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Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor (Mpnst): An Overview With Emphasis On Pathology, Imaging And Management Strategies, Timothy C. Beer 2012 3rd year medical student, Jefferson Medical College

Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor (Mpnst): An Overview With Emphasis On Pathology, Imaging And Management Strategies, Timothy C. Beer

Department of Neurosurgery Faculty Papers

Presentation: 20 slides

MPNSTs are rare malignancies that are classically associated with pre-existing plexiform neurofibromas in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) patients, but also occur in association with radiation as well as sporadically in patients with no known risk factors. The typical presentation of sporadic MPNST is a new painless enlarging mass. The typical presentation of MPNST in an NF-1 patient is rapid enlargement or new onset of pain associated with a pre-existing plexiform neurofibroma. Although both MPNST and benign neurofibromas share in common the absence of neurofibromin function due to loss of both NF-1 alleles, malignant transformation to MPNST requires ...


Inhibition Of Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor Ameliorates Synaptic Alterations And Ca2+ Dysregulation In Aged Rats, Diana M. Sama, Hafiz Mohmmad Abdul, Jennifer L. Furman, Irina A. Artiushin, David E. Szymkowski, Stephen W. Scheff, Christopher M. Norris 2012 University of Kentucky

Inhibition Of Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor Ameliorates Synaptic Alterations And Ca2+ Dysregulation In Aged Rats, Diana M. Sama, Hafiz Mohmmad Abdul, Jennifer L. Furman, Irina A. Artiushin, David E. Szymkowski, Stephen W. Scheff, Christopher M. Norris

Graduate Center for Gerontology Faculty Publications

The role of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF) in neural function has been investigated extensively in several neurodegenerative conditions, but rarely in brain aging, where cognitive and physiologic changes are milder and more variable. Here, we show that protein levels for TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) are significantly elevated in the hippocampus relative to TNF receptor 2 (TNFR2) in aged (22 months) but not young adult (6 months) Fischer 344 rats. To determine if altered TNF/TNFR1 interactions contribute to key brain aging biomarkers, aged rats received chronic (4-6 week) intracranial infusions of XPro1595: a soluble dominant negative TNF that preferentially ...


Ab Deposition In Idiopathic And Dup15q11.2-Q13 Autism Spectrum Disorders, J Wegiel, Janusz Frackowiak, Bozena Mazur-Kolecka, N Carolyn Schanen, Edwin H. Cook Jr, Marian Sigman, Ted Brown, Izabela Kuchna, Jarek Wegiel, Krzysztof Nowicki, Humi Imaki, Shuang Yong Ma, Abha Chauhan, Ved Chauhan, David L. Miller, Pankaj D. Mehta, Michael Flory, Ira L. Cohen, Eric London, Barry Reisberg, Mony J. de Leon, Thomas Wisnieski 2012 Nemours

Ab Deposition In Idiopathic And Dup15q11.2-Q13 Autism Spectrum Disorders, J Wegiel, Janusz Frackowiak, Bozena Mazur-Kolecka, N Carolyn Schanen, Edwin H. Cook Jr, Marian Sigman, Ted Brown, Izabela Kuchna, Jarek Wegiel, Krzysztof Nowicki, Humi Imaki, Shuang Yong Ma, Abha Chauhan, Ved Chauhan, David L. Miller, Pankaj D. Mehta, Michael Flory, Ira L. Cohen, Eric London, Barry Reisberg, Mony J. De Leon, Thomas Wisnieski

N C Schanen

Background: It has been shown that amyloid ß (Ab), a product of proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid b precursor protein (APP), accumulates in neuronal cytoplasm in non-affected individuals in a cell type–specific amount.

Methodology/Principal Findings: In the present study, we found that the percentage of amyloid-positive neurons increases in subjects diagnosed with idiopathic autism and subjects diagnosed with duplication 15q11.2-q13 (dup15) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In spite of interindividual differences within each examined group, levels of intraneuronal Ab load were significantly greater in the dup(15) autism group than in either the control or the idiopathic ...


Smoothness Selection For Penalized Quantile Regression Splines, Philip T. Reiss, Lei Huang 2012 Johns Hopkins University

Smoothness Selection For Penalized Quantile Regression Splines, Philip T. Reiss, Lei Huang

Philip T. Reiss

Modern data-rich analyses may call for fitting a large number of nonparametric quantile regressions. For example, growth charts may be constructed for each of a collection of variables, to identify those for which individuals with a disorder tend to fall in the tails of their age-specific distribution; such variables might serve as developmental biomarkers. When such analyses are carried out by penalized spline smoothing, reliable automatic selection of the smoothing parameter is particularly important. We show that two popular methods for smoothness selection may tend to overfit when estimating extreme quantiles as a smooth function of a predictor such as ...


Semiparametric Methods For Mapping Brain Development, Philip T. Reiss, Yin-Hsiu Chen, Lan Huo 2012 New York University School of Medicine

Semiparametric Methods For Mapping Brain Development, Philip T. Reiss, Yin-Hsiu Chen, Lan Huo

Philip T. Reiss

No abstract provided.


Management Of Sexual Disorders In Spinal Cord Injured Patients., Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar, Alexander R Vaccaro 2012 Sina Trauma and Surgery Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Management Of Sexual Disorders In Spinal Cord Injured Patients., Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar, Alexander R Vaccaro

Department of Neurosurgery Faculty Papers

Spinal cord injured (SCI) patients have sexual disorders including erectile dysfunction (ED), impotence, priapism, ejaculatory dysfunction and infertility. Treatments for erectile dysfunction include four steps. Step 1 involves smoking cessation, weight loss, and increasing physical activity. Step 2 is phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5I) such as Sildenafil (Viagra), intracavernous injections of Papaverine or prostaglandins, and vacuum constriction devices. Step 3 is a penile prosthesis, and Step 4 is sacral neuromodulation (SNM). Priapism can be resolved spontaneously if there is no ischemia found on blood gas measurement or by Phenylephrine. For anejaculatory dysfunction, massage, vibrator, electrical stimulation and direct surgical biopsy ...


Characterization Of Seizures Induced By Acute And Repeated Exposure To Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine, Dorota Zolkowska, Christopher N. Banks, Ashish Dhir, Bora Inceoglu, James R. Sanborn, Mark R. McCoy, Donald A. Bruun, Bruce D. Hammock, Pamela J. Lein, Michael A. Rogawski 2012 University of California - Davis

Characterization Of Seizures Induced By Acute And Repeated Exposure To Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine, Dorota Zolkowska, Christopher N. Banks, Ashish Dhir, Bora Inceoglu, James R. Sanborn, Mark R. Mccoy, Donald A. Bruun, Bruce D. Hammock, Pamela J. Lein, Michael A. Rogawski

Michael A. Rogawski

Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (tetramine; TETS) is a potent convulsant poison that is considered to be a chemical threat agent. To provide a basis for the investigation of antidotes for TETS-induced seizures, we characterized the convulsant activity of TETS in mice and rats when administered by the intraperitoneal, intravenous, oral and intraventricular routes as a single acute dose and with repeated sublethal doses. In mice, parenteral and oral TETS caused immobility, myoclonic body jerks, clonic seizures of the forelimbs and/or hindlimbs, tonic seizures and death. The CD50 values for clonic and tonic seizures following oral administration were 0.11 and 0.22 ...


Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Phosphatase-1 Prevents The Development Of Tactile Sensitivity In A Rodent Model Of Neuropathic Pain, Christian Ndong, Russell P. Landry, Joyce A. DeLeo, Edgar A. Romero-Sandoval 2012 Dartmouth College

Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Phosphatase-1 Prevents The Development Of Tactile Sensitivity In A Rodent Model Of Neuropathic Pain, Christian Ndong, Russell P. Landry, Joyce A. Deleo, Edgar A. Romero-Sandoval

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Neuropathic pain due to nerve injury is one of the most difficult types of pain to treat. Following peripheral nerve injury, neuronal and glial plastic changes contribute to central sensitization and perpetuation of mechanical hypersensitivity in rodents. The mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) family is pivotal in this spinal cord plasticity. MAPK phosphatases (MKPs) limit inflammatory processes by dephosphorylating MAPKs. For example, MKP-1 preferentially dephosphorylates p-p38. Since spinal p-p38 is pivotal for the development of chronic hypersensitivity in rodent models of pain, and p-p38 inhibitors have shown clinical potential in acute and chronic pain patients, we hypothesize that induction of ...


Effect Of Synthetic Aβ Peptide Oligomers And Fluorinated Solvents On Kv1.3 Channel Properties And Membrane Conductance, Maria I. Lioudyno, Matteo Broccio, Yuri Sokolov, Suhail Rasool, Jessica Wu, Michael T. Alkire, Virginia Liu, J. Ashot Kozak, Philip R. Dennison, Charles G. Glabe, Mathias Lösche, James E. Hall 2012 Wright State University - Main Campus

Effect Of Synthetic Aβ Peptide Oligomers And Fluorinated Solvents On Kv1.3 Channel Properties And Membrane Conductance, Maria I. Lioudyno, Matteo Broccio, Yuri Sokolov, Suhail Rasool, Jessica Wu, Michael T. Alkire, Virginia Liu, J. Ashot Kozak, Philip R. Dennison, Charles G. Glabe, Mathias Lösche, James E. Hall

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

The impact of synthetic amyloid β (1–42) (Aβ1–42) oligomers on biophysical properties of voltage-gated potassium channels Kv 1.3 and lipid bilayer membranes (BLMs) was quantified for protocols using hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) or sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as solvents prior to initiating the oligomer formation. Regardless of the solvent used Aβ1–42 samples contained oligomers that reacted with the conformation-specific antibodies A11 and OC and had similar size distributions as determined by dynamic light scattering. Patch-clamp recordings of the potassium currents showed that synthetic Aβ1–42 oligomers accelerate the activation and inactivation kinetics of Kv 1.3 ...


Parkinson’S Disease: Molecular Mechanisms And Treatments, Delia Vahey 2012 Liberty University

Parkinson’S Disease: Molecular Mechanisms And Treatments, Delia Vahey

Senior Honors Theses

Parkinson’s disease is a motor system disorder that is caused primarily by the loss of dopamine-producing brain cells. The most affected brain structure is the pars compacta of the substantia nigra. This area of the brain is essential to the control of voluntary movement, and so its impairment leads to symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, and impaired balance. The neuronal protein alpha-synuclein has been shown to be heavily involved in the pathogenesis of the disease at the cellular level. The currently available treatments for PD mainly target dopamine regulation, and there been no cure developed for the disease at ...


Review Of The History And Current Status Of Cell-Transplant Approaches For The Management Of Neuropathic Pain, Mary J. Eaton, Yerko Berrocal, Stacey Q. Wolfe, Eva Widerström-Noga 2012 Miami VA Health System Center, Miami, FL

Review Of The History And Current Status Of Cell-Transplant Approaches For The Management Of Neuropathic Pain, Mary J. Eaton, Yerko Berrocal, Stacey Q. Wolfe, Eva Widerström-Noga

HWCOM Faculty Publications

Treatment of sensory neuropathies, whether inherited or caused by trauma, the progress of diabetes, or other disease states, are among the most difficult problems in modern clinical practice. Cell therapy to release antinociceptive agents near the injured spinal cord would be the logical next step in the development of treatment modalities. But few clinical trials, especially for chronic pain, have tested the transplant of cells or a cell line to treat human disease. The history of the research and development of useful cell-transplant-based approaches offers an understanding of the advantages and problems associated with these technologies, but as an adjuvant ...


Role Of Neurosteroids In The Anticonvulsant Activity Of Midazolam, Ashish Dhir, Michael A. Rogawski 2012 University of California - Davis

Role Of Neurosteroids In The Anticonvulsant Activity Of Midazolam, Ashish Dhir, Michael A. Rogawski

Michael A. Rogawski

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Midazolam is a short-acting benzodiazepine that is widely used as an intravenous sedative and anticonvulsant. Besides interacting with the benzodiazepine site associated with GABA-A receptors, some benzodiazepines act as agonists of translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO) to enhance the synthesis of steroids, including neurosteroids with positive modulatory actions on GABA-A receptors. We sought to determine if neurosteroidogenesis induced by midazolam contributes to its anticonvulsant action. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Mice were pretreated with neurosteroid synthesis inhibitors and potentiators followed by midazolam or clonazepam, a weak TSPO ligand. Anticonvulsant activity was assessed with the intravenous pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) threshold test. KEY ...


Hdac6 Regulates Glucocorticoid Receptor Signaling In Serotonin Pathways With Critical Impact On Stress Resilience, Julie Espallergues, Sarah L Teegarden, Avin Veerakumar, Janette Boulden, Collin Challis, Jeanine Jochems, Michael Chan, Tess Petersen, Evan Deneris, Patrick Matthias, Chang-Gyu Hahn, Irwin Lucki, Sheryl G. Beck, Olivier Berton 2012 University of Pennsylvania

Hdac6 Regulates Glucocorticoid Receptor Signaling In Serotonin Pathways With Critical Impact On Stress Resilience, Julie Espallergues, Sarah L Teegarden, Avin Veerakumar, Janette Boulden, Collin Challis, Jeanine Jochems, Michael Chan, Tess Petersen, Evan Deneris, Patrick Matthias, Chang-Gyu Hahn, Irwin Lucki, Sheryl G. Beck, Olivier Berton

BBB Major Publications

Genetic variations in certain components of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) chaperone complex have been associated with the development of stress-related affective disorders and individual variability in therapeutic responses to antidepressants. Mechanisms that link GR chaperoning and stress susceptibility are not well understood. Here, we show that the effects of glucocorticoid hormones on socioaffective behaviors are critically regulated via reversible acetylation of Hsp90, a key component of the GR chaperone complex. We provide pharmacological and genetic evidence indicating that the cytoplasmic lysine deacetylase HDAC6 controls Hsp90 acetylation in the brain, and thereby modulates Hsp90–GR protein–protein interactions, as well as ...


Hyccin, The Molecule Mutated In The Leukodystrophy Hypomyelination And Congenital Cataract (Hcc), Is A Neuronal Protein., Elisabetta Gazzerro, Simona Baldassari, Caterina Giacomini, Veronica Musante, Floriana Fruscione, Veronica La Padula, Roberta Biancheri, Sonia Scarfì, Valeria Prada, Federica Sotgia, Ian D Duncan, Federico Zara, Hauke B Werner, Michael P Lisanti, Lucilla Nobbio, Anna Corradi, Carlo Minetti 2012 University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy

Hyccin, The Molecule Mutated In The Leukodystrophy Hypomyelination And Congenital Cataract (Hcc), Is A Neuronal Protein., Elisabetta Gazzerro, Simona Baldassari, Caterina Giacomini, Veronica Musante, Floriana Fruscione, Veronica La Padula, Roberta Biancheri, Sonia Scarfì, Valeria Prada, Federica Sotgia, Ian D Duncan, Federico Zara, Hauke B Werner, Michael P Lisanti, Lucilla Nobbio, Anna Corradi, Carlo Minetti

Faculty papers Kimmel Cancer Center

"Hypomyelination and Congenital Cataract", HCC (MIM #610532), is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by congenital cataract and diffuse cerebral and peripheral hypomyelination. HCC is caused by deficiency of Hyccin, a protein whose biological role has not been clarified yet. Since the identification of the cell types expressing a protein of unknown function can contribute to define the physiological context in which the molecule is explicating its function, we analyzed the pattern of Hyccin expression in the central and peripheral nervous system (CNS and PNS). Using heterozygous mice expressing the b-galactosidase (LacZ) gene under control of the Hyccin gene regulatory elements ...


Propofol Hemisuccinate Suppresses Cortical Spreading Depression, Ashish Dhir, Christoph Lossin, Michael A. Rogawski 2012 University of California - Davis

Propofol Hemisuccinate Suppresses Cortical Spreading Depression, Ashish Dhir, Christoph Lossin, Michael A. Rogawski

Michael A. Rogawski

Propofol is a rapidly acting water-insoluble non-barbiturate anesthetic agent that is widely used as an intravenous sedative-hypnotic agent. Anecdotal evidence indicates that propofol may be effective at terminating intractable migraine headache. Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is believed to be the neural correlate of migraine aura and may be a trigger for migraine pain. Agents that block the induction or slow the spread of CSD may be of utility in treating migraine. Here we examined the ability of propofol hemisuccinate (PHS), a water-soluble prodrug of propofol, to affect CSD in mice. For comparison, we examinined dizocilpine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, that ...


Early Versus Delayed Decompression For Traumatic Cervical Spinal Cord Injury: Results Of The Surgical Timing In Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study (Stascis), Michael G. Fehlings, Alexander Vaccaro, Jefferson R. Wilson, Anoushka Singh, David W. Cadotte, James S. Harrop, Bizhan Aarabi, Christopher Shaffrey, Marcel Dvorak, Charles Fisher, Paul Arnold, Eric M. Massicotte, Stephen Lewis, Raja Rampersaud 2012 Divisions of Neurosurgery and Orthopedic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto

Early Versus Delayed Decompression For Traumatic Cervical Spinal Cord Injury: Results Of The Surgical Timing In Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study (Stascis), Michael G. Fehlings, Alexander Vaccaro, Jefferson R. Wilson, Anoushka Singh, David W. Cadotte, James S. Harrop, Bizhan Aarabi, Christopher Shaffrey, Marcel Dvorak, Charles Fisher, Paul Arnold, Eric M. Massicotte, Stephen Lewis, Raja Rampersaud

Department of Neurosurgery Faculty Papers

Background: There is convincing preclinical evidence that early decompression in the setting of spinal cord injury (SCI) improves neurologic outcomes. However, the effect of early surgical decompression in patients with acute SCI remains uncertain. Our objective was to evaluate the relative effectiveness of early (,24 hours after injury) versus late ($24 hours after injury) decompressive surgery after traumatic cervical SCI.

Methods: We performed a multicenter, international, prospective cohort study (Surgical Timing in Acute Spinal Cord Injury Study: STASCIS) in adults aged 16–80 with cervical SCI. Enrolment occurred between 2002 and 2009 at 6 North American centers. The primary outcome ...


Active Site Mutations Change The Cleavage Specificity Of Neprilysin., Travis Sexton, Lisa J. Hitchcook, David W. Rodgers, Luke H. Bradley, Louis B. Hersh 2012 University of Kentucky

Active Site Mutations Change The Cleavage Specificity Of Neprilysin., Travis Sexton, Lisa J. Hitchcook, David W. Rodgers, Luke H. Bradley, Louis B. Hersh

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Neprilysin (NEP), a member of the M13 subgroup of the zinc-dependent endopeptidase family is a membrane bound peptidase capable of cleaving a variety of physiological peptides. We have generated a series of neprilysin variants containing mutations at either one of two active site residues, Phe563 and Ser546. Among the mutants studied in detail we observed changes in their activity towards leucine5-enkephalin, insulin B chain, and amyloid β1-40. For example, NEPF563I displayed an increase in preference towards cleaving leucine5-enkephalin relative to insulin B chain, while mutant NEPS546E was less discriminating than neprilysin ...


Dna Damage And Oxidative Stress Induced-P53 Activity In Astrocytes Causes Growth Arrest, Sarah A. Humphrey 2012 The University of Western Ontario

Dna Damage And Oxidative Stress Induced-P53 Activity In Astrocytes Causes Growth Arrest, Sarah A. Humphrey

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

An increasing body of evidence suggests that astrocytes play a key role in modulating neuronal fate during acute and chronic neurodegenerative conditions. Following CNS injury, an upregulation of p53 has been noted in both neurons and reactive astrocytes. p53 is an extremely important protein in determining cell fate decisions and its activation can result in the transcriptional induction of target genes that regulate apoptosis, autophagy, senescence and cell-cycle arrest. We found that p53 is upregulated in primary cortical astrocytes following oxidative stress and DNA damage and that this upregulation results in the p53-dependent transcriptional induction of several target genes involved ...


Blast-Induced Brain Injury: Influence Of Shockwave Components, Dexter V. Reneer 2012 University of Kentucky

Blast-Induced Brain Injury: Influence Of Shockwave Components, Dexter V. Reneer

Theses and Dissertations--Neuroscience

Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) has been described as the defining injury of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF). Previously, most blast injury research has focused on the effects of blast on internal, gas filled organs due to their increased susceptibility. However, due to a change in enemy tactics combined with better armor and front-line medical care, bTBI has become one of the most common injuries due to blast. Though there has been a significant amount of research characterizing the brain injury produced by blast, a sound understanding of the contribution of each component of the shockwave to ...


Prion Characterization Using Cell Based Approaches, Vadim Khaychuk 2012 University of Kentucky

Prion Characterization Using Cell Based Approaches, Vadim Khaychuk

Theses and Dissertations--Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics

Prions are the causative agents of a group of lethal, neurodegenerative conditions that include sheep scrapie, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), and human Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Prions are derived from the conversion of a normal, primarily alpha-helical, cellular prion protein (PrPC), to an infectious, beta sheet-rich conformer (PrPSc). Many unresolved issues surround the process of PrP conversion, and we know very little about cellular responses to these unique pathogens. Our lack of knowledge relates, in part, to the difficulty of infecting cells in vitro with prions. While expression of PrPC is an absolute requirement for prion propagation, I ...


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