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Propofol Hemisuccinate Suppresses Cortical Spreading Depression, Ashish Dhir, Christoph Lossin, Michael A. Rogawski 2012 University of California - Davis

Propofol Hemisuccinate Suppresses Cortical Spreading Depression, Ashish Dhir, Christoph Lossin, Michael A. Rogawski

Michael A. Rogawski

Propofol is a rapidly acting water-insoluble non-barbiturate anesthetic agent that is widely used as an intravenous sedative-hypnotic agent. Anecdotal evidence indicates that propofol may be effective at terminating intractable migraine headache. Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is believed to be the neural correlate of migraine aura and may be a trigger for migraine pain. Agents that block the induction or slow the spread of CSD may be of utility in treating migraine. Here we examined the ability of propofol hemisuccinate (PHS), a water-soluble prodrug of propofol, to affect CSD in mice. For comparison, we examinined dizocilpine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, that ...


Active Site Mutations Change The Cleavage Specificity Of Neprilysin., Travis Sexton, Lisa J. Hitchcook, David W. Rodgers, Luke H. Bradley, Louis B. Hersh 2012 University of Kentucky

Active Site Mutations Change The Cleavage Specificity Of Neprilysin., Travis Sexton, Lisa J. Hitchcook, David W. Rodgers, Luke H. Bradley, Louis B. Hersh

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Neprilysin (NEP), a member of the M13 subgroup of the zinc-dependent endopeptidase family is a membrane bound peptidase capable of cleaving a variety of physiological peptides. We have generated a series of neprilysin variants containing mutations at either one of two active site residues, Phe563 and Ser546. Among the mutants studied in detail we observed changes in their activity towards leucine5-enkephalin, insulin B chain, and amyloid β1-40. For example, NEPF563I displayed an increase in preference towards cleaving leucine5-enkephalin relative to insulin B chain, while mutant NEPS546E was less discriminating than neprilysin ...


Early Versus Delayed Decompression For Traumatic Cervical Spinal Cord Injury: Results Of The Surgical Timing In Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study (Stascis), Michael G. Fehlings, Alexander Vaccaro, Jefferson R. Wilson, Anoushka Singh, David W. Cadotte, James S. Harrop, Bizhan Aarabi, Christopher Shaffrey, Marcel Dvorak, Charles Fisher, Paul Arnold, Eric M. Massicotte, Stephen Lewis, Raja Rampersaud 2012 Divisions of Neurosurgery and Orthopedic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto

Early Versus Delayed Decompression For Traumatic Cervical Spinal Cord Injury: Results Of The Surgical Timing In Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study (Stascis), Michael G. Fehlings, Alexander Vaccaro, Jefferson R. Wilson, Anoushka Singh, David W. Cadotte, James S. Harrop, Bizhan Aarabi, Christopher Shaffrey, Marcel Dvorak, Charles Fisher, Paul Arnold, Eric M. Massicotte, Stephen Lewis, Raja Rampersaud

Department of Neurosurgery Faculty Papers

Background: There is convincing preclinical evidence that early decompression in the setting of spinal cord injury (SCI) improves neurologic outcomes. However, the effect of early surgical decompression in patients with acute SCI remains uncertain. Our objective was to evaluate the relative effectiveness of early (,24 hours after injury) versus late ($24 hours after injury) decompressive surgery after traumatic cervical SCI.

Methods: We performed a multicenter, international, prospective cohort study (Surgical Timing in Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study: STASCIS) in adults aged 16–80 with cervical SCI. Enrolment occurred between 2002 and 2009 at 6 North American centers. The primary outcome ...


Dna Damage And Oxidative Stress Induced-P53 Activity In Astrocytes Causes Growth Arrest, Sarah A. Humphrey 2012 The University of Western Ontario

Dna Damage And Oxidative Stress Induced-P53 Activity In Astrocytes Causes Growth Arrest, Sarah A. Humphrey

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

An increasing body of evidence suggests that astrocytes play a key role in modulating neuronal fate during acute and chronic neurodegenerative conditions. Following CNS injury, an upregulation of p53 has been noted in both neurons and reactive astrocytes. p53 is an extremely important protein in determining cell fate decisions and its activation can result in the transcriptional induction of target genes that regulate apoptosis, autophagy, senescence and cell-cycle arrest. We found that p53 is upregulated in primary cortical astrocytes following oxidative stress and DNA damage and that this upregulation results in the p53-dependent transcriptional induction of several target genes involved ...


Loss Of Axonal Mitochondria Promotes Tau-Mediated Neurodegeneration And Alzheimer's Disease-Related Tau Phosphorylation Via Par-1., Kanae Iijima-Ando, Michiko Sekiya, Akiko Maruko-Otake, Yosuke Ohtake, Emiko Suzuki, Bingwei Lu, Koichi M Iijima 2012 Thomas Jefferson University

Loss Of Axonal Mitochondria Promotes Tau-Mediated Neurodegeneration And Alzheimer's Disease-Related Tau Phosphorylation Via Par-1., Kanae Iijima-Ando, Michiko Sekiya, Akiko Maruko-Otake, Yosuke Ohtake, Emiko Suzuki, Bingwei Lu, Koichi M Iijima

Faculty papers Farber Institute for Neurosciences

Abnormal phosphorylation and toxicity of a microtubule-associated protein tau are involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, what pathological conditions trigger tau abnormality in AD is not fully understood. A reduction in the number of mitochondria in the axon has been implicated in AD. In this study, we investigated whether and how loss of axonal mitochondria promotes tau phosphorylation and toxicity in vivo. Using transgenic Drosophila expressing human tau, we found that RNAi-mediated knockdown of milton or Miro, an adaptor protein essential for axonal transport of mitochondria, enhanced human tau-induced neurodegeneration. Tau phosphorylation at an AD-related site ...


Msh2 Acts In Medium-Spiny Striatal Neurons As An Enhancer Of Cag Instability And Mutant Huntingtin Phenotypes In Huntington's Disease Knock-In Mice., Marina Kovalenko, Ella Dragileva, Jason St Claire, Tammy Gillis, Jolene R Guide, Jaclyn New, Hualing Dong, Raju Kucherlapati, Melanie H Kucherlapati, Michelle E Ehrlich, Jong-Min Lee, Vanessa C Wheeler 2012 Massachusetts General Hospital

Msh2 Acts In Medium-Spiny Striatal Neurons As An Enhancer Of Cag Instability And Mutant Huntingtin Phenotypes In Huntington's Disease Knock-In Mice., Marina Kovalenko, Ella Dragileva, Jason St Claire, Tammy Gillis, Jolene R Guide, Jaclyn New, Hualing Dong, Raju Kucherlapati, Melanie H Kucherlapati, Michelle E Ehrlich, Jong-Min Lee, Vanessa C Wheeler

Faculty papers Farber Institute for Neurosciences

The CAG trinucleotide repeat mutation in the Huntington's disease gene (HTT) exhibits age-dependent tissue-specific expansion that correlates with disease onset in patients, implicating somatic expansion as a disease modifier and potential therapeutic target. Somatic HTT CAG expansion is critically dependent on proteins in the mismatch repair (MMR) pathway. To gain further insight into mechanisms of somatic expansion and the relationship of somatic expansion to the disease process in selectively vulnerable MSNs we have crossed HTT CAG knock-in mice (HdhQ111) with mice carrying a conditional (floxed) Msh2 allele and D9-Cre transgenic mice, in which Cre recombinase is expressed specifically in ...


Blast-Induced Brain Injury: Influence Of Shockwave Components, Dexter V. Reneer 2012 University of Kentucky

Blast-Induced Brain Injury: Influence Of Shockwave Components, Dexter V. Reneer

Theses and Dissertations--Neuroscience

Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) has been described as the defining injury of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF). Previously, most blast injury research has focused on the effects of blast on internal, gas filled organs due to their increased susceptibility. However, due to a change in enemy tactics combined with better armor and front-line medical care, bTBI has become one of the most common injuries due to blast. Though there has been a significant amount of research characterizing the brain injury produced by blast, a sound understanding of the contribution of each component of the shockwave to ...


Prion Characterization Using Cell Based Approaches, Vadim Khaychuk 2012 University of Kentucky

Prion Characterization Using Cell Based Approaches, Vadim Khaychuk

Theses and Dissertations--Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics

Prions are the causative agents of a group of lethal, neurodegenerative conditions that include sheep scrapie, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), and human Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Prions are derived from the conversion of a normal, primarily alpha-helical, cellular prion protein (PrPC), to an infectious, beta sheet-rich conformer (PrPSc). Many unresolved issues surround the process of PrP conversion, and we know very little about cellular responses to these unique pathogens. Our lack of knowledge relates, in part, to the difficulty of infecting cells in vitro with prions. While expression of PrPC is an absolute requirement for prion propagation, I ...


Electronic Nose Based On Independent Component Analysis Combined With Partial Least Squares And Artificial Neural Networks For Wine Prediction, Teodoro Aguilera, Jesús Lozano, José A. Paredes, Francisco J. Alvarez, José I. Suárez 2012 Wright State University - Main Campus

Electronic Nose Based On Independent Component Analysis Combined With Partial Least Squares And Artificial Neural Networks For Wine Prediction, Teodoro Aguilera, Jesús Lozano, José A. Paredes, Francisco J. Alvarez, José I. Suárez

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

The aim of this work is to propose an alternative way for wine classification and prediction based on an electronic nose (e-nose) combined with Independent Component Analysis (ICA) as a dimensionality reduction technique, Partial Least Squares (PLS) to predict sensorial descriptors and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for classification purpose. A total of 26 wines from different regions, varieties and elaboration processes have been analyzed with an e-nose and tasted by a sensory panel. Successful results have been obtained in most cases for prediction and classification.


Loss Of Renal Allografts Secondary To Candida Vascular Complications In Two Recipients From The Same Donor, Govardhana R. Yannam, Lucile E. Wrenshall, R. Brian Stevens 2012 Wright State University - Main Campus

Loss Of Renal Allografts Secondary To Candida Vascular Complications In Two Recipients From The Same Donor, Govardhana R. Yannam, Lucile E. Wrenshall, R. Brian Stevens

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

Infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in transplant patients. Organ recipients are also susceptible to donor-derived pathogens and the majority of donor infections are easily treatable. Rarely, some pathogens have produced life-threatening complications by compromising the vascular anastomosis. In this case series we report loss of two kidney allografts secondary to vascular complications due to Candida albicans. Both recipients received grafts from a common donor, in whom Candida bacteremia in the donor was not apparent at the time of organ acceptance but became apparent on delayed cultures.


Electrophysiological Abnormalities In Sod1 Transgenic Models In Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: The Commonalities And Differences, Sherif M. Elbasiouny, Katharina Quinlan, Tahra L. Eissa, Charles J. Heckman 2012 Wright State University - Main Campus

Electrophysiological Abnormalities In Sod1 Transgenic Models In Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: The Commonalities And Differences, Sherif M. Elbasiouny, Katharina Quinlan, Tahra L. Eissa, Charles J. Heckman

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

Since its first description in 1874 by Charcot, the hallmark feature of ALS is the progressive degeneration of upper and lower motoneurons (Charcot, 1874). In the spinal cord, motoneuron degeneration starts long before symptom onset and advances in a size-related fashion, in which large-size alpha-motoneurons degenerate first followed by small-size alpha-motoneurons (Pun et al., 2006; Hegedus et al., 2007; Hegedus et al., 2008). There are conflicting reports regarding the survival of the smallest-sized spinal motoneurons, the gamma-motoneurons (Swash and Fox, 1974; Sobue et al., 1981). Despite its original description, the neuronal degeneration in ALS is not limited to motoneurons. Recent ...


New Therapies, Old Problems, Or, A Plea For Neuromodesty, Stephen J. Morse 2012 University of Pennsylvania

New Therapies, Old Problems, Or, A Plea For Neuromodesty, Stephen J. Morse

Faculty Scholarship

This article suggests that investigational deep brain stimulation (DBS) for mental disorders raises few new bioethical issues. Although the scientific basis of the procedure may be both complex and largely unknown, addressing informed consent in such situations is a familiar problem. After reviewing the legal and moral background for investigating DBS and the scientific difficulties DBS faces as a potential treatment for mental disorders, the article focuses on informed consent and makes two primary suggestions. The study of DBS may proceed, but "hyper-disclosure" of the complexities should be required for competent subjects or proper surrogates if the candidate is not ...


Disruptions In The Regulation Of Extracellular Glutamate In The Rat Central Nervous System After Diffuse Brain Injury, Jason Michael Hinzman 2012 University of Kentucky

Disruptions In The Regulation Of Extracellular Glutamate In The Rat Central Nervous System After Diffuse Brain Injury, Jason Michael Hinzman

Theses and Dissertations--Neuroscience

Glutamate, the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, is involved in almost all aspects of neurological function including cognition, motor function, memory, learning, decision making, and neuronal plasticity. For normal neurological function, glutamate signaling must be properly regulated. Disrupted glutamate regulation plays a pivotal role in the acute pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI), disrupting neuronal signaling, initiating secondary injury cascades, and producing excitotoxicity. Increases in extracellular glutamate have been correlated with unfavorable outcomes in TBI survivors, emphasizing the importance of glutamate regulation.

The aim of this thesis was to examine disruptions in the regulation of extracellular glutamate ...


Translating Quality To The Bedside: Collaboration Improves Patient Outcomes, Maureen T. Smith MSN, RN, CNRN 2012 Lehigh Valley Health Network

Translating Quality To The Bedside: Collaboration Improves Patient Outcomes, Maureen T. Smith Msn, Rn, Cnrn

Patient Care Services / Nursing

No abstract provided.


Migraine And Epilepsy—Shared Mechanisms Within The Family Of Episodic Disorders, Michael A. Rogawski 2011 University of California - Davis

Migraine And Epilepsy—Shared Mechanisms Within The Family Of Episodic Disorders, Michael A. Rogawski

Michael A. Rogawski

Migraine and epilepsy are episodic disorders that share many clinical features and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Cortical spreading depression (CSD), a wave of profound cellular depolarization, is believed to underlie migraine aura and to be a trigger for the headache pain in migraine. However, the initial event preceding CSD is cellular hyperexcitability associated with localized epileptiform discharges. Glutamate is a critical mediator of the hyperexcitability in both focal seizures and migraine. In focal epilepsy, seizure generation and spread is mediated by synaptically released glutamate acting on AMPA receptors, whereas triggering of CSD depends on NMDA receptors and spread does not require ...


Neurosteroids—Endogenous Regulators Of Seizure Susceptibility And Role In The Treatment Of Epilepsy, Doodipala S. Reddy, Michael A. Rogawski 2011 University of California - Davis

Neurosteroids—Endogenous Regulators Of Seizure Susceptibility And Role In The Treatment Of Epilepsy, Doodipala S. Reddy, Michael A. Rogawski

Michael A. Rogawski

Certain steroid hormone metabolites that have activity as modulators of GABA-A receptors but lack conventional hormonal effects—including allopregnanolone and allotetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone—are synthesized within the brain, predominantly in principle (excitatory) neurons, and also in peripheral tissues. At low concentrations, such neurosteroids potentiate GABA-A receptor currents, whereas at higher concentrations they directly activate the receptor; large magnitude effects occur on nonsynaptic delta subunit-containing GABA-A receptors that mediate tonic currents. GABA-A receptor modulatory neurosteroids confer seizure protection in diverse animal models, without tolerance during chronic administration. Endogenous neurosteroids may play a role in catamenial epilepsy, stress-induced changes in seizure susceptibility, temporal lobe ...


Mechanisms Of Action Of Antiseizure Drugs (Chapter 39), Roger J. Porter, Ashish Dhir, Robert L. Macdonald, Michael A. Rogawski 2011 University of Pennsylvania

Mechanisms Of Action Of Antiseizure Drugs (Chapter 39), Roger J. Porter, Ashish Dhir, Robert L. Macdonald, Michael A. Rogawski

Michael A. Rogawski

No abstract provided.


Triterpenoid Modulation Of Il-17 And Nrf-2 Expression Ameliorates Neuroinflammation And Promotes Remyelination In Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis, Tej K. Pareek, Abdelmadjid Belkadi, Sashi Kesavapany, Anita Zaremba, Sook L. Loh, Lianhua Bai, Mark L. Cohen, Colin Meyer, Karen T. Liby, Robert H. Miller, Michael B. Sporn, John J. Letterio 2011 Case Western Reserve University

Triterpenoid Modulation Of Il-17 And Nrf-2 Expression Ameliorates Neuroinflammation And Promotes Remyelination In Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis, Tej K. Pareek, Abdelmadjid Belkadi, Sashi Kesavapany, Anita Zaremba, Sook L. Loh, Lianhua Bai, Mark L. Cohen, Colin Meyer, Karen T. Liby, Robert H. Miller, Michael B. Sporn, John J. Letterio

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Inflammatory cytokines and endogenous anti-oxidants are variables affecting disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). Here we demonstrate the dual capacity of triterpenoids to simultaneously repress production of IL-17 and other pro-inflammatory mediators while exerting neuroprotective effects directly through Nrf2-dependent induction of anti-oxidant genes. Derivatives of the natural triterpene oleanolic acid, namely CDDO-trifluoroethyl-amide (CDDO-TFEA), completely suppressed disease in a murine model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), by inhibiting Th1 and Th17 mRNA and cytokine production. Encephalitogenic T cells recovered from treated mice were hypo-responsive to myelin antigen and failed to adoptively transfer the disease. Microarray analyses showed significant suppression of ...


An Evaluation Of Neuroplasticity And Behavior After Deep Brain Stimulation Of The Nucleus Accumbens In An Animal Model Of Depression., Steven M Falowski, Ashwini Sharan, Beverly A S Reyes, Carl Sikkema, Patricia Szot, Elisabeth J Van Bockstaele 2011 Thomas Jefferson University

An Evaluation Of Neuroplasticity And Behavior After Deep Brain Stimulation Of The Nucleus Accumbens In An Animal Model Of Depression., Steven M Falowski, Ashwini Sharan, Beverly A S Reyes, Carl Sikkema, Patricia Szot, Elisabeth J Van Bockstaele

Department of Neurosurgery Faculty Papers

BACKGROUND: Recent interest has demonstrated the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) as a potential target for the treatment of depression with deep brain stimulation (DBS).

OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate that DBS of the NAcc is an effective treatment modality for depression and that chemical and structural changes associated with these behavioral changes are markers of neuroplasticity.

METHODS: A deep brain stimulator was placed in the NAcc of male Wistar-Kyoto rats. Groups were divided into sham (no stimulation), intermittent (3 h/d for 2 weeks), or continuous (constant stimulation for 2 weeks). Exploratory and anxietylike behaviors were evaluated with the open-field test before and ...


Introducing Functional Data Analysis To Neuroimaging, And Vice Versa, Philip T. Reiss 2011 New York University

Introducing Functional Data Analysis To Neuroimaging, And Vice Versa, Philip T. Reiss

Philip T. Reiss

No abstract provided.


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