Neurofeedback Or Neuroplacebo?, 2017 McGill University
Neurofeedback Or Neuroplacebo?, Robert T. Thibault, Michael Lifshitz, Amir Raz
Psychology Faculty Articles and Research
This scientific commentary refers to ‘Better than sham? A double-blind placebo-controlled neurofeedback study in primary insomnia’, by Schabus et al.. (doi:10.1093/brain/awx011).
Motor Axon Synapses On Renshaw Cells Contain Higher Levels Of Aspartate Than Glutamate, 2017 Wright State University
Motor Axon Synapses On Renshaw Cells Contain Higher Levels Of Aspartate Than Glutamate, Dannette Shanon Richards, Ronald W. Griffith, Shannon H. Romer, Francisco J. Alvarez
Francisco J. Alvarez
Motoneuron synapses on spinal cord interneurons known as Renshaw cells activate nicotinic, AMPA and NMDA receptors consistent with co-release of acetylcholine and excitatory amino acids (EAA). However, whether these synapses express vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) capable of accumulating glutamate into synaptic vesicles is controversial. An alternative possibility is that these synapses release other EAAs, like aspartate, not dependent on VGLUTs. To clarify the exact EAA concentrated at motor axon synapses we performed a quantitative postembedding colloidal gold immunoelectron analysis for aspartate and glutamate on motor axon synapses (identified by immunoreactivity to the vesicular acetylcholine transporter; VAChT) contacting calbindin-immunoreactive (-IR) Renshaw ...
P03. Role Of Prefrontal Cortical Dopamine Transmission In Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder And Opiate Addiction Vulnerability, Jingjing Li
Western Research Forum
PTSD and opiate addiction share strong co-morbidity and the inability to suppress obtrusive memory recall related to either stressful or rewarding experiences may be an underlying neuropsychological feature triggering PTSD and/or addiction. Our previous research has shown that dopamine (DA) transmission in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) strongly modulates emotional memory formation: activation of the DA D4 receptor (D4R) strongly potentiates the emotional salience of normally non-salient fear memories whereas DA D1 receptor (D1R) activation blocks the behavioural recall of fear memory. Thus, while intra-PFC D4 transmission strongly controls the acquisition of emotional memory, D1 transmission is selectively involved ...
Amidated Dopamine Neuron Stimulating Peptides For Cns Dopaminergic Upregulation, 2017 University of Kentucky
Amidated Dopamine Neuron Stimulating Peptides For Cns Dopaminergic Upregulation, Luke H. Bradley, Don M. Gash, Greg A. Gerhardt
Neuroscience Faculty Patents
The present invention relates to novel proteins, referred to herein as amidated glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) peptides (or "Amidated Dopamine Neuron Stimulating peptides (ADNS peptides)"), that are useful for treating brain diseases and injuries that result in dopaminergic deficiencies.
Role Of Corpus Callosum Integrity In Arm Function Differs Based On Motor Severity After Stroke, 2017 University of South Carolina - Columbia
Role Of Corpus Callosum Integrity In Arm Function Differs Based On Motor Severity After Stroke, Jill Campbell Stewart, Pritha Dewanjee, George Tran, Erin Burke Quinlan, Lucy Dodakian, Alison Mckenzie, Jill See, Steven C. Cramer
Physical Therapy Faculty Articles and Research
While the corpus callosum (CC) is important to normal sensorimotor function, its role in motor function after stroke is less well understood. This study examined the relationship between structural integrity of the motor and sensory sections of the CC, as reflected by fractional anisotropy (FA), and motor function in individuals with a range of motor impairment level due to stroke. Fifty-five individuals with chronic stroke (Fugl-Meyer motor score range 14 to 61) and 18 healthy controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging and a set of motor behavior tests. Mean FA from the motor and sensory regions of the CC and from ...
A Meta-Analysis Of Neuropsychological Tests Utilized In Evaluations For Post-Operative Cognitive Dysfunction In Adult Surgery Patients, Joanna H. Swartz
Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)
Cognitive dysfunction post-surgery has a significant impact on patients’ quality of life during recovery and afterward. Several studies have been completed on post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD), but since studies are varied in their methodologies and designs a metaanalysis is helpful to synthesize the current available research. The present study took a metaanalysis approach to examine neuropsychological tests most sensitive to POCD in adult surgery patients, and determine implications this would have for developing a battery of tests to evaluate for POCD pre and post-surgery. Although some assessment batteries have been proposed for certain populations (e.g., cardiac patients), little research ...
Coherent Activity Between Brain Regions That Code For Value Is Linked To The Malleability Of Human Behavior, 2017 University of Pennsylvania
Coherent Activity Between Brain Regions That Code For Value Is Linked To The Malleability Of Human Behavior, Nicole Cooper, Danielle S. Bassett, Emily B. Falk
Departmental Papers (ASC)
Brain activity in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) during exposure to persuasive messages can predict health behavior change. This brain-behavior relationship has been linked to areas of MPFC previously associated with self-related processing; however, the mechanism underlying this relationship is unclear. We explore two components of self-related processing – self-reflection and subjective valuation – and examine coherent activity between relevant networks of brain regions during exposure to health messages encouraging exercise and discouraging sedentary behaviors. We find that objectively logged reductions in sedentary behavior in the following month are linked to functional connectivity within brain regions associated with positive valuation, but not within ...
Analysis Of Proprioceptive Sensory Innervation Of The Mouse Soleus: A Whole-Mount Muscle Approach, 2017 Wright State University
Analysis Of Proprioceptive Sensory Innervation Of The Mouse Soleus: A Whole-Mount Muscle Approach, Martha Jean Sonner, Marie C. Walters, David R. Ladle
Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications
Muscle proprioceptive afferents provide feedback critical for successful execution of motor tasks via specialized mechanoreceptors housed within skeletal muscles: muscle spindles, supplied by group Ia and group II afferents, and Golgi tendon organs, supplied by group Ib afferents. The morphology of these proprioceptors and their associated afferents has been studied extensively in the cat soleus, and to a lesser degree, in the rat; however, quantitative analyses of proprioceptive innervation in the mouse soleus are comparatively limited. The present study employed genetically-encoded fluorescent reporting systems to label and analyze muscle spindles, Golgi tendon organs, and the proprioceptive sensory neuron subpopulations supplying ...
Regulation Of Sleep Plasticity By A Thermo-Sensitive Circuit In Drosophila., 2017 UCL Institute of Neurology
Regulation Of Sleep Plasticity By A Thermo-Sensitive Circuit In Drosophila., Angelique Lamaze, Arzu Öztürk-Çolak, Robin Fischer, Nicolai Peschel, Kyunghee Koh, James E.C. Jepson
Department of Neuroscience
Sleep is a highly conserved and essential behaviour in many species, including the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. In the wild, sensory signalling encoding environmental information must be integrated with sleep drive to ensure that sleep is not initiated during detrimental conditions. However, the molecular and circuit mechanisms by which sleep timing is modulated by the environment are unclear. Here we introduce a novel behavioural paradigm to study this issue. We show that in male fruit flies, onset of the daytime siesta is delayed by ambient temperatures above 29 °C. We term this effect Prolonged Morning Wakefulness (PMW). We show that ...
Cerebellar Tdcs: A Novel Approach To Augment Language Treatment Post-Stroke, 2017 Johns Hopkins University
Cerebellar Tdcs: A Novel Approach To Augment Language Treatment Post-Stroke, Rajani Sebastian, Sadhvi Saxena, Kyrana Tsapkini, Andreia V. Faria, Charltien Long, Amy Wright, Cameron Davis, Donna C. Tippett, Antonios P. Mourdoukoutas, Marom Bikson, Pablo Celnik, Argye E. Hillis
Publications and Research
People with post-stroke aphasia may have some degree of chronic deficit for which current rehabilitative treatments are variably effective. Accumulating evidence suggests that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may be useful for enhancing the effects of behavioral aphasia treatment. However, it remains unclear which brain regions should be stimulated to optimize effects on language recovery. Here, we report on the therapeutic potential of right cerebellar tDCS in augmenting language recovery in SMY, who sustained bilateral MCA infarct resulting in aphasia and anarthria. We investigated the effects of 15 sessions of anodal cerebellar tDCS coupled with spelling therapy using a randomized ...
Genetic Risk For Obesity Predicts Nucleus Accumbens Size And Responsivity To Real-World Food Cues, Kristina Rapuano, Amanda Zieselman, William Kelley, James Sargent, Todd Heatherton, Diane Gilbert-Diamond
Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles
Obesity is a major public health concern that involves an interaction between genetic susceptibility and exposure to environmental cues (e.g., food marketing); however, the mechanisms that link these factors and contribute to unhealthy eating are unclear. Using a well-known obesity risk polymorphism (FTO rs9939609) in a sample of 78 children (ages 9-12 y), we observed that children at risk for obesity exhibited stronger responses to food commercials in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) than children not at risk. Similarly, children at a higher genetic risk for obesity demonstrated larger NAcc volumes. Although a recessive model of this polymorphism best predicted ...
Distinct Neural Bases Of Disruptive Behavior And Autism Symptom Severity In Boys With Autism Spectrum Disorder., 2017 George Washington University
Distinct Neural Bases Of Disruptive Behavior And Autism Symptom Severity In Boys With Autism Spectrum Disorder., Y.J. Daniel Yang, Denis G Sukhodolsky, Jiedi Lei, Eran Dayan, Kevin A. Pelphrey, Pamela Ventola
Pediatrics Faculty Publications
BACKGROUND: Disruptive behavior in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is an important clinical problem, but its neural basis remains poorly understood. The current research aims to better understand the neural underpinnings of disruptive behavior in ASD, while addressing whether the neural basis is shared with or separable from that of core ASD symptoms.
METHODS: Participants consisted of 48 male children and adolescents: 31 ASD (7 had high disruptive behavior) and 17 typically developing (TD) controls, well-matched on sex, age, and IQ. For ASD participants, autism symptom severity, disruptive behavior, anxiety symptoms, and ADHD symptoms were measured. All participants were scanned while ...
Survival And Growth Of C57bl/6j Mice Lacking The Bk Channel, Kcnma1: Lower Adult Body Weight Occurs Together With Higher Body Fat, 2017 Wright State University - Main Campus
Survival And Growth Of C57bl/6j Mice Lacking The Bk Channel, Kcnma1: Lower Adult Body Weight Occurs Together With Higher Body Fat, Susan T. Halm, Michael A. Bottomley, Mohammed M. Almutairi, Mauricio Di Fulvio, Dan R. Halm
Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications
Big conductance potassium (BK) channels contribute to K+ flow and electrical behavior in many cell types. Mice made null for the gene (Kcnma1) producing the BK channel (BKKO) exhibit numerous deficits in physiological functions. Breeding mice lacking a single allele of Kcnma1 (C57BL/6J background) had litter sizes of approximately eight pups. For the period of maternal care (P0– P21), pup deaths peaked at P1 with a second less severe interval of death peaking near P13. Early deaths were twice as likely during a 20-month period of building construction compared with the quiescent period after cessation of construction. Births ...
Establishing A Mouse Model For Neuropathic Pain Elicited By Thoracic Contusion Spinal Cord Injury, 2017 University of Colorado, Boulder
Establishing A Mouse Model For Neuropathic Pain Elicited By Thoracic Contusion Spinal Cord Injury, Wolfgang Schleicher
Undergraduate Honors Theses
With a high occurrence of spinal cord injuries (SCIs) per year in the United States, and a significant number of patients living with SCI, innovations in modeling, treating, and managing these injuries is in high demand. An often overlooked aspect of SCI is the management of neuropathic pain. Most notably, the field lacks a well-defined, clinically relevant mouse model for SCI-induced neuropathic pain. Here we tested the hypothesis that a moderate contusion SCI in mice would cause neuropathic pain, and that this pain might be alleviated by inactivating astrocytes. We report significant inductions of acute-to-chronic hyperalgesia and allodynia in both ...
Delayed Diagnosis Of Shunt Overdrainage Following Functional Hemispherotomy And Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Placement In A Hemimegalencephaly Patient, Yasunori Nagahama, David Peters, Adam Vesole, Charuta Joshi, Brian J Dlouhy, Hiroto Kawasaki
Department of Neurosurgery Publications
Shunt overdrainage represents a nebulous condition of variable clinical and imaging presentations, where the diagnosis is primarily clinical. The condition presents a diagnostic challenge particularly in patients with cognitive impairment and developmental delays. Here we present a 3-year-old boy with drug-resistant focal onset seizures due to hemimegalencephaly who previously underwent functional hemispherotomy followed by ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement for postoperative hydrocephalus. The subsequent clinical course was complicated by delayed diagnosis of shunt overdrainage in the absence of significant image findings. Maintaining a high index of suspicion for the possibility of shunt overdrainage is critical even in the face of unremarkable imaging ...
Rat Hind Limb Nociceptive Withdrawal Response To Heat And Mechanical Stimuli Depends On Initial Position Of The Paw But Not Stimulus Location, Giavanna Verdi
Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current
Mammals rapidly withdraw their hind limb in response to noxious stimulation, which is a protective movement known as the nociceptive withdrawal response (NWR). The NWR has been previously studied in spinalized, decerebrated and anesthetized non-human and human mammals; however, there is minimal information on the NWR in intact, unanesthetized non-human mammals.
The first specific aim was to identify the factors that determine the direction and magnitude of the NWR in intact, unanesthetized rats. Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that the location of stimulation and the initial position of the paw preceding the NWR will influence the direction and magnitude ...
Heme Oxygenase 1 Expression After Traumatic Brain Injury And Effect Of Pharmacological Manipulation On Functional Recovery., 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University
Heme Oxygenase 1 Expression After Traumatic Brain Injury And Effect Of Pharmacological Manipulation On Functional Recovery., Nicholas H. Russell
Theses and Dissertations
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is an increasingly diagnosed constellation of injuries derived from acute mechanical trauma to the brain. With the rise of advanced neuroimaging techniques recent focus has oriented primarily towards the mild-moderate range of TBI which previously was missed diagnostically. Characteristically, these advances have shown increasing areas of micro-hemorrhage in susceptible areas of the brain and to date there are no treatment modalities targeting micro-hemorrhages or their sequelae. This dissertation explores the effects of the resulting heme processing response in the days following injury with a particular focus on inducing early heme clearance from the parenchyma using a ...
Cyclic Ac253, A Novel Amylin Receptor Antagonist, Improves Cognitive Deficits In A Mouse Model Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Rania Soudy, Aarti Patel, Wen Fu, Kamaljit Kaur, David Mactavish, David Westaway, Rachel Davey, Jeffrey Zajac, Jack Jhamandas
Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research
Introduction: Amylin receptor serves as a portal for the expression of deleterious effects of amyloid b-protein (Ab), a key pathologic hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease. Previously, we showed that AC253, an amylin receptor antagonist, is neuroprotective against Ab toxicity in vitro and abrogates Ab-induced impairment of hippocampal long-term potentiation.
Methods: Amyloid precursor protein–overexpressing TgCRND8 mice received intracerebroventricularly AC253 for 5 months. New cyclized peptide cAC253 was synthesized and administered intraperitoneally three times a week for 10 weeks in the same mouse model. Cognitive functions were monitored, and pathologic changes were quantified biochemically and immunohistochemically.
Results: AC253, when administered intracerebroventricularly ...
Neurobiology Of The Premonitory Urge In Tourette's Syndrome: Pathophysiology And Treatment Implications, 2016 Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis
Neurobiology Of The Premonitory Urge In Tourette's Syndrome: Pathophysiology And Treatment Implications, Andrea E. Cavanna, Kevin J. Black, Mark Hallett, Valerie Voon
Kevin J. Black, MD
An Examination Into The Relationship Between Iron Deficiency And Postpartum Depression, 2016 Liberty University
An Examination Into The Relationship Between Iron Deficiency And Postpartum Depression, Sara A. Burroughs
Senior Honors Theses
Postpartum depression is recognized as the most common complication of childbearing; however, its etiology remains fairly undetermined. Many different influences have been hypothesized as to what may cause postpartum depression, including changes in levels of various hormones (such as estrogen and progesterone), a decrease in serotonin, low levels of vitamin D, social factors, and iron deficiency. The lack of strong evidence for one specific cause makes it fairly clear that there are many factors that play a role in the development of postpartum depression. Iron deficiency is one issue that is thought to contribute to the development of postpartum depression ...