Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Medical Neurobiology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

633 Full-Text Articles 1,668 Authors 99,380 Downloads 66 Institutions

All Articles in Medical Neurobiology

Faceted Search

633 full-text articles. Page 2 of 24.

Biosocial Criminology Versus The Constitution, Karen E. Balter 2018 Regis University

Biosocial Criminology Versus The Constitution, Karen E. Balter

All Regis University Theses

The continually emerging field of biosocial criminology provides a basis for productively merging biology with sociological reasonings for criminal behavior. Mainstream research in criminology focuses on environmental factors as the sole reason individuals exhibit antisocial behavior patterns and may ultimately commit crimes. Criminological research has travelled in this direction for decades. The current climate within this community subscribes heavily to the notion that biology has very little to do with why people behave the way they do, and if it did, government control would be the norm. The nature of biocriminology opens a door through which constitutional issues may enter ...


The Potential Synergistic Behaviour Of Inter- And Intra-Genus Probiotic Combinations In The Pattern And Rate Of Short Chain Fatty Acids Formation During Fibre Fermentation, Warnakulasuriya M. A. D. B. Fernando, Steve H. Flint, K. K. D. S. Ranaweera, Arthur Bamunuarachchi, Stuart K. Johnson, Charles S. Brennan 2018 Edith Cowan University

The Potential Synergistic Behaviour Of Inter- And Intra-Genus Probiotic Combinations In The Pattern And Rate Of Short Chain Fatty Acids Formation During Fibre Fermentation, Warnakulasuriya M. A. D. B. Fernando, Steve H. Flint, K. K. D. S. Ranaweera, Arthur Bamunuarachchi, Stuart K. Johnson, Charles S. Brennan

ECU Publications Post 2013

This study compared the rate of short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production by different probiotic combinations of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium to determine any synergistic effects. Six different fibre fractions were fermented with nine combinations of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR), Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA), Bifidobacterium longum (BL) and Bifidobacterium breve (BB) for 0, 6, 24 and 48 h. SCFAs were quantified by gas chromatography. Inter-genus combinations of bacteria produced more SCFA, especially BB + BL + LR, compared to intra-genus that yielded the lowest SCFA production. Acetate was the most abundant, while propionate and butyrate were the most utilised. The SCFA formation was as acetate ...


Analysis Of Diagnostic, Preventive, And Disease-Modifying Therapeutic Measures Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Ghazal Habib Havoutis 2017 Nova Southeastern University

Analysis Of Diagnostic, Preventive, And Disease-Modifying Therapeutic Measures Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Ghazal Habib Havoutis

HCNSO Student Capstones

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common late-onset neurodegenerative disorder and cause of dementia, characterized by the formation of neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaque deposits. The heterogeneous nature of the disease (both genetically and environmentally) makes it difficult to prevent or cure. Without prevention, the prevalence of AD is expected to triple by 2050. However, because the diagnosis of AD is usually preceded by years of cognitive impairment, early detection may aid in reducing prevalence. Thus, there is a need for validated diagnostic measures for early and improved diagnosis and prevention. In this review, current and ongoing classifiers of ...


Pitx3null Mutant (Striatal Dopamine-Deficient) Mice Have Exaggerated Spiny Projection Neuron Responses To L-Dopa And D1 Agonism And Lack Baseline Striatonigral Spiking, Ben Sagot 2017 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Pitx3null Mutant (Striatal Dopamine-Deficient) Mice Have Exaggerated Spiny Projection Neuron Responses To L-Dopa And D1 Agonism And Lack Baseline Striatonigral Spiking, Ben Sagot

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

L-3,4 dihidroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) strongly stimulates motor activity in parkinsonian patients and animal models of Parkinson's disease. Severe striatal dopamine (DA) loss characterizes Parkinson's disease and its animal models. Given the canonical rate model of Parkinson's Disease pathophysiology based on differences in DA pharmacology manifesting as electrophysiological differences in striatal projection neuron (SPN) spike rates, SPNs should increase spiking during the motor response to l-DOPA. In fact, stimulating specific subsets of these neurons to spike in freely-moving wild type and parkinsonian animals causes or inhibits motor activity as predicted. However, pharmacological effects of DA deficiency, let alone ...


Modeling Post Stroke Respiratory Dysfunction, Apneas And Cognitive Decline, Anthony Patrizz 2017 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Modeling Post Stroke Respiratory Dysfunction, Apneas And Cognitive Decline, Anthony Patrizz

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Modeling Post Stroke Respiratory Dysfunction,

Apneas and Cognitive Decline

Anthony Patrizz, B.A.

Advisory Professor: Louise McCullough M.D., Ph.D.

Stroke is a major cause of mortality and the leading cause of long-term disability in the US. More than 60% of individuals suffering a first time stroke develop respiratory dysfunction, prolonging recovery and increasing mortality. Post-stroke cognitive decline is a major contributor to disability and nursing home placement, therefore the cognitive consequences of Stroke Induced Respiratory Dysfunction (SIRD) need to be explored if we hope to enhance functional recovery. The first step towards treatment of the negative consequences of ...


Generation Of A Patient-Derived Brain Metastasis Breast Cancer Cell Line Via Novel Orthotopic Injection Placement And Serial Mouse Transplantation To Develop Pdx Mouse Model, Amber L. LaCrosse, Denise M. Coley, Paul J. Mintz, Santhi D. Konduri, Richard A. Rovin, Amin B. Kassam 2017 Aurora Research Institute

Generation Of A Patient-Derived Brain Metastasis Breast Cancer Cell Line Via Novel Orthotopic Injection Placement And Serial Mouse Transplantation To Develop Pdx Mouse Model, Amber L. Lacrosse, Denise M. Coley, Paul J. Mintz, Santhi D. Konduri, Richard A. Rovin, Amin B. Kassam

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Background: The incidence of brain metastasis appears to be increasing, potentially due to advanced technology that aids early diagnosis. Patient-derived xenografts (PDX) have high translational value, as these models retain key functional characteristics of the patient tumor. PDX models are useful to understand the molecular basis of tumorigenesis and to identify new treatment targets. However, generating a first-line PDX model is challenging as engraftment failure is high. Serial transplanting tumor tissue via mouse-to-mouse propagation increases engraftment rates and decreases PDX development time. Herein we report methods to generate a PDX cell line from patient-derived tumor tissue that includes the cerebral ...


Role Of Microglial Amylin Receptors In Mediating Beta Amyloid (Aβ)-Induced Inflammation, Wen Fu, Vlatka Vukojevic, Aarti Patel, Rania Soudy, David MacTavish, David Westaway, Kamaljit Kaur, Valeri Goncharuk, Jack Jhamandas 2017 University of Alberta

Role Of Microglial Amylin Receptors In Mediating Beta Amyloid (Aβ)-Induced Inflammation, Wen Fu, Vlatka Vukojevic, Aarti Patel, Rania Soudy, David Mactavish, David Westaway, Kamaljit Kaur, Valeri Goncharuk, Jack Jhamandas

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Background: Neuroinflammation in the brain consequent to activation of microglia is viewed as an important component of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. Amyloid beta (Aβ) protein is known to activate microglia and unleash an inflammatory cascade that eventually results in neuronal dysfunction and death. In this study, we sought to identify the presence of amylin receptors on human fetal and murine microglia and determine whether Aβ activation of the inflammasome complex and subsequent release of cytokines is mediated through these receptors.

Methods: The presence of dimeric components of the amylin receptor (calcitonin receptor and receptor activity modifying protein 3) were ...


Trkb-Enhancer Facilitates Functional Recovery After Traumatic Brain Injury, John Marshall, Joanna Szmydynger-Chodobska, Mengia S. Rioult-Pedotti, Kara Lau, Andrea T. Chin, Siva K. Reddy Kotla, Rakesh Tiwari, Keykavous Parang, Steven W. Threlkeld, Adam Chodobski 2017 Brown University

Trkb-Enhancer Facilitates Functional Recovery After Traumatic Brain Injury, John Marshall, Joanna Szmydynger-Chodobska, Mengia S. Rioult-Pedotti, Kara Lau, Andrea T. Chin, Siva K. Reddy Kotla, Rakesh Tiwari, Keykavous Parang, Steven W. Threlkeld, Adam Chodobski

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a key player in regulating synaptic strength and learning, is dysregulated following traumatic brain injury (TBI), suggesting that stimulation of BDNF signaling pathways may facilitate functional recovery. This study investigates whether CN2097, a peptidomimetic ligand which targets the synaptic scaffold protein, postsynaptic density protein 95, to enhance downstream signaling of tropomyosin-related kinase B, a receptor for BDNF, can improve neurological function after TBI. Moderate to severe TBI elicits neuroinflammation and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation, which is associated with memory deficits. Here we demonstrate that CN2097 significantly reduces the post-traumatic synthesis of proinflammatory mediators and inhibits the ...


Milder Alzheimer's Disease Pathology In Heart Failure And Atrial Fibrillation, Luciano A. Sposato, Estefania Ruiz Vargas, Patricia M. Riccio, Jon B. Toledo, John Q. Trojanowski, Walter A. Kukull, Lauren E. Cipriano, Antonia Nucera, Shawn N. Whitehead, Vladimir Hachinski 2017 Western University

Milder Alzheimer's Disease Pathology In Heart Failure And Atrial Fibrillation, Luciano A. Sposato, Estefania Ruiz Vargas, Patricia M. Riccio, Jon B. Toledo, John Q. Trojanowski, Walter A. Kukull, Lauren E. Cipriano, Antonia Nucera, Shawn N. Whitehead, Vladimir Hachinski

Anatomy and Cell Biology Publications

Introduction:Heart failure (HF) and atrial fibrillation (AF) have been associated with a higher risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Whether HF and AF are related to AD by enhancing AD neuropathological changes is unknown.

Methods:We applied network analyses and multiple logistic regression models to assess the association between HF and AF with severity of AD neuropathology in patients from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center database with primary neuropathological diagnosis of AD.

Results:We included 1593 patients, of whom 129 had HF and 250 had AF. HF and AF patients were older and had milder AD pathology. In ...


The Neural Encoding Of Reward In The Striatal-Pallidal Circuitry, Chung Lung Chan 2017 Marquette University

The Neural Encoding Of Reward In The Striatal-Pallidal Circuitry, Chung Lung Chan

Dissertations (2009 -)

Humans and animals are constantly exposed to external stimuli. The ability to process reward value of a stimulus is critical to guiding appropriate behavior and essential for survival. These processes are regulated by neuronal activity and neurochemical signaling in the reward circuitry, particularly in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). The NAc receives dopaminergic inputs from the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA) and sends GABAergic projections to the ventral pallidum (VP). Electrophysiological studies have characterized phasic neuronal responses in the NAc that differential encode appetitive and aversive taste stimuli. Exposure to an appetitive taste stimulus evoked predominantly phasic inhibitory responses in the ...


Intratracheal Instillation Of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Induces Hepatic Toxicity In Male Sprague-Dawley Rats, Siva Krishna Nalabotu, Madhukar Babu Kolli, William E. Triest, Jane Y. Ma, Nandini DPK Manne, Anjaiah Katta, Hari S. Addagarla, Kevin M. Rice, Eric R. Blough 2017 Marshall University

Intratracheal Instillation Of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Induces Hepatic Toxicity In Male Sprague-Dawley Rats, Siva Krishna Nalabotu, Madhukar Babu Kolli, William E. Triest, Jane Y. Ma, Nandini Dpk Manne, Anjaiah Katta, Hari S. Addagarla, Kevin M. Rice, Eric R. Blough

Nandini Manne

Background: Cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles have been posited to have both beneficial and toxic effects on biological systems. Herein, we examine if a single intratracheal instillation of CeO2 nanoparticles is associated with systemic toxicity in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods and results: Compared with control animals, CeO2 nanoparticle exposure was associated with increased liver ceria levels, elevations in serum alanine transaminase levels, reduced albumin levels, a diminished sodium-potassium ratio, and decreased serum triglyceride levels (P < 0.05). Consistent with these data, rats exposed to CeO2nanoparticles also exhibited reductions in liver weight (P < 0.05) and dose-dependent hydropic degeneration, hepatocyte enlargement, sinusoidal ...


Mixed-Mode Oscillations In Pyramidal Neurons Under Antiepileptic Drug Conditions, Babak V-Ghaffari, M. Kouhnavard, Sherif M. Elbasiouny 2017 Wright State University - Main Campus

Mixed-Mode Oscillations In Pyramidal Neurons Under Antiepileptic Drug Conditions, Babak V-Ghaffari, M. Kouhnavard, Sherif M. Elbasiouny

Neuroscience, Cell Biology, & Physiology Faculty Publications

Subthreshold oscillations in combination with large-amplitude oscillations generate mixedmode oscillations (MMOs), which mediate various spatial and temporal cognition and memory processes and behavioral motor tasks. Although many studies have shown that canard theory is a reliable method to investigate the properties underlying the MMOs phenomena, the relationship between the results obtained by applying canard theory and conductancebased models of neurons and their electrophysiological mechanisms are still not well understood. The goal of this study was to apply canard theory to the conductance-based model of pyramidal neurons in layer V of the Entorhinal Cortex to investigate the properties of MMOs under ...


Source Localization Of Brain States Associated With Canonical Neuroimaging Postures, Michael Lifshitz, Robert T. Thibault, Raquel R. Roth, Amir Raz 2017 McGill University

Source Localization Of Brain States Associated With Canonical Neuroimaging Postures, Michael Lifshitz, Robert T. Thibault, Raquel R. Roth, Amir Raz

Psychology Faculty Articles and Research

Cognitive neuroscientists rarely consider the influence that body position exerts on brain activity; yet, postural variation holds important implications for the acquisition and interpretation of neuroimaging data. Whereas participants in most behavioral and EEG experiments sit upright, many prominent brain imaging techniques (e.g., fMRI) require participants to lie supine. Here we demonstrate that physical comportment profoundly alters baseline brain activity as measured by magnetoencephalography (MEG)—an imaging modality that permits multipostural acquisition. We collected resting-state MEG data from 12 healthy participants in three postures (lying supine, reclining at 45°, and sitting upright). Source-modeling analysis revealed a broadly distributed influence ...


Inhibiting Axon Degeneration In A Mouse Model Of Acute Brain Injury Through Deletion Of Sarm1, Nils Henninger 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Inhibiting Axon Degeneration In A Mouse Model Of Acute Brain Injury Through Deletion Of Sarm1, Nils Henninger

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of disability worldwide. Annually, 150 to 200/1,000,000 people become disabled as a result of brain trauma. Axonal degeneration is a critical, early event following TBI of all severities but whether axon degeneration is a driver of TBI remains unclear. Molecular pathways underlying the pathology of TBI have not been defined and there is no efficacious treatment for TBI.

Despite this significant societal impact, surprisingly little is known about the molecular mechanisms that actively drive axon degeneration in any context and particularly following TBI. Although severe brain injury may cause ...


How Neural Activity Shapes Decision Making: An Optogenetic Investigation Of The Neural Basis Of Mate Choice In Female Songbirds, Sarah E. Maze 2017 University of Wyoming

How Neural Activity Shapes Decision Making: An Optogenetic Investigation Of The Neural Basis Of Mate Choice In Female Songbirds, Sarah E. Maze

Honors Theses AY 16/17

The intent of this project is to gain new insight into the neural circuitry that underlies decision making through understanding the connection between sensory perception and motor action. This investigation further seeks to identify whether optogenetic manipulation of specific neurons results in a change in mate choice. In defining this connection, the end goal is to combat deleterious decision making behavior in humans, such as drug addiction. Female Bengalese finches (BFs) provide an accessible model in which to investigate the neural mechanisms of behavior. Previous studies reveal that activity in the caudal portion of the mesopallium (CM) in the female ...


The Psychophysiological Correlates Of Personality, Trauma, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder And Social Support, Meghan E. Pierce 2017 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

The Psychophysiological Correlates Of Personality, Trauma, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder And Social Support, Meghan E. Pierce

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Theories considering the etiology of psychopathy suggest that trauma exposure, specifically childhood maltreatment and sexual abuse, is related to the development of callous-unemotional traits in children and adolescents, which are precursors to psychopathic traits in adulthood. Furthermore, posttraumatic stress disorder has an opposite relationship with many of the emotional and behavioral components of the two-factor model of psychopathy. Specifically, PTSD is positively associated to IA and traits associated with it and negatively associated with FD. Thus, this study sought to expand upon the current theories of a trauma-based etiology of psychopathy by investigating the relationship between trauma, PTSD, and psychopathic ...


Neural Processes Underlying Auditory Context Effects, Breanne Yerkes 2017 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Neural Processes Underlying Auditory Context Effects, Breanne Yerkes

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Auditory information within our natural environments is disorganized and often ambiguous, leaving our auditory systems with a complex task: organizing sound into coherent objects. The auditory system uses both current and prior information to assist in completing this task. The influences of previous context on current perception have been referred to as context effects. A contrastive context effect results in a current perception that is opposite of what is expected based on the physical stimulus properties presented during an immediate context. A facilitative context effect results in a current perception that is the same as the perception during the immediate ...


An Evaluation Of Gabab Receptors On Modulating Neuroinflammation In A Non-Transgenic Animal Model Of Alzheimer's Disease, Monica Bolton 2017 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

An Evaluation Of Gabab Receptors On Modulating Neuroinflammation In A Non-Transgenic Animal Model Of Alzheimer's Disease, Monica Bolton

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive memory loss and distinct neuropathological hallmarks, including amyloid beta plaques and neurofibrillary tau tangles (NFT). Although the etiology remains to be discovered, several risk factors exist that significantly contribute to developing AD. Diabetes is one of the major risk factors associated with AD and is characterized by disrupted insulin signaling that may contribute to or exacerbate AD pathologies. Furthermore, both disorders result in increased neuroinflammation. Considerable evidence has demonstrated that a chronic inflammatory response, in particular chronic microglia activation, promotes A production as well as the hyperphosphorylation of tau ...


Spinal Cord Injury Induced Cardiac Decline And The Limitations Of Exercise., Kathryn Michele DeVeau 2017 University of Louisville

Spinal Cord Injury Induced Cardiac Decline And The Limitations Of Exercise., Kathryn Michele Deveau

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

There is a general consensus that the level and the severity of spinal cord injury (SCI) impacts chronic cardiac abnormalities such that high thoracic and cervical SCI are the most severely affected. Furthermore, the extreme degree of immobility/inactivity experienced by the persons with SCI has implications on cardiac decline. Yet it has been difficult to separate the relative contributions of the decentralized autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the immediate and profound inactivity to chronic cardiac abnormalities. As such, this body of work sought to characterize a contusion SCI that results in persistent CV dysfunction. Echocardiography, Dobutamine stress echocardiography and ...


Thujone Inhibits The Function Of Α7-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors And Impairs Nicotine-Induced Memory Enhancement In One-Trial Passive Avoidance Paradigm, Ahmed Sultan, Keun-Hang Susan Yang, Dmytro Isaev, Eslam El Nebrisi, Nurulain Syed, Nadia Khan, Christopher F. Howarth, Bassem Sadek, Murat Oz 2017 UAE University

Thujone Inhibits The Function Of Α7-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors And Impairs Nicotine-Induced Memory Enhancement In One-Trial Passive Avoidance Paradigm, Ahmed Sultan, Keun-Hang Susan Yang, Dmytro Isaev, Eslam El Nebrisi, Nurulain Syed, Nadia Khan, Christopher F. Howarth, Bassem Sadek, Murat Oz

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Effects of thujone, a major ingredient of absinthe, wormwood oil and some herbal medicines, were tested on the function of α7 subunit of the human nicotinic acetylcholine (α7 nACh) receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. Thujone reversibly inhibited ACh (100 μM)-induced currents with an IC50 value of 24.7 μM. The effect of thujone was not dependent on the membrane potential and did not involve Ca2+-dependent Cl- channels expressed endogenously in oocytes. Inhibition by thujone was not reversed by increasing ACh concentrations. Moreover, specific binding of [125I] -bungarotoxin was not altered by thujone. Further ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress