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Constructing An In Vitro 3d Model Of The Human Placenta, Michael Zheng 2022 Western University

Constructing An In Vitro 3d Model Of The Human Placenta, Michael Zheng

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

The placenta is critical for nurturing fetal growth and development, with dysregulated placentation associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. The main fetal and maternal placental components consist of trophoblasts and modified endometrial stromal cells known as decidual cells, respectively. Since investigating in vivo placentas in humans through non-invasive methods is challenging, comprehensive in vitro placental models are needed for in-depth studies. However, in vitro 3D placental models that adequately represent and combine fetal and maternal components have been lacking. In this study, we achieved valuable progress in developing an in vitro 3D placental model inclusive of fetal and maternal constituents. We …


Mistranslating Trnas Alter The Heat Shock Activation By Hsf1, Rebecca Dib 2022 Western University

Mistranslating Trnas Alter The Heat Shock Activation By Hsf1, Rebecca Dib

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Translation, or the production of protein from an mRNA blueprint, is among the most fundamental processes to life as we know it. tRNAs are essential to accurate translation, as they decode the codons of mRNA and recruit corresponding amino acids. Variant tRNAs with anticodon mutations can decrease translational fidelity by recruiting the incorrect amino acid, an aberrant process known as mistranslation. When proteins are produced with incorrect amino acid sequences, they may misfold. The heat shock response functions to alleviate cellular stress caused by misfolded proteins, either by refolding or targeting misfolded proteins for degradation. Hsf1 acts as a transcriptional …


Latency Trend Analysis As A Guide To Screening Malignancy Survivors For Second Primary Thyroid Cancer, Mohammad Hussein, Lauren Mueller, Peter P. Issa, Muhib Haidari, Lily Trinh, Eman Toraih, Emad Kandil 2022 Tulane University School of Medicine

Latency Trend Analysis As A Guide To Screening Malignancy Survivors For Second Primary Thyroid Cancer, Mohammad Hussein, Lauren Mueller, Peter P. Issa, Muhib Haidari, Lily Trinh, Eman Toraih, Emad Kandil

School of Medicine Faculty Publications

Primary cancer survivors have a higher risk of developing second primary thyroid cancer (SPTC). Patients with SPTC who survived primary malignancies, diagnosed from 1975 to 2016, were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (SEER 18 Registry). A total of 33,551 cancer cases were enrolled in the final analysis. Individuals with a primary malignancy were at a significant 90% increased risk of developing SPTC (SIR = 1.90, 95%CI = 1.86–1.93, p < 0.05) compared to the general population. More than half (54.7%) of SPTC diagnoses were made in the first three years after primary cancer diagnosis, and the most aggressive presentations of SPTC occurred within the first year following malignancy. A latency trend analysis identified persistent high risk for development of SPTC after diagnosis of lymphoma, leukemia, soft tissue tumors, kidney, breast, and uterine cancer; elevated 10-year risk for most cancers such as salivary gland, melanoma, stomach, lung, colon, ovarian, pancreas, prostate, and bladder; and high 5-year risk after cancers such as larynx, oral, orbit, bone, small intestine, and liver. Our latency period model identifying risk according to each type of primary cancer may aid clinicians in identifying at-risk patients to be screened for thyroid cancer and guide them in developing a surveillance plan according to the latency period attributed to a patient’s primary cancer.


Subtype-Selective Positive Modulation Of KCa2.3 Channels Increases Cilia Length, Young-Woo Nam, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Naglaa Salem El-Sayed, Denisse Laren-Henriquez, Farideh Amirrad, Grace Yang, Mohammad Asikur Rahman, Razan Orfali, Myles Downey, Keykavous Parang, Surya M. Nauli, Miao Zhang 2022 Chapman University

Subtype-Selective Positive Modulation Of KCa2.3 Channels Increases Cilia Length, Young-Woo Nam, Rajasekharreddy Pala, Naglaa Salem El-Sayed, Denisse Laren-Henriquez, Farideh Amirrad, Grace Yang, Mohammad Asikur Rahman, Razan Orfali, Myles Downey, Keykavous Parang, Surya M. Nauli, Miao Zhang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Small-conductance Ca2+-activated potassium (KCa2.x) channels are gated exclusively by intracellular Ca2+. The activation of KCa2.3 channels induces hyperpolarization, which augments Ca2+ signaling in endothelial cells. Cilia are specialized Ca2+ signaling compartments. Here, we identified compound 4 that potentiates human KCa2.3 channels selectively. The subtype selectivity of compound 4 for human KCa2.3 over rat KCa2.2a channels relies on an isoleucine residue in the HA/HB helices. Positive modulation of KCa2.3 channels by compound 4 increased flow-induced Ca2+ signaling and cilia length, while negative …


Dual Mechanisms Implemented By Lin-28 For Positive Regulation Of Hbl-1 Are Necessary For Proper Development Of Distinct Tissues In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Madeleine Minutillo 2022 Rowan University

Dual Mechanisms Implemented By Lin-28 For Positive Regulation Of Hbl-1 Are Necessary For Proper Development Of Distinct Tissues In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Madeleine Minutillo

Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Theses and Dissertations

In Caenorhabditis elegans, the heterochronic pathway is comprised of a hierarchy of genes that control the proper timing of developmental events. hbl-1 (Hunchback Like-1) encodes an Ikaros family zinc-finger transcription factor that promotes the L2 stage cell fate events of the hypodermis. The downregulation ofhbl-1 is a crucial step for the transition from the L2 to the L3 stage. There are two known processes through which negative regulation of hbl-1 occurs: suppression of hbl-1 expression by 3 let-7 miRNAs through the hbl-1 3’UTR and inhibition of HBL-1 activity by LIN-46. The mechanisms by which hbl-1 is positively regulated have not …


Glucose Uptake By Glut1 In Photoreceptors Is Essential For Outer Segment Renewal And Rod Photoreceptor Survival, Lauren L. Daniele, John Y.S. Han, Ivy S Samuels, Ravikiran Komirisetty, Nikhil Mehta, Jessica L McCord, Minzhong Yu, Yekai Wang, Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia, Brent A Bell, Jianhai Du, Neal S Peachey, Nancy J. Philp 2022 Thomas Jefferson University

Glucose Uptake By Glut1 In Photoreceptors Is Essential For Outer Segment Renewal And Rod Photoreceptor Survival, Lauren L. Daniele, John Y.S. Han, Ivy S Samuels, Ravikiran Komirisetty, Nikhil Mehta, Jessica L Mccord, Minzhong Yu, Yekai Wang, Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia, Brent A Bell, Jianhai Du, Neal S Peachey, Nancy J. Philp

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Photoreceptors consume glucose supplied by the choriocapillaris to support phototransduction and outer segment (OS) renewal. Reduced glucose supply underlies photoreceptor cell death in inherited retinal degeneration and age-related retinal disease. We have previously shown that restricting glucose transport into the outer retina by conditional deletion of Slc2a1 encoding GLUT1 resulted in photoreceptor loss and impaired OS renewal. However, retinal neurons, glia, and the retinal pigment epithelium play specialized, synergistic roles in metabolite supply and exchange, and the cell-specific map of glucose uptake and utilization in the retina is incomplete. In these studies, we conditionally deleted Slc2a1 in a pan-retinal or …


Patient With Multiple Genetically Distinct Thyroid Nodules Including Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Harboring Novel Ywhag-Braf Fusion, Ruihe Lin, Zi-Xuan Wang, Elizabeth Cottrill, Nitika Badjatia, Stacey Gargano 2022 Thomas Jefferson University

Patient With Multiple Genetically Distinct Thyroid Nodules Including Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Harboring Novel Ywhag-Braf Fusion, Ruihe Lin, Zi-Xuan Wang, Elizabeth Cottrill, Nitika Badjatia, Stacey Gargano

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis of thyroid samples aids in risk stratification of cytologically indeterminate nodules and contributes to our understanding of molecular mechanisms in thyroid neoplasia. Several genes, including BRAF, RAS, and EIF1AX, are known to play a role in thyroid tumorigenesis. Here we report a case of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in which a single lesion harbored a novel YWHAG-BRAF fusion and EIF1AX mutation and displayed mixed morphological findings. The patient is a 74-year-old female with multiple incidentally discovered thyroid nodules, two of which were sampled by ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA). Cytologic diagnosis for both nodules was suspicious …


Adipose Tissue-Specific Ablation Of Ces1d Causes Metabolic Dysregulation In Mice, Gang Li, Xin Li, Li Yang, Shuyue Wang, Yulin Dai, Baharan Fekry, Lucas Veillon, Lin Tan, Rebecca Berdeaux, Kristin Eckel-Mahan, Philip L Lorenzi, Zhongming Zhao, Richard Lehner, Kai Sun 2022 The Texas Medical Center Library

Adipose Tissue-Specific Ablation Of Ces1d Causes Metabolic Dysregulation In Mice, Gang Li, Xin Li, Li Yang, Shuyue Wang, Yulin Dai, Baharan Fekry, Lucas Veillon, Lin Tan, Rebecca Berdeaux, Kristin Eckel-Mahan, Philip L Lorenzi, Zhongming Zhao, Richard Lehner, Kai Sun

Journal Articles

Carboxylesterase 1d (Ces1d) is a crucial enzyme with a wide range of activities in multiple tissues. It has been reported to localize predominantly in ER. Here, we found that Ces1d levels are significantly increased in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Intriguingly, a high level of Ces1d translocates onto lipid droplets where it digests the lipids to produce a unique set of fatty acids. We further revealed that adipose tissue-specific Ces1d knock-out (FKO) mice gained more body weight with increased fat mass during a high fat-diet challenge. The FKO mice exhibited impaired glucose and lipid metabolism and developed exacerbated liver …


Mettl14-Mediated Epitranscriptome Modification Of Mn1 Mrna Promote Tumorigenicity And All-Trans-Retinoic Acid Resistance In Osteosarcoma, Hong-Bo Li, Gang Huang, Jian Tu, Dong-Ming Lv, Qing-Lin Jin, Jun-Kai Chen, Yu-Tong Zou, Dung-Fang Lee, Jing-Nan Shen, Xian-Biao Xie 2022 The Texas Medical Center Library

Mettl14-Mediated Epitranscriptome Modification Of Mn1 Mrna Promote Tumorigenicity And All-Trans-Retinoic Acid Resistance In Osteosarcoma, Hong-Bo Li, Gang Huang, Jian Tu, Dong-Ming Lv, Qing-Lin Jin, Jun-Kai Chen, Yu-Tong Zou, Dung-Fang Lee, Jing-Nan Shen, Xian-Biao Xie

Journal Articles

BACKGROUND: Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant bone tumor in adolescents. The molecular mechanism behind OS progression and metastasis remains poorly understood, which limits the effectiveness of current therapies. RNA N

METHODS: Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), dot blotting, and colorimetric ELISA were used to detect m

FINDINGS: We observed the abundance of m

INTERPRETATION: Our study revealed that METTL14 contributes to OS progression and ATRA resistance as an m

FUNDING: This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants 81972510 and 81772864).


Altered Genome-Wide Hippocampal Gene Expression Profiles Following Early Life Lead Exposure And Their Potential For Reversal By Environmental Enrichment, Garima Singh, V Singh, T Kim, A Ertel, W Fu, J S Schneider 2022 Thomas Jefferson University

Altered Genome-Wide Hippocampal Gene Expression Profiles Following Early Life Lead Exposure And Their Potential For Reversal By Environmental Enrichment, Garima Singh, V Singh, T Kim, A Ertel, W Fu, J S Schneider

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Early life lead (Pb) exposure is detrimental to neurobehavioral development. The quality of the environment can modify negative influences from Pb exposure, impacting the developmental trajectory following Pb exposure. Little is known about the molecular underpinnings in the brain of the interaction between Pb and the quality of the environment. We examined relationships between early life Pb exposure and living in an enriched versus a non-enriched postnatal environment on genome-wide transcription profiles in hippocampus CA1. RNA-seq identified differences in the transcriptome of enriched vs. non-enriched Pb-exposed animals. Most of the gene expression changes associated with Pb exposure were reversed by …


The Uprmt Preserves Mitochondrial Import To Extend Lifespan, Nan Xin, Jenni Durieux, Chunxia Yang, Suzanne Wolff, Hyun-Eui Kim, Andrew Dillin 2022 The Texas Medical Center Library

The Uprmt Preserves Mitochondrial Import To Extend Lifespan, Nan Xin, Jenni Durieux, Chunxia Yang, Suzanne Wolff, Hyun-Eui Kim, Andrew Dillin

Journal Articles

The mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) is dedicated to promoting mitochondrial proteostasis and is linked to extreme longevity. The key regulator of this process is the transcription factor ATFS-1, which, upon UPRmt activation, is excluded from the mitochondria and enters the nucleus to regulate UPRmt genes. However, the repair proteins synthesized as a direct result of UPRmt activation must be transported into damaged mitochondria that had previously excluded ATFS-1 owing to reduced import efficiency. To address this conundrum, we analyzed the role of the import machinery when the UPRmt was induced. Using in vitro and in vivo analysis of mitochondrial …


A Conserved Mechanism For Hormesis In Molecular Systems, Sharon N. Greenwood, Regina G. Belz, Brian P. Weiser 2022 Rowan University

A Conserved Mechanism For Hormesis In Molecular Systems, Sharon N. Greenwood, Regina G. Belz, Brian P. Weiser

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Hormesis refers to dose-response phenomena where low dose treatments elicit a response that is opposite the response observed at higher doses. Hormetic dose-response relationships have been observed throughout all of biology, but the underlying determinants of many reported hormetic dose-responses have not been identified. In this report, we describe a conserved mechanism for hormesis on the molecular level where low dose treatments enhance a response that becomes reduced at higher doses. The hormetic mechanism relies on the ability of protein homo-multimers to simultaneously interact with a substrate and a competitor on different subunits at low doses of competitor. In this …


The Role Of Microglia In Neuroinflammation Of The Spinal Cord After Peripheral Nerve Injury, Tana S. Pottorf, Travis M. Rotterman, William M. McCallum, Zoë A. Haley-Johnson, Francisco J. Alvarez 2022 Wright State University

The Role Of Microglia In Neuroinflammation Of The Spinal Cord After Peripheral Nerve Injury, Tana S. Pottorf, Travis M. Rotterman, William M. Mccallum, Zoë A. Haley-Johnson, Francisco J. Alvarez

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

Peripheral nerve injuries induce a pronounced immune reaction within the spinal cord, largely governed by microglia activation in both the dorsal and ventral horns. The mechanisms of activation and response of microglia are diverse depending on the location within the spinal cord, type, severity, and proximity of injury, as well as the age and species of the organism. Thanks to recent advancements in neuro-immune research techniques, such as single-cell transcriptomics, novel genetic mouse models, and live imaging, a vast amount of literature has come to light regarding the mechanisms of microglial activation and alluding to the function …


A Mathematical Model Of Glut1 Modulation In Rods And Rpe And Its Differential Impact In Cell Metabolism, Andrea Aparicio, Erika T Camacho, Nancy J. Philp, Stephen A Wirkus 2022 Arizona State University

A Mathematical Model Of Glut1 Modulation In Rods And Rpe And Its Differential Impact In Cell Metabolism, Andrea Aparicio, Erika T Camacho, Nancy J. Philp, Stephen A Wirkus

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

We present a mathematical model of key glucose metabolic pathways in two cells of the human retina: the rods and the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE). Computational simulations of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) inhibition in the model accurately reproduce experimental data from conditional knockout mice and reveal that modification of GLUT1 expression levels of both cells differentially impacts their metabolism. We hypothesize that, under glucose scarcity, the RPE’s energy producing pathways are altered in order to preserve its functionality, impacting the photoreceptors’ outer segment renewal. On the other hand, when glucose is limited in the rods, aerobic glycolysis is preserved, which …


Ros And Mirna Dysregulation In Ovarian Cancer Development, Angiogenesis And Therapeutic Resistance, David C Stieg, Yifang Wang, Ling-Zhi Liu, Bing-Hua Jiang 2022 Thomas Jefferson University

Ros And Mirna Dysregulation In Ovarian Cancer Development, Angiogenesis And Therapeutic Resistance, David C Stieg, Yifang Wang, Ling-Zhi Liu, Bing-Hua Jiang

Kimmel Cancer Center Faculty Papers

The diverse repertoires of cellular mechanisms that progress certain cancer types are being uncovered by recent research and leading to more effective treatment options. Ovarian cancer (OC) is among the most difficult cancers to treat. OC has limited treatment options, especially for patients diagnosed with late-stage OC. The dysregulation of miRNAs in OC plays a significant role in tumorigenesis through the alteration of a multitude of molecular processes. The development of OC can also be due to the utilization of endogenously derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) by activating signaling pathways such as PI3K/AKT and MAPK. Both miRNAs and ROS are …


Lysosomal Zn 2+ Release Triggers Rapid, Mitochondria-Mediated, Non-Apoptotic Cell Death In Metastatic Melanoma, Wanlu Du, Mingxue Gu, Meiqin Hu, Timothy Nold, Prateeksunder Pinchi, Wei Chen, Michael Ryan, Ahmed Bannaga, Haoxing Xu 2022 University of Michigan - Ann Arbor

Lysosomal Zn 2+ Release Triggers Rapid, Mitochondria-Mediated, Non-Apoptotic Cell Death In Metastatic Melanoma, Wanlu Du, Mingxue Gu, Meiqin Hu, Timothy Nold, Prateeksunder Pinchi, Wei Chen, Michael Ryan, Ahmed Bannaga, Haoxing Xu

Medical Student Research Symposium

During tumor progression, lysosome function is often maladaptively upregulated to match the high energy demand required for cancer cell hyper-proliferation and invasion. Here, we report that mucolipin TRP channel 1 (TRPML1), a lysosomal Ca2+ and Zn2+ release channel that regulates multiple aspects of lysosome function, is dramatically upregulated in metastatic melanoma cells compared with normal cells. TRPML-specific synthetic agonists (ML-SAs) are sufficient to induce rapid (within hours) lysosomal Zn2+-dependent necrotic cell death in metastatic melanoma cells while completely sparing normal cells. ML-SA-caused mitochondria swelling and dysfunction lead to cellular ATP depletion. While pharmacological inhibition or genetic silencing of TRPML1 in …


Il-10 And Tgf-Β Increase Connexin-43 Expression And Membrane Potential Of Hl-1 Cardiomyocytes Coupled With Raw 264.7 Macrophages, Cora B. Cox, Mike Castro, Thomas L. Brown, Nancy J. Bigley 2022 Wright State University

Il-10 And Tgf-Β Increase Connexin-43 Expression And Membrane Potential Of Hl-1 Cardiomyocytes Coupled With Raw 264.7 Macrophages, Cora B. Cox, Mike Castro, Thomas L. Brown, Nancy J. Bigley

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

Cardiac resident macrophages facilitate electrical conduction by interacting with cardiomyocytes via connexin-43 (Cx43) hemichannels. Cx43 is critical for impulse propagation and coordination between muscle contractions. Cardiomyocyte electrophysiology can be altered when coupled with noncardiomyocyte cell types such as M2c tissue-resident macrophages. Using cocultures of murine HL-1 cardiomyocytes and RAW 264.7 macrophages, we examined the hypothesis that cytokine signals, TGF-β1 and IL-10, upregulate Cx43 expression at points of contact between the two cell types. These cytokine signals maintain the macrophages in an M2c anti-inflammatory phenotype, mimicking cardiac resident macrophages. The electrophysiology of cardiomyocytes was examined using di-8-ANEPPS potentiometric dye, which reflects …


Primary Cilia Of The Cardiac Neural Crest & Hedgehog-Mediated Mechanisms Of Congenital Heart Disease, Lindsey A. Fitzsimons 2022 University of Maine

Primary Cilia Of The Cardiac Neural Crest & Hedgehog-Mediated Mechanisms Of Congenital Heart Disease, Lindsey A. Fitzsimons

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Elimination of primary cilia in cardiac neural crest cell (CNCC) progenitors is hypothesized to cause a variety of congenital heart defects (CHDs), including atrioventricular septal defects, and malformations of the developing cardiac outflow tract. We present an in vivo model of CHD resulting from the conditional elimination of primary cilia from CNCC using multiple, Wnt1:Cre-loxP, neural crest-specific systems, targeting two distinctive, but critical, primary cilia structural genes: Intraflagellar transport protein 88 (Ift88) or kinesin family member 3A (Kif3a). CNCC loss of primary cilia leads to widespread CHD, where homozygous mutant embryos (MUT) display a variety of outflow tract malformations, septation …


Regulation Of Pancreatic Cancer Progression By Micronutrients, Chunbo He 2022 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Regulation Of Pancreatic Cancer Progression By Micronutrients, Chunbo He

Theses & Dissertations

Cancer cells rely on altered metabolism to support their uncontrolled proliferation under harsh conditions. Understanding the mechanisms of how metabolic alterations support tumor growth may provide a way to enhance current therapies. Vitamins are micronutrients that our body needs in small quantities but are essential for health maintenance. A number of metabolic processes relevant to cancer initiation and progression are also regulated by vitamins. Here, our studies showed that pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells display an aberrant metabolism of vitamin B6 (VB6) to support their fast proliferation. VB6 was highly demanded and rapidly metabolized by PDAC cells. Depletion of VB6 …


The Brodmann Area 39/40 Of The Brain In Alzheimer’S, Mild Cognitive Impairment, And No Cognitive Impairment Subjects At Advanced Age Demonstrate Comparable Levels Of Blood-Brain Barrier Breach, Dhara Rana, Forum Mangrola, Randel L. Swanson, Venkat Venkataraman, David A. Bennett, Zoe Arvanitakis, David Libon, Robert Nagele, Nimish Acharya 2022 Rowan University

The Brodmann Area 39/40 Of The Brain In Alzheimer’S, Mild Cognitive Impairment, And No Cognitive Impairment Subjects At Advanced Age Demonstrate Comparable Levels Of Blood-Brain Barrier Breach, Dhara Rana, Forum Mangrola, Randel L. Swanson, Venkat Venkataraman, David A. Bennett, Zoe Arvanitakis, David Libon, Robert Nagele, Nimish Acharya

Rowan-Virtua Research Day

• Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most common form of dementia

• Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), specifically amnestic subtype, more likely to progress to AD

• Pathogenesis Theories:

  • o Accumulation of amyloid-beta peptides and neurofibrillary tangles containing hyperphosphorylated neuronal tau protein
  • o Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) dysfunction is associated with AD pathogenesis

• Brodmann area 39/40: regions of parietal cortex are responsible for language, spatial cognition, memory retrieval, attention, phonological processing, and emotional processing

• Hypothesis: An increased BBB permeability in Brodmann area 39/40 of AD and age-matched MCI and no cognitive impairment (NCI) subjects


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