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Disclosure Of Clinical Trial Results When Product Development Is Abandoned, Michael A. Rogawski, Howard J. Federoff 2011 University of California - Davis

Disclosure Of Clinical Trial Results When Product Development Is Abandoned, Michael A. Rogawski, Howard J. Federoff

Michael A. Rogawski

Currently, sponsors are not required to report the outcomes of clinical research on drugs or devices that do not lead to an approved product. Consequently, the public cannot benefit from scientific information derived from all failed or abandoned drugs and devices. Provisions in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 provide an opportunity for the Department of Health and Human Services to rectify this situation. By reporting the results of clinical trials of abandoned products in a publicly accessible database and in the peer-reviewed journal literature, sponsors would satisfy a core ethical obligation of clinical research ...


The Role Of Sonic Hedgehog In The Hypothalamus, Solsire E. Zevallos 2011 University of Pennsylvania

The Role Of Sonic Hedgehog In The Hypothalamus, Solsire E. Zevallos

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

ABSTRACT

THE REQUIREMENT OF SONIC HEDGEHOG IN THE HYPOTHALAMUS

Solsire E. Zevallos

Douglas J. Epstein

Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is a morphogen secreted during early development that is required for the formation of the ventral neural tube, including the ventral forebrain. The prechordal source of Shh underlying the forebrain is required early to bifurcate the cerebral hemispheres and eye vesicles as well as to specify a rostroventral forebrain region, the hypothalamus. We hypothesized that Shh expressed later in the hypothalamus may be required for other known functions of Shh, such as patterning within a region, cell proliferation, cell specification, and axon ...


The Role Of The Androgen Receptor Cofactor P44/Wdr77 In Astrocyte Activation, Bryce H. Vincent 2011 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

The Role Of The Androgen Receptor Cofactor P44/Wdr77 In Astrocyte Activation, Bryce H. Vincent

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Astrogliosis is induced by neuronal damage and is also a pathological feature of the major aging-related neurodegenerative disorders. The mechanisms that control the cascade of astrogliosis have not been well established. In a previous study, we identified a novel androgen receptor (AR)-interacting protein (p44/WDR77) and found that it plays a critical role in the control of proliferation and differentiation of prostate epithelial cells. In the present study, we found that deletion of the p44 gene in the mouse brain caused accelerated aging with dramatic astrogliosis. The p44/WDR77 is expressed in astrocytes and loss of p44/WDR77 expression ...


11beta-Hydroxylase Inhibitors Protect Against Seizures In Mice By Increasing Endogenous Neurosteroid Synthesis, Rafal Kaminski, Michael Rogawski 2011 University of California - Davis

11beta-Hydroxylase Inhibitors Protect Against Seizures In Mice By Increasing Endogenous Neurosteroid Synthesis, Rafal Kaminski, Michael Rogawski

Michael A. Rogawski

Steroid 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1; EC 1.14.15.4) is a mitochondrial enzyme located in the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex and also in the brain that mediates the conversion of 11-deoxycortisol to cortisol and 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) to corticosterone. Inhibitors of CYP11B1, such as metyrapone and etomidate, reduce glucocorticoid synthesis and raise levels of DOC providing greater availability for metabolic conversion to the GABA-A receptor modulating neurosteroid allotetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC). Because THDOC is potent anticonvulsant, it is plausible that CYP11B1 inhibitors could protect against seizures. Here we demonstrate that metyrapone affords dose-dependent protection against 6-Hz seizures 30 min after injection (ED50 ...


Acute Effects Of A Selective Cannabinoid-2 Receptor Agonist On Neuroinflammation In A Model Of Traumatic Brain Injury., Melanie B Elliott, Ronald F Tuma, Peter S Amenta, Mary F Barbe, Jack I Jallo 2011 Department of Neurological Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University

Acute Effects Of A Selective Cannabinoid-2 Receptor Agonist On Neuroinflammation In A Model Of Traumatic Brain Injury., Melanie B Elliott, Ronald F Tuma, Peter S Amenta, Mary F Barbe, Jack I Jallo

Department of Neurosurgery Faculty Papers

Proposed therapeutic strategies for attenuating secondary traumatic brain injury (TBI) include modulation of acute neuroimmune responses. The goal of this study was to examine the acute effects of cannabinoid-2 receptor (CB(2)R) modulation on behavioral deficits, cerebral edema, perivascular substance P, and macrophage/microglial activation in a murine model of TBI. Thirty male C57BL/6 mice underwent sham surgery, or cortical contusion impact injury (CCI). CCI mice received vehicle or the CB(2)R agonist 0-1966 at 1 and 24 h after injury. Performance on the rotarod, forelimb cylinder, and open-field tests were evaluated before and at 48 h ...


Noise, Delays, And Resonance In A Neural Network, Austin Quan 2011 Harvey Mudd College

Noise, Delays, And Resonance In A Neural Network, Austin Quan

HMC Senior Theses

A stochastic-delay differential equation (SDDE) model of a small neural network with recurrent inhibition is presented and analyzed. The model exhibits unexpected transient behavior: oscillations that occur at the boundary of the basins of attraction when the system is bistable. These are known as delay-induced transitory oscillations (DITOs). This behavior is analyzed in the context of stochastic resonance, an unintuitive, though widely researched phenomenon in physical bistable systems where noise can play in constructive role in strengthening an input signal. A method for modeling the dynamics using a probabilistic three-state model is proposed, and supported with numerical evidence. The potential ...


A Phase I/Iia Clinical Trial Of A Recombinant Rho Protein Antagonist In Acute Spinal Cord Injury., Michael G Fehlings, Nicholas Theodore, James Harrop, Gilles Maurais, Charles Kuntz, Chris I Shaffrey, Brian K Kwon, Jens Chapman, Albert Yee, Allyson Tighe, Lisa McKerracher 2011 Division of Neurosurgery and Neuroscience Program, University of Toronto

A Phase I/Iia Clinical Trial Of A Recombinant Rho Protein Antagonist In Acute Spinal Cord Injury., Michael G Fehlings, Nicholas Theodore, James Harrop, Gilles Maurais, Charles Kuntz, Chris I Shaffrey, Brian K Kwon, Jens Chapman, Albert Yee, Allyson Tighe, Lisa Mckerracher

Department of Neurosurgery Faculty Papers

Multiple lines of evidence have validated the Rho pathway as important in controlling the neuronal response to growth inhibitory proteins after central nervous system (CNS) injury. A drug called BA-210 (trademarked as Cethrin(®)) blocks activation of Rho and has shown promise in pre-clinical animal studies in being used to treat spinal cord injury (SCI). This is a report of a Phase I/IIa clinical study designed to test the safety and tolerability of the drug, and the neurological status of patients following the administration of a single dose of BA-210 applied during surgery following acute SCI. Patients with thoracic (T2-T12 ...


Massively Parallel Nonparametrics [Hds 2011 Slides], Philip T. Reiss, Lei Huang 2011 New York University

Massively Parallel Nonparametrics [Hds 2011 Slides], Philip T. Reiss, Lei Huang

Philip T. Reiss

No abstract provided.


The Effect Of Training On Motoneuron Survival In Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Which Motoneuron Type Is Saved?, Sherif M. Elbasiouny, Jenna E. Schuster 2011 Wright State University - Main Campus

The Effect Of Training On Motoneuron Survival In Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Which Motoneuron Type Is Saved?, Sherif M. Elbasiouny, Jenna E. Schuster

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by selective and progressive degeneration of motoneurons (MNs). Although the etiology of the disease is unknown, glutamate toxicity and reactive oxygen species toxicity have been strongly implicated in ALS pathophysiology, Training exercise has been proposed to provide a beneficial therapy during the early or late stages of ALS; however, some studies showed deleterious effects of exercise on survival in ALS.


Nanotubes As Mitochondrial Uncouplers, Patrick G. Sullivan 2011 University of Kentucky

Nanotubes As Mitochondrial Uncouplers, Patrick G. Sullivan

Neuroscience Faculty Patents

A method of uncoupling mitochondria in a subject including administering nanotubes to the subject in a therapeutically effective amount, wherein the nanotubes are self-rectifying is provided. A method of decreasing reactive oxygen species and decreasing detrimental loading of Ca2+ into mitochondria is provided, including administering a pharmaceutically effective amount of nanotubes into the subject. A method of reducing weight, treating cancer, reducing the effects of traumatic brain injury, or reducing the effects of ageing, in a subject including administering a pharmaceutically effective amount of nanotubes into the subject is also provided.


Characterization Of Amino Acid Residues Integral To Neuronal Binding Of Amyloid Beta Protein In Alzheimer’S Disease, Nicole C. Olson 2011 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Characterization Of Amino Acid Residues Integral To Neuronal Binding Of Amyloid Beta Protein In Alzheimer’S Disease, Nicole C. Olson

Chemistry and Biochemistry

Purpose: Alzheimer’s Disease is a neurodegenerative disease resulting from over-production and neuronal accumulation of amyloid-beta proteins (Aβ40/Aβ42). The glycine residue at position 33 and histidine residues at positions 13 and 14 are involved with binding and internalization of these proteins, actions potentially inhibited by substituting or sterically hindering these residues with an antibody specific to positions 2-11 (IgG-4.1). Rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells differentiated with nerve growth factor were used as a neuronal model to determine whether substitution and/or antibody block amyloid-beta’s neuronal interactions.

Methods: PC12 cells were incubated with fluorescein-labeled-amyloid-beta-40 (F-Aβ40) or substituted F-Aβ40 derivatives ...


Flexible Dependence Of Functional Responses On Scalar Predictors, Philip T. Reiss, Lei Huang 2011 New York University

Flexible Dependence Of Functional Responses On Scalar Predictors, Philip T. Reiss, Lei Huang

Philip T. Reiss

No abstract provided.


Proteomic Assessment Of A Cell Model Of Spinal Muscular Atrophy., Chia-Yen Wu, Dosh Whye, Lisa Glazewski, Leila Choe, Douglas Kerr, Kelvin H Lee, Robert W Mason, Wenlan Wang 2011 Department of Biological Science, University of Delaware

Proteomic Assessment Of A Cell Model Of Spinal Muscular Atrophy., Chia-Yen Wu, Dosh Whye, Lisa Glazewski, Leila Choe, Douglas Kerr, Kelvin H Lee, Robert W Mason, Wenlan Wang

Department of Pediatrics Faculty Papers

BACKGROUND: Deletion or mutation(s) of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene causes spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a neuromuscular disease characterized by spinal motor neuron death and muscle paralysis. Complete loss of the SMN protein is embryonically lethal, yet reduced levels of this protein result in selective death of motor neurons. Why motor neurons are specifically targeted by SMN deficiency remains to be determined. In this study, embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from a severe SMA mouse model were differentiated into motor neurons in vitro by addition of retinoic acid and sonic hedgehog agonist. Proteomic and western blot analyses ...


Fus Transgenic Rats Develop The Phenotypes Of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis And Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration., Cao Huang, Hongxia Zhou, Jianbin Tong, Han Chen, Yong-Jian Liu, Dian Wang, Xiaotao Wei, Xu-Gang Xia 2011 Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Fus Transgenic Rats Develop The Phenotypes Of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis And Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration., Cao Huang, Hongxia Zhou, Jianbin Tong, Han Chen, Yong-Jian Liu, Dian Wang, Xiaotao Wei, Xu-Gang Xia

Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Fused in Sarcoma (FUS) proteinopathy is a feature of frontotemporal lobar dementia (FTLD), and mutation of the fus gene segregates with FTLD and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To study the consequences of mutation in the fus gene, we created transgenic rats expressing the human fus gene with or without mutation. Overexpression of a mutant (R521C substitution), but not normal, human FUS induced progressive paralysis resembling ALS. Mutant FUS transgenic rats developed progressive paralysis secondary to degeneration of motor axons and displayed a substantial loss of neurons in the cortex and hippocampus. This neuronal loss was accompanied by ubiquitin aggregation and ...


Activation Of The Basolateral Membrane Cl- Conductance Essential For Electrogenic K+ Secretion Suppresses Electrogenic Cl- Secretion, Quanhua He, Susan T. Halm, Jin Zhang, Dan R. Halm 2011 Wright State University - Main Campus

Activation Of The Basolateral Membrane Cl- Conductance Essential For Electrogenic K+ Secretion Suppresses Electrogenic Cl- Secretion, Quanhua He, Susan T. Halm, Jin Zhang, Dan R. Halm

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

Adrenaline activates transient Cl--secretion and sustained K+-secretion across isolated distal colonic mucosa of guinea pig. The Ca++-activated Cl- channel inhibitor CaCCinh-A01 [30μM] significantly reduced electrogenic K+-secretion, detected as short-circuit current (Isc). This inhibition supported the cell model for K+-secretion in which basolateral membrane Cl- channels provide an exit pathway for Cl- entering the cell via Na+/K+/2Cl--cotransporters. CaCCinh-A01 inhibited both Isc and transepithelial conductance in a concentration dependent manner, IC50 = 6.3 μM. GlyH-101, another Cl- channel inhibitor, also reduced sustained adrenaline-activated Isc (IC50 = 9.4 μM). Adrenaline ...


Revisiting Ampa Receptors As An Antiepileptic Drug Target, Michael A. Rogawski 2011 University of California - Davis

Revisiting Ampa Receptors As An Antiepileptic Drug Target, Michael A. Rogawski

Michael A. Rogawski

In the 1990s there was intense interest in ionotropic glutamate receptors as therapeutic targets for diverse neurological disorders, including epilepsy. NMDA receptors were thought to play a key role in the generation of seizures, leading to clinical studies of NMDA receptor blocking drugs in epilepsy. Disappointing results dampened enthusiasm for ionotropic glutamate receptors as a therapeutic target. Eventually it became appreciated that another type of ionotropic glutamate receptor, the AMPA receptor, is actually the predominant mediator of excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system and moreover that AMPA receptors are critical to the generation and spread of epileptic activity. As ...


Synergy 2011: Annual Research Report, UNT Health Science Center Research Office 2011 University of North Texas Health Science Center

Synergy 2011: Annual Research Report, Unt Health Science Center Research Office

Annual Reports

No abstract provided.


Genome-Wide Association Studies At The Interface Of Alzheimer’S Disease And Epidemiologically Related Disorders, Christopher Ryan Simmons 2011 University of Kentucky

Genome-Wide Association Studies At The Interface Of Alzheimer’S Disease And Epidemiologically Related Disorders, Christopher Ryan Simmons

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS)s provide an unbiased means of exploring the landscape of complex genetic disease. As such, these studies have identified genetic variants that are robustly associated with a multitude of conditions. I hypothesize that these genetic variants serve as excellent tools for evaluation of the genetic interface between epidemiologically related conditions. Herein, I test the association between SNPs associated with either (i) plasma lipids, (ii) rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or (iii) diabetes mellitus (DM) and late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD) to identify shared genetic variants. Regarding the most significantly AD-associated variants, I have also attempted to elucidate their ...


Nigrostriatal Dopamine-Neuron Function From Neurotrophic-Like Peptide Treatment And Neurotrophic Factor Depletion, Ofelia Meagan Littrell 2011 University of Kentucky

Nigrostriatal Dopamine-Neuron Function From Neurotrophic-Like Peptide Treatment And Neurotrophic Factor Depletion, Ofelia Meagan Littrell

Theses and Dissertations--Neuroscience

Trophic factors have shown great promise in their potential to treat neurological disease. In particular, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been identified as a potent neurotrophic factor for midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN), which lose function in Parkinson’s disease (PD). GDNF progressed to phase II clinical trials, which did not meet proposed endpoints. The large size and binding characteristics of GDNF have been suspected to contribute to some of the shortcomings of GDNF related to delivery to target brain regions. Smaller peptides derived from GDNF (Dopamine-Neuron Stimulating Peptides – DNSPs) have been recently investigated ...


Functional Connectivity For Configural And Featural Face Processing In The Broad Autism Phenotype, Jonathan Darrell Clark 2011 University of Kentucky

Functional Connectivity For Configural And Featural Face Processing In The Broad Autism Phenotype, Jonathan Darrell Clark

University of Kentucky Doctoral Dissertations

During normal development, face processing involves a gradual shift from a featurally oriented style to a mature configural style by adolescence. This shift may coincide with increased right hemispheric dominance for faces supporting configural processing. Previous studies suggest that individuals diagnosed with ASD continue to process faces using individual parts and features into adulthood. This continued bias may be due to deficits in configural processing abilities. The current study investigated measures of functional connectivity during featural and configural processing of faces in broad autism phenotype sibling (ASD-sibs) children compared to age, sex, and handedness matched normal developing (ND) controls and ...


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