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Volume Averaging Of Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Impacts Retinal Segmentation In Children, Carmelina Trimboli-Heidler, Kelly Vogt, Robert A. Avery 2016 George Washington University

Volume Averaging Of Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Impacts Retinal Segmentation In Children, Carmelina Trimboli-Heidler, Kelly Vogt, Robert A. Avery

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Purpose: To determine the influence of volume averaging on retinal layer thickness measures acquired with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in children.

Methods: Macular SD-OCT images were acquired using three different volume acquisition settings (i.e., ART 1, 3, and 9 volumes) in children enrolled in a prospective OCT study. Total retinal, retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell layer, inner plexiform layer, inner nuclear layer, and outer plexiform layer thicknesses were measured around an ETDRS grid using beta version automated segmentation software for the Spectralis. The magnitude of manual segmentation required to correct the automated segmentation was classified as either ...


Micro-Rna And Mrna Profiles Associated With Ectopic Germinal Center Formation In Thymus Samples Of Patients With Autoimmune Myas, Manjistha Sengupta, Bi-Dar Wang, Norman H. Lee, Gary Cutter, Linda Louise Kusner, Henry J. Kaminski 2016 George Washington University

Micro-Rna And Mrna Profiles Associated With Ectopic Germinal Center Formation In Thymus Samples Of Patients With Autoimmune Myas, Manjistha Sengupta, Bi-Dar Wang, Norman H. Lee, Gary Cutter, Linda Louise Kusner, Henry J. Kaminski

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune neuromuscular disorder caused by antibodies directed against proteins present at the post-synaptic surface of neuromuscular junction (NMJ). A characteristic pathology of patients with early onset MG is thymic hyperplasia with ectopic germinal centers (GC). However, mechanisms that trigger and maintain thymic hyperplasia are poorly characterized. Micro-RNAs (miRNA) are small, non-coding RNAs that are increasingly appreciated to be involved in the pathology of several autoimmune diseases. In order to determine the central mechanisms involved in the pathology, thymus samples from MG patients were assessed by histology and grouped based on appearance of GC compared to ...


Reversible Recruitment Of A Homeostatic Reserve Pool Of Synaptic Vesicles Underlies Rapid Homeostatic Plasticity Of Quantal Content, Xueyong Wang, Martin J. Pinter, Mark M. Rich 2016 Wright State University - Main Campus

Reversible Recruitment Of A Homeostatic Reserve Pool Of Synaptic Vesicles Underlies Rapid Homeostatic Plasticity Of Quantal Content, Xueyong Wang, Martin J. Pinter, Mark M. Rich

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

Homeostatic regulation is essential for the maintenance of synaptic strength within the physiological range. The current study is the first to demonstrate that both induction and reversal of homeostatic upregulation of synaptic vesicle release can occur within seconds of blocking or unblocking acetylcholine receptors at the mouse neuromuscular junction. Our data suggest that the homeostatic upregulation of release is due to Ca2+-dependent increase in the size of the readily releasable pool (RRP). Blocking vesicle refilling prevented upregulation of quantal content (QC), while leaving baseline release relatively unaffected. This suggested that the upregulation of QC was due to mobilization ...


Voxel Based Morphometry In Optical Coherence Tomography: Validation & Core Findings, Bhavna J. Antony, Min Chen, Aaron Carass, Bruno M. Jedynak, Omar Al-Louzi, Sharon D. Solomon, Shiv Saidha, Peter Calabresi, Jerry L. Prince 2016 Johns Hopkins University

Voxel Based Morphometry In Optical Coherence Tomography: Validation & Core Findings, Bhavna J. Antony, Min Chen, Aaron Carass, Bruno M. Jedynak, Omar Al-Louzi, Sharon D. Solomon, Shiv Saidha, Peter Calabresi, Jerry L. Prince

Mathematics and Statistics Faculty Publications and Presentations

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the human retina is now becoming established as an important modality for the detection and tracking of various ocular diseases. Voxel based morphometry (VBM) is a long standing neuroimaging analysis technique that allows for the exploration of the regional differences in the brain. There has been limited work done in developing registration based methods for OCT, which has hampered the advancement of VBM analyses in OCT based population studies. Following on from our recent development of an OCT registration method, we explore the potential benefits of VBM analysis in cohorts of healthy controls (HCs) and ...


Southeastern Alumni Magazine- Winter 2016, Southeastern University - Lakeland 2016 Southeastern University

Southeastern Alumni Magazine- Winter 2016, Southeastern University - Lakeland

Southeastern Alumni Magazine

Dr. Aimee Franklin '07 returned to Southeastern in 2014 as an assistant professor of biology. Prior to returning, she earned her Ph.D. in Neuroscience at the University of Alabama Birmingham where she studied Fragile X Syndrome, the leading known genetic cause for autism. One of her articles published in Biological Psychology was one of the most cited articles in that journal in 2014.


Sex Differences In The Efficacy Of Combined Il-10 And Il-10r1 Gene Therapy For Neuropathic Pain In Mice, J Logan Brock 2016 University of Colorado, Boulder

Sex Differences In The Efficacy Of Combined Il-10 And Il-10r1 Gene Therapy For Neuropathic Pain In Mice, J Logan Brock

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Neuropathic pain is a debilitating condition that affects millions of Americans. Despite decades of research, the disease is refractory to current treatments in a substantial population of patients. Recent advances in the understanding of neuropathic pain have led to the targeting of glial cells to better control the condition. Current clinical therapies do not manage the inflammatory response that originates with glial cells and contributes to this affliction. IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine that attenuates the inflammatory response that occurs at the neuroimmune interface in neuropathic pain models. IL-10 gene therapy has alleviated neuropathic pain in a number of animal ...


Comorbidity Between Alzheimer’S Disease And Seizure Episodes, Maryam Amini 2016 University of Colorado, Boulder

Comorbidity Between Alzheimer’S Disease And Seizure Episodes, Maryam Amini

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Abstract

A mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which overexpress the human amyloid precursor protein (APP), experience Kainic Acid (KA) induced seizures that are more severe than wild type (WT) mice. The latency and severity of seizures observed in AD mice are similar to those of Synaptophysin knockout (Syp KO) mice. Addition of amyloid plaques (Aβ) to cells in vitro leads to the breakdown of Syp-VAMP2 complex. In the present study, we investigated if the breakdown of Syp-VAMP2 complex is responsible for the observed seizure activity in AD mice. The binding of cholesterol to Syp is necessary for biogenesis ...


Cannabinoid Receptor Interacting Protein Suppresses Agonist-Driven Cb1 Receptor Internalization And Regulates Receptor Replenishment In An Agonist-Biased Manner, Lawrence C. Blumes, Sandra Leone-Kabler, Deborah J. Luessen, Glenn S. Marrs, Erica Lyons, Caroline E. Bass, Rong Chen, Dana E. Selley, Allyn C. Howlett 2016 Wake Forest University

Cannabinoid Receptor Interacting Protein Suppresses Agonist-Driven Cb1 Receptor Internalization And Regulates Receptor Replenishment In An Agonist-Biased Manner, Lawrence C. Blumes, Sandra Leone-Kabler, Deborah J. Luessen, Glenn S. Marrs, Erica Lyons, Caroline E. Bass, Rong Chen, Dana E. Selley, Allyn C. Howlett

Neurology Publications

Cannabinoid receptor interacting protein 1a (CRIP1a) is a CB1 receptor (CB1R) distal C-terminus-associated protein that modulates CB1R signaling via G proteins, and CB1R down-regulation but not desensitization (Blume et al. [2015] Cell Signal., 27, 716-726; Smith et al. [2015] Mol. Pharmacol., 87, 747-765). In this study, we determined the involvement of CRIP1a in CB1R plasma membrane trafficking. To follow the effects of agonists and antagonists on cell surface CB(1)Rs, we utilized the genetically homogeneous cloned neuronal cell line N18TG2, which endogenously expresses both CB1R and CRIP1a, and exhibits a well-characterized endocannabinoid signaling system. We developed stable CRIP1a-over-expressing and ...


Therapy Options For Winged Scapula Patients: A Literature Review, Samantha L. Normand 2016 University of Central Florida

Therapy Options For Winged Scapula Patients: A Literature Review, Samantha L. Normand

Honors in the Major Theses

Winged scapula is a condition characterized by lateral or medial protrusion of the scapula caused by nerve damage leading to muscular paralysis. The purpose of this systematic review of literature is to evaluate the current research literature related to the effectiveness of therapy options for winged scapula. Eleven peer reviewed English language research articles published from 1998 to present were included for evaluation. Study results revealed positive therapeutic outcomes for physical therapy and scapular bracing. Results also showed positive outcomes for the use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and acupuncture for the treatment of nerve related conditions similar to winged ...


Looking To The Future Of Stroke Treatment: Combining Recanalization And Neuroprotection In Acute Ischemic Stroke, Michael E. Maniskas 2016 University of Kentucky

Looking To The Future Of Stroke Treatment: Combining Recanalization And Neuroprotection In Acute Ischemic Stroke, Michael E. Maniskas

Theses and Dissertations--Neuroscience

Stroke is the 5th leading cause of death in the U.S. with 130,000 deaths and around 800,000 affected annually. Currently, there is a significant disconnect between basic stroke research and clinical stroke therapeutic needs. Few animal models of stroke target the large vessels that produce cortical deficits seen in the clinical setting. Also, current routes of drug administration, intraperitoneal and intravenous, do not mimic the clinical route of intra-arterial drug administration. To bridge this divide, we have retro-engineered a mouse model of stroke from the current standard of care for emergent large vessel occlusion (ELVO) stroke ...


Post-Tbi Hippocampal Neurogenesis In Different Tbi Models, Kaushal S. Patel 2016 Virginia Commonwealth University

Post-Tbi Hippocampal Neurogenesis In Different Tbi Models, Kaushal S. Patel

Theses and Dissertations

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to short-term and long-term consequences that can cause many different life-long disorders. Studies of TBI have generally focused on the acute stage; however, it is now becoming important to investigate chronic responses following TBI as clinical reports of dementia and cognitive impairments have been linked to a history of TBI. Recent data have established that cognitive function is associated with hippocampal neurogenesis. Chronic injury induced changes in the brain may affect this endogenous process. Chronic responses following TBI include cell death pathways and inflammatory responses that are persistent in the brain for months to years ...


Potential Treatments For Malformation Associated Epilepsy, Olivia M. Bowles 2016 Virginia Commonwealth University

Potential Treatments For Malformation Associated Epilepsy, Olivia M. Bowles

Theses and Dissertations

Epilepsy has been previously attributed to either increased excitation or decreased inhibition. With this closed frame of mind, modern medicine has been unable to develop a permanent treatment against the mechanisms of epilepsy. In order to treat patients with intractable seizures, especially those caused by developmental malformations, it is essential to understand the entirety of mechanisms that could possibly play a role in the abnormal cortical function. One such developmental malformation is known as polymicrogyria. Epileptogenesis occurs in an area laterally adjacent to this malformation known as the paramicrogyral region (PMR). Past studies have narrowed down the potential cause of ...


The Effect Of Caffeine On Migraine Headaches, Deborah Shimshoni 2016 University of Central Florida

The Effect Of Caffeine On Migraine Headaches, Deborah Shimshoni

Honors in the Major Theses

As the most widely consumed drug around the globe, there is a vast array of contradicting research available on caffeine. One of the most debated and researched topics on caffeine is its effect on the brain. Meanwhile, the data on the neurological condition of migraine has information scattered throughout countless research articles and experiments.

Although neither migraine or caffeine are completely understood by the medical world, this analysis attempts to give a more coherent understanding of the relationship between the two. This is done by first understanding the known and theorized mechanisms of caffeine as well as the pathologies of ...


Mechanisms Of Action Of Antiseizure Drugs And The Ketogenic Diet., Michael Rogawski, Jong Rho, Wolfgang Löscher 2015 University of California - Davis

Mechanisms Of Action Of Antiseizure Drugs And The Ketogenic Diet., Michael Rogawski, Jong Rho, Wolfgang Löscher

Michael A. Rogawski

Antiseizure drugs (ASDs), also termed antiepileptic drugs, are the main form of symptomatic treatment for people with epilepsy, but not all patients become free of seizures. The ketogenic diet is one treatment option for drug-resistant patients. Both types of therapy exert their clinical effects through interactions with one or more of a diverse set of molecular targets in the brain. ASDs act by modulation of voltage-gated ion channels, including sodium, calcium, and potassium channels; by enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibition through effects on GABA-A receptors, the GABA transporter 1 (GAT1) GABA uptake transporter, or GABA transaminase; through interactions ...


How The Manipulation Of The Ras Homolog Enriched In Striatum Alters The Behavioral And Molecular Progression Of Huntington’S Disease, Franklin A. Lee 2015 The University of New Orleans

How The Manipulation Of The Ras Homolog Enriched In Striatum Alters The Behavioral And Molecular Progression Of Huntington’S Disease, Franklin A. Lee

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Huntington’s disease is an incurable, progressive neurological disorder characterized by loss of motor control, psychiatric dysfunction, and eventual dystonia leading to death. Despite the fact that this disorder is caused by a mutation in one single gene, there is no cure. The mutant Huntingtin (mHtt) protein is expressed ubiquitously throughout the brain but frank cell death is limited to the striatum. Recent work has suggested that Rhes, Ras homolog enriched in striatum, which is selectively expressed in the striatum, may play a role in Huntington’s disease neuropathology. In vitro studies have shown Rhes to be an E3 ligase ...


Bitc Sensitizes Pancreatic Adenocarcinomas To Trail-Induced Apoptosis, Christina A. Wicker, Ravi P. Sahu, Kashmira Kulkarni-Datar, Sanjay K. Srivastava, Thomas L. Brown 2015 Wright State University - Main Campus

Bitc Sensitizes Pancreatic Adenocarcinomas To Trail-Induced Apoptosis, Christina A. Wicker, Ravi P. Sahu, Kashmira Kulkarni-Datar, Sanjay K. Srivastava, Thomas L. Brown

Thomas L. Brown

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is an aggressive cancer with a greater than 95% mortality rate and short survival after diagnosis. Chemotherapeutic resistance hinders successful treatment. This resistance is often associated with mutations in codon 12 of the K-Ras gene (K-Ras 12), which is present in over 90% of all pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Codon 12 mutations maintain Ras in a constitutively active state leading to continuous cellular proliferation. Our study determined if TRAIL resistance in pancreatic adenocarcinomas with K-Ras 12 mutations could be overcome by first sensitizing the cells with Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC). BITC is a component of cruciferous vegetables and a cell cycle ...


The Neurochemistry Of Group Singing: Bonding And Oxytocin, Jason Keeler 2015 Western Michigan University

The Neurochemistry Of Group Singing: Bonding And Oxytocin, Jason Keeler

Master's Theses

The purpose of this study was to examine the neurochemical correlates of group vocal improvisation and to determine the feasibility of the research methods. One group of four participants sang together in two conditions: pre-composed and improvised. Concentrations of plasma oxytocin and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were measured before and after each singing condition to assess levels of hormones associated with social affiliation, engagement and arousal. Successful implementation of the methodology, including recruitment, data collection, and sample analysis, served as the primary outcome of this study. ACTH concentrations decreased in both conditions, and significantly so in the pre-composed singing condition. Mean ...


Loss Of Vglut3 Produces Circadian-Dependent Hyperdopaminergia And Ameliorates Motor Dysfunction And L-Dopa-Mediated Dyskinesias In A Model Of Parkinson's Disease., Christopher B. Divito, Kathy Steece-Collier, Daniel T. Case, Sean-Paul G. Williams, Jennifer A. Stancati, Lianteng Zhi, Maria E. Rubio, Caryl E. Sortwell, Timothy J. Collier, David Sulzer, Robert H. Edwards, Hui Zhang, Rebecca P. Seal 2015 University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine

Loss Of Vglut3 Produces Circadian-Dependent Hyperdopaminergia And Ameliorates Motor Dysfunction And L-Dopa-Mediated Dyskinesias In A Model Of Parkinson's Disease., Christopher B. Divito, Kathy Steece-Collier, Daniel T. Case, Sean-Paul G. Williams, Jennifer A. Stancati, Lianteng Zhi, Maria E. Rubio, Caryl E. Sortwell, Timothy J. Collier, David Sulzer, Robert H. Edwards, Hui Zhang, Rebecca P. Seal

Department of Neuroscience

UNLABELLED: The striatum is essential for many aspects of mammalian behavior, including motivation and movement, and is dysfunctional in motor disorders such as Parkinson's disease. The vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGLUT3) is expressed by striatal cholinergic interneurons (CINs) and is thus well positioned to regulate dopamine (DA) signaling and locomotor activity, a canonical measure of basal ganglia output. We now report that VGLUT3 knock-out (KO) mice show circadian-dependent hyperlocomotor activity that is restricted to the waking cycle and is due to an increase in striatal DA synthesis, packaging, and release. Using a conditional VGLUT3 KO mouse, we show that ...


Kisspeptin Receptor Agonist (Ftm080) Increased Plasma Concentrations Of Luteinizing Hormone In Anestrous Ewes, Brian Whitlock, Joseph Daniel, Lisa Amelse, Valeria Tanco, Kelly Chameroy, F Schrick 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Kisspeptin Receptor Agonist (Ftm080) Increased Plasma Concentrations Of Luteinizing Hormone In Anestrous Ewes, Brian Whitlock, Joseph Daniel, Lisa Amelse, Valeria Tanco, Kelly Chameroy, F Schrick

Brian K Whitlock, PhD, DVM, DACT

Kisspeptin receptor (KISS1R) agonists with increased half-life and similar efficacy to kisspeptin in vitro may provide beneficial applications in breeding management of many species. However, many of these agonists have not been tested in vivo. These studies were designed to test and compare the effects of a KISS1R agonist (FTM080) and kisspeptin on luteinizing hormone (LH) in vivo. In experiment 1 (pilot study), sheep were treated with FTM080 (500 pmol/kg BW) or sterile water (VEH) intravenosuly. Blood was collected every 15 min before (1 h) and after (1 h) treatment. In experiment 2, sheep were treated with KP-10 (human ...


Steroid Receptor Isoform Expression In Drosophila Nociceptor Neurons Is Required For Normal Dendritic Arbor And Sensitivity, Aidan L. McParland, Taylor L. Follansbee, Gwendolyn D. Vesenka, Alexandra E. Panaitiu, Geoffrey K. Ganter 2015 University of New England

Steroid Receptor Isoform Expression In Drosophila Nociceptor Neurons Is Required For Normal Dendritic Arbor And Sensitivity, Aidan L. Mcparland, Taylor L. Follansbee, Gwendolyn D. Vesenka, Alexandra E. Panaitiu, Geoffrey K. Ganter

Biology Student Publications

Steroid hormones organize many aspects of development, including that of the nervous system. Steroids also play neuromodulatory and other activational roles, including regulation of sensitivity to painful stimuli in mammals. In Drosophila, ecdysteroids are the only steroid hormones, and therefore the fly represents a simplified model system in which to explore mechanisms of steroid neuromodulation of nociception. In this report, we present evidence that ecdysteroids, acting through two isoforms of their nuclear ecdysone receptor (EcR), modulate sensitivity to noxious thermal and mechanical stimuli in the fly larva. We show that EcRA and EcRB1 are expressed by third instar larvae in ...


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