disclosed, wherein glial cell-line derive neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is chronically administered directly to one or both putamen of a human in need of treatment thereof via convection-enhanced infusion using at least one implantable pump and at least one catheter. In one aspect of the present invention the GDNF is infused directly into one or both putamen through one or more indwelling intraparenchymal mutitiport brain catheters connected to one or more implantable pumps wherein the flow rate is pulsed.


Reward Enhances Tic Suppression In Children Within Months Of Tic Disorder Onset, Deanna Greene, Jonathan Koller, Amy Robichaux-Viehoever, Emily Bihun, Bradley Schlaggar, Kevin Black 2015 Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis

Reward Enhances Tic Suppression In Children Within Months Of Tic Disorder Onset, Deanna Greene, Jonathan Koller, Amy Robichaux-Viehoever, Emily Bihun, Bradley Schlaggar, Kevin Black

Kevin J. Black, MD

Tic disorders are childhood onset neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by motor and/or vocal tics. Research has demonstrated that children with chronic tics (including Tourette syndrome and Chronic Tic Disorder: TS/CTD) can suppress tics, particularly when an immediate, contingent reward is given for successful tic suppression. As a diagnosis of TS/CTD requires tics to be present for at least one year, children in these tic suppression studies had been living with tics for quite some time. Thus, it is unclear whether the ability to inhibit tics is learned over time or present at tic onset. Resolving that issue would ...


Spinal Cord Compression: Histologic Spectrum Of Lesions, I. N. Soomro, N.Kayani N.Kayani, Shahid Pervez, A. S. Hussainy, R. Ahmed, S. Muzaffar, S. A. Aziz, S. H. Hasan 2015 Aga Khan University

Spinal Cord Compression: Histologic Spectrum Of Lesions, I. N. Soomro, N.Kayani N.Kayani, Shahid Pervez, A. S. Hussainy, R. Ahmed, S. Muzaffar, S. A. Aziz, S. H. Hasan

Shahid Pervez

Histologic diagnosis ultimately determines the prognosis and treatment of lesions causing spinal cord compression. Modem imaging techniques have revolutionized the procedure of localizing lesions pre¬senting with signs and symptoms of spinal cord compression. As a result, these lesions are more accessible for fine needle aspiration and biopsy. A quick diagnosis is possible if cytologic preparation is made. Similarly, intraoperative frozen section facility not only provides rapid diagnosis, but also offers oppor tunity of appropriate management decision there and then. Histology in many cases needs help of special stains and immunocytochemistry. This study looks at the histologic spectrum of these ...


Micrornas And Regeneration: Let-7 Members As Potential Regulators Of Dedifferentiation In Lens And Inner Ear Hair Cell Regeneration Of The Adult Newt, Panagiotis Tsonis, Mindy Call, Matthew Grogg, Maureen Sartor, Ruth Taylor, Andrew Forge, Robert Fyffe, Robert Goldenberg, Richard Cowper-Sallari, Craig Tomlinson 2015 Wright State University

Micrornas And Regeneration: Let-7 Members As Potential Regulators Of Dedifferentiation In Lens And Inner Ear Hair Cell Regeneration Of The Adult Newt, Panagiotis Tsonis, Mindy Call, Matthew Grogg, Maureen Sartor, Ruth Taylor, Andrew Forge, Robert Fyffe, Robert Goldenberg, Richard Cowper-Sallari, Craig Tomlinson

Panagiotis A. Tsonis

MicroRNAs are known to regulate the expression of many mRNAs by binding to complementary target sequences at the 3′UTRs. Because of such properties, miRNAs may regulate tissue-specific mRNAs as a cell undergoes transdifferentiation during regeneration. We have tested this hypothesis during lens and hair cell regeneration in newts using microarray analysis. We found that distinct sets of miRNAs are associated with lens and hair cell regeneration. Members of the let-7 family are expressed in both events and they are regulated in a similar fashion. All the let-7 members are down regulated during the initiation of regeneration, which is characterized ...


Using Zebrafish To Do Good: Scientific Data Management, Julie Goldman 2015 Simmons College

Using Zebrafish To Do Good: Scientific Data Management, Julie Goldman

Julie Goldman

E-science expands the scope of science library practices and promotes, among medical and graduate/undergraduate science students, the preservation of scientific data in relevant repositories/archives. Case studies can be used as a tool to educate and teach both medical and library science graduate/undergraduate students about the preservation of scientific data. In the medical sciences, researchers must submit a data management plan in order to secure funding for a research project. Therefore, they must understand the best practices that should be followed in their different disciplines.

This case study addresses institutional research in a biomedical neuroscience laboratory at a ...


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