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Immune Recognition Of Self Nucleic Acids Driven By Endogenous Antimicrobial Peptides: Role In Autoimmunity, Dipyaman Ganguly 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Immune Recognition Of Self Nucleic Acids Driven By Endogenous Antimicrobial Peptides: Role In Autoimmunity, Dipyaman Ganguly

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Innate immune recognition of extracellular host-derived self-DNA and self-RNA is prevented by endosomal seclusion of the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the dendritic cells (DCs). However, in psoriasis plasmacytoid dendritic cells have been found to be able to sense self-DNA molecules in complex with the endogenous cationic antimicrobial peptide LL37, which are internalized into the endosomal compartments and thus can access TLR9. We investigated whether this endogenous peptide can also interact with extracellular self-RNA and lead to DC activation. We found that LL37 binds self-RNA as well as self-DNA going into an electrostatic interaction; forms micro-aggregates of nano-scale particles protected from ...


Human Papillomavirus And Survival Of Patients With Oropharyngeal Cancer., K Kian Ang, Jonathan Harris, Richard Wheeler, Randal Weber, David I Rosenthal, Phuc Felix Nguyen-Tân, William H Westra, Christine H Chung, Richard C Jordan, Charles Lu, Harold Kim, Rita S. Axelrod, MD, C Craig Silverman, Kevin P Redmond, Maura L Gillison 2010 University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center

Human Papillomavirus And Survival Of Patients With Oropharyngeal Cancer., K Kian Ang, Jonathan Harris, Richard Wheeler, Randal Weber, David I Rosenthal, Phuc Felix Nguyen-Tân, William H Westra, Christine H Chung, Richard C Jordan, Charles Lu, Harold Kim, Rita S. Axelrod, Md, C Craig Silverman, Kevin P Redmond, Maura L Gillison

Jefferson Hospital Staff Papers and Presentations

BACKGROUND: Oropharyngeal squamous-cell carcinomas caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) are associated with favorable survival, but the independent prognostic significance of tumor HPV status remains unknown.

METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of the association between tumor HPV status and survival among patients with stage III or IV oropharyngeal squamous-cell carcinoma who were enrolled in a randomized trial comparing accelerated-fractionation radiotherapy (with acceleration by means of concomitant boost radiotherapy) with standard-fractionation radiotherapy, each combined with cisplatin therapy, in patients with squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Proportional-hazards models were used to compare the risk of death among patients with HPV-positive ...


Q-Ve-Oph, A Negative Control For O-Phenoxy-Conjugated Caspase Inhibitors, Benjamin Southerland, Kashmira Kulkarni-Datar, Chanel Keoni, Rebecca Bricker, William C. Grunwald Jr., Daniel M. Ketcha, Eugene Hern, David R. Cool, Thomas L. Brown 2010 Wright State University - Main Campus

Q-Ve-Oph, A Negative Control For O-Phenoxy-Conjugated Caspase Inhibitors, Benjamin Southerland, Kashmira Kulkarni-Datar, Chanel Keoni, Rebecca Bricker, William C. Grunwald Jr., Daniel M. Ketcha, Eugene Hern, David R. Cool, Thomas L. Brown

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

The broad-spectrum apoptosis (caspase) inhibitor, Q-VD-OPh, has been shown to have no side effects and is effective at a much lower concentration than other FMK-type caspase inhibitors. However, an appropriate negative control to use with this inhibi- tor has not been available. In this study, we developed and analyzed a new compound, based on the Q-VD-OPh backbone, which acts as a cognate negative control. To create the negative control, we substituted a glutamate residue for the aspartate residue to create Q-VE-OPh, thereby retaining the identical charge and molecular properties with only the addition of an extra –CH2 group. The purity ...


Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetics Of Molecular Imaging Nanoparticles For Mrna Detection Determined In Tumor-Bearing Mice., Armin W Opitz, Eric Wickstrom, Mathew L Thakur, Norman J Wagner 2010 Department of Chemical Engineering, Center for Molecular and Engineering Thermodynamics, University of Delaware

Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetics Of Molecular Imaging Nanoparticles For Mrna Detection Determined In Tumor-Bearing Mice., Armin W Opitz, Eric Wickstrom, Mathew L Thakur, Norman J Wagner

Faculty papers Kimmel Cancer Center

Disease detection and management might benefit from external imaging of disease gene mRNAs. Previously we designed molecular imaging nanoparticles (MINs) based on peptide nucleic acids complementary to cancer gene mRNAs. The MINs included contrast agents and analogs of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Analysis of MIN tumor uptake data showed stronger binding in tumors than in surrounding tissues. We hypothesized that MINs with an IGF-1 analog stay in circulation by binding to IGF-binding proteins. To test that hypothesis, we fit the tissue distribution results of several MINs in xenograft-bearing mice to a physiological pharmacokinetics model. Fitting experimental tissue distribution data ...


Assessment Of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (Egfr) Expression In Human Meningioma., A Gabriella Wernicke, Adam P Dicker, Michal Whiton, Jana Ivanidze, Terry Hyslop, Elizabeth H Hammond, Arie Perry, David W Andrews, Lawrence Kenyon 2010 Department of Stich Radiation Oncology, Weill Cornell School of Medicine at Cornell University

Assessment Of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (Egfr) Expression In Human Meningioma., A Gabriella Wernicke, Adam P Dicker, Michal Whiton, Jana Ivanidze, Terry Hyslop, Elizabeth H Hammond, Arie Perry, David W Andrews, Lawrence Kenyon

Faculty papers Kimmel Cancer Center

PURPOSE: This study explores whether meningioma expresses epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and determines if there is a correlation between the WHO grade of this tumor and the degree of EGFR expression.

METHODS: Following institutional review board approval, 113 meningioma specimens from 89 patients were chosen. Of these, 85 were used for final analysis. After a blinded review, immunohistochemical stains for EGFR were performed. Staining intensity (SI) was scored on a scale 0-3 (from no staining to strong staining). Staining percentage of immunoreactive cells (SP) was scored 1-5 (from the least to the maximum percent of the specimen staining). Immunohistochemical ...


Inhibition Of Proliferation And Induction Of Apoptosis In Multiple Myeloma Cell Lines By Cd137 Ligand Signaling, Charles A. Gullo PhD, Liang Kai Koh, Wan Lu Pang, Kian Tong Ho, Shi Hao Tan, Herbert Schwarz 2010 Marshall Univeristy

Inhibition Of Proliferation And Induction Of Apoptosis In Multiple Myeloma Cell Lines By Cd137 Ligand Signaling, Charles A. Gullo Phd, Liang Kai Koh, Wan Lu Pang, Kian Tong Ho, Shi Hao Tan, Herbert Schwarz

Biochemistry and Microbiology

Background

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy of terminally-differentiated plasma cells, and the second most prevalent blood cancer. At present there is no cure for MM, and the average prognosis is only three to five years. Current treatments such as chemotherapy are able to prolong a patient's life but rarely prevent relapse of the disease. Even hematopoietic stem cell transplants and novel drug combinations are often not curative, underscoring the need for a continued search for novel therapeutics. CD137 and its ligand are members of the Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) receptor and TNF superfamilies, respectively. Since CD137 ligand cross-linking ...


The Neuroprotective Efficacy Of Antioxidants Against In Vitro Models Of Oxidative Stress And Their Theoretical Application Via Intravitreal Injection Encapsulated In Nanoparticles, Amber J. Ondricek 2010 University of North Texas Health Science Center at Fort Worth

The Neuroprotective Efficacy Of Antioxidants Against In Vitro Models Of Oxidative Stress And Their Theoretical Application Via Intravitreal Injection Encapsulated In Nanoparticles, Amber J. Ondricek

Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Loss Of Stromal Caveolin-1 Independently Predicts Poor Disease-Free Survival And Time To Recurrence In Patients With Prostate Cancer, M. Wagner, A. Dasgupta, F. Sotgia, R. B. West, M. P. Lisanti, A. K. Witkiewicz 2010 Thomas Jefferson University

Loss Of Stromal Caveolin-1 Independently Predicts Poor Disease-Free Survival And Time To Recurrence In Patients With Prostate Cancer, M. Wagner, A. Dasgupta, F. Sotgia, R. B. West, M. P. Lisanti, A. K. Witkiewicz

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Results:

Of the 167 patients originally included in the study, 43 were either lost to follow up or had insufficient clinical data for comparison. Of the remaining 124 cases, 32 showed loss of stromal Cav-1. Statistical analysis revealed no significant association between stromal Cav-1 loss and the usual markers of disease severity including Gleason grade, stage and presence of metastases. Kaplan-Meier curves showed a significant association between stromal Cav-1 loss and poor disease-free survival and time to recurrence (p<0.05), but no significant association with cancer-specific survival.


T-Cell Receptor Cdr3 Sequence But Not Recognition Characteristics Distinguish Autoreactive Effector And Foxp3+ Regulatory T-Cells, Xin Liu 2010 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

T-Cell Receptor Cdr3 Sequence But Not Recognition Characteristics Distinguish Autoreactive Effector And Foxp3+ Regulatory T-Cells, Xin Liu

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Regulatory T-cells (Treg) play an important role in maintaining immune tolerance to self-antigens and in suppressing excessive immune responses in the host. The source, specificity, and plasticity of the forkhead box transcription factor 3 (Foxp3+) Treg and conventional T (Tconv) cell populations active at sites of autoimmune pathology are not well characterized. To evaluate this, we combined global repertoire analyses and functional assessments of isolated T-cell receptors (TCR) from TCRa retrogenic mice with autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Treg and Tconv cell TCR repertoires were distinct, and autoantigen-specific Treg and Tconv cells were enriched in diseased tissue. Autoantigen sensitivity and fine specificity ...


Ns1 Of H5n1 Interacts With Sap-97 In A Pdz-Dependent Manner To Disrupt Epithelial Barrier Integrity, Veronica Garcia Conoley 2010 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Ns1 Of H5n1 Interacts With Sap-97 In A Pdz-Dependent Manner To Disrupt Epithelial Barrier Integrity, Veronica Garcia Conoley

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

The ability of influenza A virus to cause global pandemics has been a great concern throughout history and poses a serious health risk worldwide. Pandemic outbreaks throughout history, such as the Spanish flu of 1918, have claimed the lives of millions of people worldwide. The current outbreak of avian influenza (H5N1) that began in 1997 is still claiming lives, and therefore efforts to understand the mechanisms of pathogenesis in this highly virulent virus are of the utmost importance. According to the World Health Organization, there have been 447 reported H5N1 human cases, resulting in 263 deaths. The pathology of H5N1 ...


Il-2 Regulation Of Il-24 Expression Leads To Growth Suppression Of Melanoma Cells, Emily Jen 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Il-2 Regulation Of Il-24 Expression Leads To Growth Suppression Of Melanoma Cells, Emily Jen

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Melanoma is known to be highly resistant to chemotherapy. Treatment with high dose IL-2 has shown significant clinical benefit in a minority of metastatic melanoma patients and has lead to long term survival in a few cases. However, this treatment is associated with excessive multiorgan toxicities, which severely limits its use. We hypothesize that one mechanism of effective IL-2 therapy is through the direct upregulation of IL-24 production in melanoma tumors and subsequent IL-24 mediated tumor growth suppression.

Five melanoma cell lines were treated with high dose recombinant hIL-2 at 1000U/ml. Three of the cell lines (A375, WM1341, WM793 ...


Cip4 And Src In Promoting The Migration And Invasion Of Breast Cancers, Christina S. Pichot 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Cip4 And Src In Promoting The Migration And Invasion Of Breast Cancers, Christina S. Pichot

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Cellular invasion represents a critical early step in the metastatic cascade, and many proteins have been identified as part of an “invasive signature.” The non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src is commonly upregulated in breast cancers, often in conjunction with overexpression of EGFR. Signaling from this pathway stimulates cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and frequently involves proteins that regulate the cytoskeleton. My data demonstrates that inhibition of Src, using the small-molecule inhibitor dasatinib, impairs cellular migration and invasion. Furthermore, Src inhibition sensitizes the cells to the effects of the chemotherapeutic doxorubicin resulting in dramatic, synergistic inhibition of proliferation with combination treatments. The ...


Diabetes Induced Changes In Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Alexandra Stolzing, Donna Sellers, Owen Llewelyn, Andy Scutt 2010 University of Sheffield

Diabetes Induced Changes In Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Alexandra Stolzing, Donna Sellers, Owen Llewelyn, Andy Scutt

Donna Sellers

Diabetes mellitus, the single most important cause of vascular disease in the industrialized world, is also associated with bone loss and impaired fracture healing. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potential to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes and other mesenchymal cells and play a central role in bone formation and repair. Because of this, we have investigated the possibility that diabetes has direct effects on MSCs in vivo and that this might represent a cellular basis for diabetes-induced osteoporosis. We isolated MSCs from rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes and analysed them ex vivo for their ability to proliferate and differentiate ...


Capsaicin Displays Anti-Proliferative Activity Against Human Small Cell Lung Cancer In Cell Culture And Nude Mice Models Via The E2f Pathway, Kathleen C. Brown, Theodore R. Witte, W. Elaine Hardman, Haitao Luo, Yi C. Chen, A. Betts Carpenter, Jamie K. Lau, Piyali Dasgupta 2010 Marshall University

Capsaicin Displays Anti-Proliferative Activity Against Human Small Cell Lung Cancer In Cell Culture And Nude Mice Models Via The E2f Pathway, Kathleen C. Brown, Theodore R. Witte, W. Elaine Hardman, Haitao Luo, Yi C. Chen, A. Betts Carpenter, Jamie K. Lau, Piyali Dasgupta

Biochemistry and Microbiology

Background: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is characterized by rapid progression and low survival rates. Therefore, novel therapeutic agents are urgently needed for this disease. Capsaicin, the active ingredient of chilli peppers, displays antiproliferative activity in prostate and epidermoid cancer in vitro. However, the anti-proliferative activity of capsaicin has not been studied in human SCLCs. The present manuscript fills this void of knowledge and explores the anti-proliferative effect of capsaicin in SCLC in vitro and in vivo.

Methodology/Principal Findings: BrdU assays and PCNA ELISAs showed that capsaicin displays robust anti-proliferative activity in four human SCLC cell lines. Furthermore, capsaicin ...


Inference Of Cancer-Specific Gene Regulatory Networks Using Soft Computing Rules., Xiaosheng Wang, Osamu Gotoh 2010 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Inference Of Cancer-Specific Gene Regulatory Networks Using Soft Computing Rules., Xiaosheng Wang, Osamu Gotoh

Journal Articles: Genetics, Cell Biology & Anatomy

Perturbations of gene regulatory networks are essentially responsible for oncogenesis. Therefore, inferring the gene regulatory networks is a key step to overcoming cancer. In this work, we propose a method for inferring directed gene regulatory networks based on soft computing rules, which can identify important cause-effect regulatory relations of gene expression. First, we identify important genes associated with a specific cancer (colon cancer) using a supervised learning approach. Next, we reconstruct the gene regulatory networks by inferring the regulatory relations among the identified genes, and their regulated relations by other genes within the genome. We obtain two meaningful findings. One ...


Transgenic Rat Model Of Neurodegeneration Caused By Mutation In The Tdp Gene., Hongxia Zhou, Cao Huang, Han Chen, Dian Wang, Carlisle P Landel, Pedro Yuxing Xia, Robert Bowser, Yong-Jian Liu, Xu Gang Xia 2010 Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA

Transgenic Rat Model Of Neurodegeneration Caused By Mutation In The Tdp Gene., Hongxia Zhou, Cao Huang, Han Chen, Dian Wang, Carlisle P Landel, Pedro Yuxing Xia, Robert Bowser, Yong-Jian Liu, Xu Gang Xia

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

TDP-43 proteinopathies have been observed in a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases. Mutations in the gene encoding TDP-43 (i.e., TDP) have been identified in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and in frontotemporal lobe degeneration associated with motor neuron disease. To study the consequences of TDP mutation in an intact system, we created transgenic rats expressing normal human TDP or a mutant form of human TDP with a M337V substitution. Overexpression of mutant, but not normal, TDP caused widespread neurodegeneration that predominantly affected the motor system. TDP mutation reproduced ALS phenotypes in transgenic rats, as seen by progressive degeneration of motor ...


Azi-Isoflurane, A Photolabel Analog Of The Commonly Used Inhaled General Anesthetic Isoflurane., Roderic G Eckenhoff, Jin Xi, Motomu Shimaoka, Aditya Bhattacharji, Manuel Covarrubias, William P Dailey 2010 University of Pennsylvania

Azi-Isoflurane, A Photolabel Analog Of The Commonly Used Inhaled General Anesthetic Isoflurane., Roderic G Eckenhoff, Jin Xi, Motomu Shimaoka, Aditya Bhattacharji, Manuel Covarrubias, William P Dailey

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Volatility and low-affinity hamper an ability to define molecular targets of the inhaled anesthetics. Photolabels have proven to be a useful approach in this regard, although none have closely mimicked contemporary drugs. We report here the synthesis and validation of azi-isoflurane, a compound constructed by adding a diazirinyl moiety to the methyl carbon of the commonly used general anesthetic isoflurane. Azi-isoflurane is slightly more hydrophobic than isoflurane, and more potent in tadpoles. This novel compound inhibits Shaw2 K(+) channel currents similarly to isoflurane and binds to apoferritin with enhanced affinity. Finally, when irradiated at 300 nm, azi-isoflurane adducts to residues ...


A Robust Gene Selection Method For Microarray-Based Cancer Classification., Xiaosheng Wang, Osamu Gotoh 2010 University of Nebraska Medical Center

A Robust Gene Selection Method For Microarray-Based Cancer Classification., Xiaosheng Wang, Osamu Gotoh

Journal Articles: Genetics, Cell Biology & Anatomy

Gene selection is of vital importance in molecular classification of cancer using high-dimensional gene expression data. Because of the distinct characteristics inherent to specific cancerous gene expression profiles, developing flexible and robust feature selection methods is extremely crucial. We investigated the properties of one feature selection approach proposed in our previous work, which was the generalization of the feature selection method based on the depended degree of attribute in rough sets. We compared the feature selection method with the established methods: the depended degree, chi-square, information gain, Relief-F and symmetric uncertainty, and analyzed its properties through a series of classification ...


Bitc Sensitizes Pancreatic Adenocarcinomas To Trail-Induced Apoptosis, Christina A. Wicker, Ravi P. Sahu, Kashmira Kulkarni-Datar, Sanjay K. Srivastava, Thomas L. Brown 2010 Wright State University - Main Campus

Bitc Sensitizes Pancreatic Adenocarcinomas To Trail-Induced Apoptosis, Christina A. Wicker, Ravi P. Sahu, Kashmira Kulkarni-Datar, Sanjay K. Srivastava, Thomas L. Brown

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is an aggressive cancer with a greater than 95% mortality rate and short survival after diagnosis. Chemotherapeutic resistance hinders successful treatment. This resistance is often associated with mutations in codon 12 of the K-Ras gene (K-Ras 12), which is present in over 90% of all pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Codon 12 mutations maintain Ras in a constitutively active state leading to continuous cellular proliferation. Our study determined if TRAIL resistance in pancreatic adenocarcinomas with K-Ras 12 mutations could be overcome by first sensitizing the cells with Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC). BITC is a component of cruciferous vegetables and a cell cycle ...


Proliferation Of Aneuploid Human Cells Is Limited By A P53-Dependent Mechanism, Sarah L. Thompson, Duane A. Compton 2010 Dartmouth College

Proliferation Of Aneuploid Human Cells Is Limited By A P53-Dependent Mechanism, Sarah L. Thompson, Duane A. Compton

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Most solid tumors are aneuploid, and it has been proposed that aneuploidy is the consequence of an elevated rate of chromosome missegregation in a process called chromosomal instability (CIN). However, the relationship of aneuploidy and CIN is unclear because the proliferation of cultured diploid cells is compromised by chromosome missegregation. The mechanism for this intolerance of nondiploid genomes is unknown. In this study, we show that in otherwise diploid human cells, chromosome missegregation causes a cell cycle delay with nuclear accumulation of the tumor suppressor p53 and the cyclin kinase inhibitor p21. Deletion of the p53 gene permits the accumulation ...


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