Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Medical Microbiology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

1,367 Full-Text Articles 5,425 Authors 160,774 Downloads 98 Institutions

All Articles in Medical Microbiology

Faceted Search

1,367 full-text articles. Page 6 of 54.

How Irish Medical Scientists Can Assist In The Improved Diagnosis Of The Disease Infectious Mononucleosis, Patrick Naughton 2022 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland

How Irish Medical Scientists Can Assist In The Improved Diagnosis Of The Disease Infectious Mononucleosis, Patrick Naughton

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Background:

The eponymously named Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) or human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4) is the sole causative agent of the acute illness in humans described either as infectious mononucleosis (IM), or glandular fever. IM, when not clinically silent, can present in patients with at least two of the classic triad of symptoms of fever, pharyngitis, and lymphadenopathy. Challenges for the clinician arise when atypical cases present. Early, accurate and informed laboratory test results are vital for diagnosis, appropriate treatment, and patient management. A key challenge for the practitioner, particularly in cases where the illness can present atypically, is distinguishing bacterial tonsillitis …


Effect Of Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations Of Nitrofurantoin, Ciprofloxacin And Trimethoprim On In-Vitro Biofilm Formation In Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli, Shane Whelan 2022 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland

Effect Of Sub-Inhibitory Concentrations Of Nitrofurantoin, Ciprofloxacin And Trimethoprim On In-Vitro Biofilm Formation In Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli, Shane Whelan

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of sublethal concentrations of nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim on biofilm formation in 57 uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains (UPEC).

The MIC of nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim was determined for 57 UPEC isolates. Biofilm formation for each isolate with and without sub-lethal concentrations of each antibiotic was then quantified, and the statistical significance of changes in biofilm formation was ascertained by way of a Dunnett's test.

The effects of sub-MIC antibiotics on biofilm formation of UPEC were variable. A total of 22.8% of strains were induced to form biofilm by nitrofurantoin, …


A Case Report Of Pulmonary Actinomycosis: A Diagnostic Quagmire, Sarah Akbani, Aderinsola O. Ademiluyi, Jonathan Dean, Vinita Mathur 2022 Piedmont Macon Medical Center

A Case Report Of Pulmonary Actinomycosis: A Diagnostic Quagmire, Sarah Akbani, Aderinsola O. Ademiluyi, Jonathan Dean, Vinita Mathur

Advances in Clinical Medical Research and Healthcare Delivery

The implications of misdiagnosis can be drastic, especially when the correct diagnosis is treatable. Pulmonary actinomycosis is one of the complications of infection with actinomyces, an anaerobic gram-positive organism that is usually found as a part of the normal flora in the human body infection. It is a very rare disease and is frequently mistaken with other diagnoses owing to its nonspecific presentation. In this report, we present a 67-year-old male with a mass like lesion on a CT scan of his chest that was done due to progressively worsening productive cough, weight loss and fatigue. These symptoms could have …


A Single Dose Of The Deactivated Rabies-Virus Vectored Covid-19 Vaccine, Coravax, Is Highly Efficacious And Alleviates Lung Inflammation In The Hamster Model, Drishya Kurup, Christoph Wirblich, Leila Zabihi Diba, Rachael Lambert, Megan Watson, Noor Shaikh, Holly Ramage, Charalambos Solomides, Matthias J Schnell 2022 Thomas Jefferson University

A Single Dose Of The Deactivated Rabies-Virus Vectored Covid-19 Vaccine, Coravax, Is Highly Efficacious And Alleviates Lung Inflammation In The Hamster Model, Drishya Kurup, Christoph Wirblich, Leila Zabihi Diba, Rachael Lambert, Megan Watson, Noor Shaikh, Holly Ramage, Charalambos Solomides, Matthias J Schnell

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Without sufficient herd immunity through either vaccination or natural infection, the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic is unlikely to be controlled. Waning immunity with the currently approved vaccines suggests the need to evaluate vaccines causing the induction of long-term responses. Here, we report the immunogenicity and efficacy of our adjuvanted single-dose Rabies-vectored SARS-CoV-2 S1 vaccine, CORAVAX, in hamsters. CORAVAX induces high SARS-CoV-2 S1-specific and virus-neutralizing antibodies (VNAs) that prevent weight loss, viral loads, disease, lung inflammation, and the cytokine storm in hamsters. We also observed high Rabies VNA titers. In summary, CORAVAX is a promising dual-antigen vaccine candidate for clinical evaluation …


Identification Of Multiple Hub Genes In Acute Kidney Injury After Kidney Transplantation By Bioinformatics Analysis, Sang Wook Kang, Sung Wook Kang, Ju Yeon Ban, Min Su Park 2022 Kyung Hee University

Identification Of Multiple Hub Genes In Acute Kidney Injury After Kidney Transplantation By Bioinformatics Analysis, Sang Wook Kang, Sung Wook Kang, Ju Yeon Ban, Min Su Park

School of Graduate Studies Faculty Publications

Background and Objectives: The molecular mechanisms of the development of acute kidney injury (AKI) after kidney transplantation are not yet clear. The aim of this study was to confirm the genes and mechanisms related to AKI after transplantation. Materials and Methods: To investigate potential genetic targets for AKI, an analysis of the gene expression omnibus database was used to identify key genes and pathways. After identification of differentially expressed genes, Kyoto En-cyclopedia of Genes and Genome pathway enrichment analyses were performed. We identified the hub genes and established the protein–protein interaction network. Results: Finally, we identified 137 differentially expressed genes …


Cathelicidin Anti-Microbial Peptide (Camp) Is Toxic During Neonatal Influenza Virus Infection, Nneka Ugwu 2022 Tower Health

Cathelicidin Anti-Microbial Peptide (Camp) Is Toxic During Neonatal Influenza Virus Infection, Nneka Ugwu

St. Chris Research Day

No abstract provided.


Maternal Antepartum Administration Of Lactoferrin Ameliorates Neonatal Infection By Bacteremia-Producing Escherichia Coli In Mice, Charity Dunlop 2022 Children's Mercy Kansas City

Maternal Antepartum Administration Of Lactoferrin Ameliorates Neonatal Infection By Bacteremia-Producing Escherichia Coli In Mice, Charity Dunlop

Research Days

Background: E. coli is a major cause of neonatal sepsis. Vaginal pathogenic E. coli strains ascend into the pregnant uterus infecting the offspring of colonized mothers. Lactoferrin (LF) is an antibacterial and immunomodulatory glycoprotein that has been given to preterm newborns to prevent lateonset sepsis. However, the effects of maternal LF administration to prevent neonatal E. coli invasive infection have not been studied.

Objectives/Goal: Our goal was to test the hypothesis that LF pre-treatment of pregnant mice administered prenatally will significantly reduce the bacterial load in their embryos following infection with E. coli.

Methods/Design: Human LF 100 mcg/mL or placebo …


Editorial: Mucosal Vaccination: Strategies To Induce And Evaluate Mucosal Immunity, Pamela A. Kozlowski, Nicholas J. Mantis, Andreas Frey 2022 LSU Health Sciences Center - New Orleans

Editorial: Mucosal Vaccination: Strategies To Induce And Evaluate Mucosal Immunity, Pamela A. Kozlowski, Nicholas J. Mantis, Andreas Frey

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


The Chromosome-Level Rambutan Genome Reveals A Significant Role Of Segmental Duplication In The Expansion Of Resistance Genes, Jinfang Zheng1, Lyndel W. Meinhardt, Ricardo Goenaga, Tracie Matsumoto, Dapeng Zhang, Yanbin Yin 2022 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Chromosome-Level Rambutan Genome Reveals A Significant Role Of Segmental Duplication In The Expansion Of Resistance Genes, Jinfang Zheng1, Lyndel W. Meinhardt, Ricardo Goenaga, Tracie Matsumoto, Dapeng Zhang, Yanbin Yin

Food for Health: Publications

Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum var. lappaceum), a tropical fruit tree native to southeastern Asia, belongs to the family Sapindaceae. Rambutan is a popular table fruit and is also processed into preserves, juices, wines, and sorbets [1]. At present, only three Sapindaceae genomes are publicly available: Xanthoceras sorbifolium [2], Dimocarpus longan (longan) [3], and Acer yangbiense [4]. During the process of submitting this manuscript, the genome paper for the rambutan cultivar Baoyan7 became available online, but its genome sequence has not yet been released [5].


Investigating Alternative Induction Of The S. Aureus 80a Prophage, Jody Caretti 2022 University of Lynchburg

Investigating Alternative Induction Of The S. Aureus 80a Prophage, Jody Caretti

Student Scholar Showcase

Widespread antibiotic resistance has quickly become one of the most concerning crises affecting modern medicine, especially in cases of Staphylococcal infections, which have become resistant to all ��-lactam antibiotics. As a result, research into alternative forms of treatment for bacterial infections is a top priority. Bacteriophage therapy is a popular candidate for replacing antibiotics, due to the way the viruses interact with the bacteria. The 80�� prophage integrates its DNA into Staphylococcus aureus strain 10616 via the lysogenic cycle, and replicates with the bacterial cell. When stressed, the bacteria stop replicating and the prophage stimulates the lytic cycle, activating transcription …


Cellular Dynamics And Disease Outcome Of Type 3 Streptococcus Pneumoniae Clinical Isolates Differ Between Strains, Taylor Rae Plunkett White 2022 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Cellular Dynamics And Disease Outcome Of Type 3 Streptococcus Pneumoniae Clinical Isolates Differ Between Strains, Taylor Rae Plunkett White

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Streptococcus pneumoniae is a bacterial pathogen that continues to be a major cause of disease around the world. It is not only the number one cause of bacterial pneumonia but also the cause of about 15% of the deaths of children under 5 around the world. There is a lot of research done on this organism, but with around 100 known serotypes and each one producing a unique capsule, there is still much more to be studied. The Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community (EPIC) study conducted by the CDC observed the burden of hospitalizations caused by pneumonia while determining …


Arsenic Toxicity On Metabolism And Autophagy In Adipose And Muscle Tissues, Seung-Hyun Ro, Jiyoung Bae, Yura Jang, Jacob Myers, Soonkyu Chung, Jiujiu Yu, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Rodrigo Franco, Hyun-Seob Song 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Arsenic Toxicity On Metabolism And Autophagy In Adipose And Muscle Tissues, Seung-Hyun Ro, Jiyoung Bae, Yura Jang, Jacob Myers, Soonkyu Chung, Jiujiu Yu, Sathish Kumar Natarajan, Rodrigo Franco, Hyun-Seob Song

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Arsenic, a naturally occurring metalloid derived from the environment, has been studied worldwide for its causative effects in various cancers. However, the effects of arsenic toxicity on the development and progression of metabolic syndrome, including obesity and diabetes, has received less attention. Many studies suggest that metabolic dysfunction and autophagy dysregulation of adipose and muscle tissues are closely related to the development of metabolic disease. In the USA, arsenic contamination has been reported in some ground water, soil and grain samples in major agricultural regions, but the effects on adipose and muscle tissue metabolism and autophagy have not been investigated …


A Quantitative Analysis Of The Efficacy Of Various Essential Oils Against The Sars Cov-2 Virus, Elizabeth Wagstaff, Chandrelyn Kraczek, Jack Brandon Lopez 2022 Brigham Young University - Provo

A Quantitative Analysis Of The Efficacy Of Various Essential Oils Against The Sars Cov-2 Virus, Elizabeth Wagstaff, Chandrelyn Kraczek, Jack Brandon Lopez

Annual Research Symposium

A poster presentation and abstract for the Roseman Symposium. The project focuses on testing 3 essential oil blends and two disinfectants containing an essential oil blend against SARS CoV-2 in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The project procedure involves plaque assays, disinfection, and neutralization techniques.


T-Cell Responses To Immunodominant Listeria Epitopes Limit Vaccine-Directed Responses To The Colorectal Cancer Antigen, Guanylyl Cyclase C, John C. Flickinger, Jagmohan Singh, Yanki Yarman, Robert D Carlson, Joshua Barton, Scott A Waldman, Adam E. Snook 2022 Thomas Jefferson University

T-Cell Responses To Immunodominant Listeria Epitopes Limit Vaccine-Directed Responses To The Colorectal Cancer Antigen, Guanylyl Cyclase C, John C. Flickinger, Jagmohan Singh, Yanki Yarman, Robert D Carlson, Joshua Barton, Scott A Waldman, Adam E. Snook

Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Faculty Papers

The Gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is an emerging platform for cancer immunotherapy. To date, over 30 clinical trials have been initiated testing Lm cancer vaccines across a wide variety of cancers, including lung, cervical, colorectal, and pancreatic. Here, we assessed the immunogenicity of an Lm vaccine against the colorectal tumor antigen GUCY2C (Lm-GUCY2C). Surprisingly, Lm-GUCY2C vaccination did not prime naïve GUCY2C-specific CD8+ T-cell responses towards the dominant H-2Kd-restricted epitope, GUCY2C254-262. However, Lm-GUCY2C produced robust CD8+ T-cell responses towards Lm-derived peptides suggesting that GUCY2C254-262 peptide may be subdominant to Lm-derived peptides. Indeed, incorporating immunogenic Lm peptides into an adenovirus-based GUCY2C …


Rapid Assessment Of Opisthorchis Viverrini Igg Antibody In Serum: A Potential Diagnostic Biomarker To Predict Risk Of Cholangiocarcinoma In Regions Endemic For Opisthorchiasis., Rutchanee Rodpai, Vor Luvira, Lakkhana Sadaow, Wattana Sukeepaisarnjaroen, Amnat Kitkhuandee, Krisada Paonariang, Oranuch Sanpool, Wannaporn Ittiprasert, Victoria H. Mann, Pewpan M Intapan, Paul J. Brindley, Wanchai Maleewong 2022 George Washington University

Rapid Assessment Of Opisthorchis Viverrini Igg Antibody In Serum: A Potential Diagnostic Biomarker To Predict Risk Of Cholangiocarcinoma In Regions Endemic For Opisthorchiasis., Rutchanee Rodpai, Vor Luvira, Lakkhana Sadaow, Wattana Sukeepaisarnjaroen, Amnat Kitkhuandee, Krisada Paonariang, Oranuch Sanpool, Wannaporn Ittiprasert, Victoria H. Mann, Pewpan M Intapan, Paul J. Brindley, Wanchai Maleewong

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Opisthorchiasis is caused by an infection with fish-borne liver flukes of the genus Opisthorchis. Opisthorchiasis frequently leads to chronic inflammation in the biliary tract and is classified as a group 1 biological carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer: a definitive risk for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA).

METHODS: We used the rapid immunochromatographic test (ICT) to detect anti-Opisthorchis viverrini IgG and IgG4 subclass antibodies in sera of patients with CCA. The ICT kits were developed based on soluble antigens excreted and secreted by O. viverrini adult worms.

RESULTS: ICT indicated sera was positive for IgG and IgG4 antibodies, respectively, …


Clostridioides Difficile Infection And One Health: An Equine Perspective, Natasza M. R. Hain-Saunders, Daniel R. Knight, Mieghan Bruce, Thomas V. Riley 2022 Edith Cowan University

Clostridioides Difficile Infection And One Health: An Equine Perspective, Natasza M. R. Hain-Saunders, Daniel R. Knight, Mieghan Bruce, Thomas V. Riley

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile presents a significant health risk to humans and animals. The complexity of the bacterial–host interaction affecting pathogenesis and disease development creates an ongoing challenge for epidemiological studies, control strategies and prevention planning. The recent emergence of human disease caused by strains of C. difficile found in animals adds to mounting evidence that C. difficile infection (CDI) may be a zoonosis. In equine populations, C. difficile is a known cause of diarrhoea and gastrointestinal inflammation, with considerable mortality and morbidity. This has a significant impact on both the well-being of the animal and, in the case of performance …


Four Faces Of Cell-Surface Hla Class-I: Their Antigenic And Immunogenic Divergence Generating Novel Targets For Vaccines, Mepur H Ravindranath, Narendranath M Ravindranath, Senthamil R Selvan, Edward J Filippone, Carly J Amato-Menker, Fatiha El Hilali 2022 Children's Hospital

Four Faces Of Cell-Surface Hla Class-I: Their Antigenic And Immunogenic Divergence Generating Novel Targets For Vaccines, Mepur H Ravindranath, Narendranath M Ravindranath, Senthamil R Selvan, Edward J Filippone, Carly J Amato-Menker, Fatiha El Hilali

Department of Medicine Faculty Papers

Leukocyte cell-surface HLA-I molecules, involved in antigen presentation of peptides to CD8+ T-cells, consist of a heavy chain (HC) non-covalently linked to β2-microglobulin (β2m) (Face-1). The HC amino acid composition varies across all six isoforms of HLA-I, while that of β2m remains the same. Each HLA-allele differs in one or more amino acid sequences on the HC α1 and α2 helices, while several sequences among the three helices are conserved. HCs without β2m (Face-2) are also observed on human cells activated by malignancy, viral transformation, and cytokine or chemokine-mediated inflammation. In the absence of β2m, the monomeric Face-2 exposes immunogenic …


Similarly Efficacious Anti-Malarial Drugs Sj733 And Pyronaridine Differ In Their Ability To Remove Circulating Parasites In Mice, Arya SheelaNair, Aleksandra S. Romanczuk, Rosemary A. Aogo, Rohit Nemai Haldar, Lianne I. M. Lansink, Deborah Cromer, Yandira G. Salinas, R. Kiplin Guy, James S. McCarthy, Miles P. Davenport, Ashraful Haque, David S. Khoury 2022 QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Australia

Similarly Efficacious Anti-Malarial Drugs Sj733 And Pyronaridine Differ In Their Ability To Remove Circulating Parasites In Mice, Arya Sheelanair, Aleksandra S. Romanczuk, Rosemary A. Aogo, Rohit Nemai Haldar, Lianne I. M. Lansink, Deborah Cromer, Yandira G. Salinas, R. Kiplin Guy, James S. Mccarthy, Miles P. Davenport, Ashraful Haque, David S. Khoury

Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been a mainstay for malaria prevention and treatment. However, emergence of drug resistance has incentivised development of new drugs. Defining the kinetics with which circulating parasitized red blood cells (pRBC) are lost after drug treatment, referred to as the "parasite clearance curve", has been critical for assessing drug efficacy; yet underlying mechanisms remain partly unresolved. The clearance curve may be shaped both by the rate at which drugs kill parasites, and the rate at which drug-affected parasites are removed from circulation.

METHODS: In this context, two anti-malarials, SJ733, and an ACT partner drug, pyronaridine …


Resistant Starch Type 2 And Whole Grain Maize Flours Enrich Different Intestinal Bacteria And Metatranscriptomes, Zachary A. Bendiks, Justin Guice, Diana Coulon, Anne M. Raggio, Ryan C. Page, Diana G. Carvajal-Aldaz, Meng Luo, David A. Welsh, Brian D. Marx, Christopher M. Taylor, Claudia Husseneder, Michael J. Keenan, Maria L. Marco 2022 University of California, Davis

Resistant Starch Type 2 And Whole Grain Maize Flours Enrich Different Intestinal Bacteria And Metatranscriptomes, Zachary A. Bendiks, Justin Guice, Diana Coulon, Anne M. Raggio, Ryan C. Page, Diana G. Carvajal-Aldaz, Meng Luo, David A. Welsh, Brian D. Marx, Christopher M. Taylor, Claudia Husseneder, Michael J. Keenan, Maria L. Marco

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

The intestinal microbiota of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were investigated following consumption of diets containing refined high-amylose cornstarch (RS), waxy whole-grain flour from maize (WG), or high-amylose whole-grain flour (WG + RS) together with moderate (MF, 30% of energy) or high (HF, 42% of energy) levels of fat. Compared with control (CON) diets, RS reduced bacterial alpha-diversity and enriched Bacteroidetes and WG increased Lactobacillus proportions by three-fold. WG + RS conferred a combined effect, but the changes were attenuated and greater inter-individual variation was observed. Proportions of fiber-degrading bacterial taxa were inversely correlated with cecal pH. Notably, there was little influence …


Chromosome-Level Genome Of Schistosoma Haematobium Underpins Genome-Wide Explorations Of Molecular Variation., Andreas J Stroehlein, Pasi K Korhonen, V Vern Lee, Stuart A Ralph, Margaret Mentink-Kane, Hong You, Donald P McManus, Louis-Albert Tchuem Tchuenté, J Russell Stothard, Parwinder Kaur, Olga Dudchenko, Erez Lieberman Aiden, Bicheng Yang, Huanming Yang, Aidan M Emery, Bonnie L Webster, Paul J. Brindley, David Rollinson, Bill C H Chang, Robin B Gasser, Neil D Young 2022 George Washington University

Chromosome-Level Genome Of Schistosoma Haematobium Underpins Genome-Wide Explorations Of Molecular Variation., Andreas J Stroehlein, Pasi K Korhonen, V Vern Lee, Stuart A Ralph, Margaret Mentink-Kane, Hong You, Donald P Mcmanus, Louis-Albert Tchuem Tchuenté, J Russell Stothard, Parwinder Kaur, Olga Dudchenko, Erez Lieberman Aiden, Bicheng Yang, Huanming Yang, Aidan M Emery, Bonnie L Webster, Paul J. Brindley, David Rollinson, Bill C H Chang, Robin B Gasser, Neil D Young

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Urogenital schistosomiasis is caused by the blood fluke Schistosoma haematobium and is one of the most neglected tropical diseases worldwide, afflicting > 100 million people. It is characterised by granulomata, fibrosis and calcification in urogenital tissues, and can lead to increased susceptibility to HIV/AIDS and squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder. To complement available treatment programs and break the transmission of disease, sound knowledge and understanding of the biology and ecology of S. haematobium is required. Hybridisation/introgression events and molecular variation among members of the S. haematobium-group might effect important biological and/or disease traits as well as the morbidity of disease …


Digital Commons powered by bepress