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Parp Inhibitors For The Treatment Of Brca1/2-Mutated Metastatic Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Ranju Kunwor, Daniel P. Silver, Maysa Abu-Khalaf 2023 Thomas Jefferson University

Parp Inhibitors For The Treatment Of Brca1/2-Mutated Metastatic Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Ranju Kunwor, Daniel P. Silver, Maysa Abu-Khalaf

Kimmel Cancer Center Faculty Papers

BACKGROUND: The PARP inhibitors (PARPis) olaparib and talazoparib are currently approved for the treatment of deleterious germline BRCA1/2-mutated (gBRCA+) metastatic breast cancer (MBC). These approvals were based on improvements in progression-free survival (PFS) observed in two randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Other PARPis, such as veliparib and niraparib, have also been studied. We conducted this meta-analysis of RCTs to assess the PFS and overall survival (OS) benefits of PARPis in gBRCA + MBC.

METHODS: We performed a systematic search for RCTs using the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases up to March 2021. Only phase II and III …


A Design, Development, And Evaluation Of Bio-Patch For Myocardial Tissue Repair, Yaya Zhang 2023 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

A Design, Development, And Evaluation Of Bio-Patch For Myocardial Tissue Repair, Yaya Zhang

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Introduction. Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is a major concern of human health issue. The structural repair and functional recovery of injured hearts is a major challenge in the clinical setting. Preclinical studies over last 10 years have demonstrated the potential of using stem cells to treat IHD, but the efficacy of this therapy is jeopardized by uncontrollable migration and low survival of the injected stem cells. An approach based on tissue engineering enabling target-specific stem cell delivery such as cardiac patches has emerged as an alternative solution for stem cell therapy for IHD. It employs scaffold materials to engulf various …


In Vitro Gametogenesis: A Research Timeline And Implications For The Future Of Assisted Reproductive Technology, Nicole Buckley 2023 Liberty University

In Vitro Gametogenesis: A Research Timeline And Implications For The Future Of Assisted Reproductive Technology, Nicole Buckley

Senior Honors Theses

The novel reproductive technology, In Vitro Gametogenesis (IVG), includes the process of obtaining mature viable germ cells from pluripotent stem cells. To do so, embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells are specified to primordial germ cells and differentiated to form gametes that undergo further maturation, which subsequently may undergo in vitro fertilization to form an embryo. With this capability, IVG holds the power to provide a novel treatment option for human infertility. As of now, research has been conducted on mice successfully, and with limited success in humans. Future research will likely focus on discovering the species-specific differences …


Cellular Heterogeneity And Stem Cells Of Vascular Endothelial Cells In Blood Vessel Formation And Homeostasis: Insights From Single-Cell Rna Sequencing, Taku Wakabayashi, Hisamichi Naito 2023 Thomas Jefferson University

Cellular Heterogeneity And Stem Cells Of Vascular Endothelial Cells In Blood Vessel Formation And Homeostasis: Insights From Single-Cell Rna Sequencing, Taku Wakabayashi, Hisamichi Naito

Wills Eye Hospital Papers

Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) that constitute the inner surface of blood vessels are essential for new vessel formation and organ homeostasis. ECs display remarkable phenotypic heterogeneity across different organs and the vascular tree during angiogenesis and homeostasis. Recent advances in single cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) technologies have allowed a new understanding of EC heterogeneity in both mice and humans. In particular, scRNA-seq has identified new molecular signatures for arterial, venous and capillary ECs in different organs, as well as previously unrecognized specialized EC subtypes, such as the aerocytes localized in the alveolar capillaries of the lung. scRNA-seq has also revealed …


Deciphering The N-Glycomic And Collagen Proteomic Molecular Signatures Towards Breast Cancer Control And Prevention, Denys Rujchanarong 2023 Medical University of South Carolina

Deciphering The N-Glycomic And Collagen Proteomic Molecular Signatures Towards Breast Cancer Control And Prevention, Denys Rujchanarong

MUSC Theses and Dissertations

Breast cancer is the most diagnosed cancer among women worldwide and the incidence rates are rising annually. The rates of metastatic breast cancer are projected to increase by 54.3% from 2015 to 2030. Breast stroma plays a significant role in breast cancer risk and progression yet remains poorly understood. In breast stroma, regulation of post-translational modifications (PMTs) is representative of the health state of the local microenvironment. Two abundant PTMs in the extracellular matrix include hydroxylation of prolines (HYP) and N-glycosylation in collagen and non-collagen proteins, respectively. Here, mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) was used to investigate the spatial N-glycomic and …


Opa1 Disease-Causing Mutants Have Domain-Specific Effects On Mitochondrial Ultrastructure And Fusion, Benjamín Cartes-Saavedra, Daniel Lagos, Josefa Macuada, Duxan Arancibia, Florence Burté, Marcela K. Sjöberg-Herrera, María Estela Andrés, Rita Horvath, Patrick Yu-Wai-Man, György Hajnóczky, Verónica Eisner 2023 Thomas Jefferson University

Opa1 Disease-Causing Mutants Have Domain-Specific Effects On Mitochondrial Ultrastructure And Fusion, Benjamín Cartes-Saavedra, Daniel Lagos, Josefa Macuada, Duxan Arancibia, Florence Burté, Marcela K. Sjöberg-Herrera, María Estela Andrés, Rita Horvath, Patrick Yu-Wai-Man, György Hajnóczky, Verónica Eisner

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Inner mitochondrial membrane fusion and cristae shape depend on optic atrophy protein 1, OPA1. Mutations in OPA1 lead to autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA), an important cause of inherited blindness. The Guanosin Triphosphatase (GTPase) and GTPase effector domains (GEDs) of OPA1 are essential for mitochondrial fusion; yet, their specific roles remain elusive. Intriguingly, patients carrying OPA1 GTPase mutations have a higher risk of developing more severe multisystemic symptoms in addition to optic atrophy, suggesting pathogenic contributions for the GTPase and GED domains, respectively. We studied OPA1 GTPase and GED mutations to understand their domain-specific contribution to protein function by analyzing …


Acute Acat1/Soat1 Blockade Increases Mam Cholesterol And Strengthens Er-Mitochondria Connectivity., Taylor C Harned, Radu V Stan, Ze Cao, Rajarshi Chakrabarti, Henry N Higgs, Catherine C Y Chang, Ta Yuan Chang 2023 Thomas Jefferson University

Acute Acat1/Soat1 Blockade Increases Mam Cholesterol And Strengthens Er-Mitochondria Connectivity., Taylor C Harned, Radu V Stan, Ze Cao, Rajarshi Chakrabarti, Henry N Higgs, Catherine C Y Chang, Ta Yuan Chang

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Cholesterol is a key component of all mammalian cell membranes. Disruptions in cholesterol metabolism have been observed in the context of various diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). The genetic and pharmacological blockade of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 1/sterol O-acyltransferase 1 (ACAT1/SOAT1), a cholesterol storage enzyme found on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and enriched at the mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM), has been shown to reduce amyloid pathology and rescue cognitive deficits in mouse models of AD. Additionally, blocking ACAT1/SOAT1 activity stimulates autophagy and lysosomal biogenesis; however, the exact molecular connection between the ACAT1/SOAT1 blockade and these observed benefits remain …


Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling In Osteoblasts Is Required For Load-Induced Bone Formation In Mice, Ibtesam Rajpar, Gaurav Kumar, Paolo Fortina, Ryan E. Tomlinson 2023 Thomas Jefferson University

Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling In Osteoblasts Is Required For Load-Induced Bone Formation In Mice, Ibtesam Rajpar, Gaurav Kumar, Paolo Fortina, Ryan E. Tomlinson

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery Faculty Papers

In mature bone, NGF is produced by osteoblasts following mechanical loading and signals through resident sensory nerves expressing its high affinity receptor, neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 1 (TrkA), to support bone formation. Here, we investigated whether osteoblastic expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a key receptor in the NF-κB signaling pathway, is required to initiate NGF-TrkA signaling required for load-induced bone formation. Although Tlr4 conditional knockout mice have normal skeletal mass and strength in adulthood, the loss of TLR4 signaling significantly reduced lamellar bone formation following loading. Inhibition of TLR4 signaling reduced Ngf expression in primary osteoblasts and RNA …


Supporting A Culture Of Patient Safety: Resident-Led Patient Safety Event Reviews In A Pathology Residency Training Program, Catherine Tucker, Rebecca C. Jaffe,, Allison F Goldberg 2023 Thomas Jefferson University

Supporting A Culture Of Patient Safety: Resident-Led Patient Safety Event Reviews In A Pathology Residency Training Program, Catherine Tucker, Rebecca C. Jaffe,, Allison F Goldberg

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Patient safety is a critical component of quality patient care at any healthcare institution. In order to support a culture of patient safety, and in the context of a hospital-wide patient safety initiative at our institution, we have created and implemented a new patient safety curriculum within our training program. The curriculum is embedded in an introductory course for first-year residents, in which residents gain an understanding of the multifaceted role of the pathologist in patient care. The patient safety curriculum is a resident-centered event review process and includes 1) identification and reporting of a patient safety event, 2) event …


Role Of Ribosome Recycling Factor In Natural Termination And Translational Coupling As A Ribosome Releasing Factor, Yoshio Inokuchi, Fabio Quaglia, Akikazu Hirashima, Yoshihiro Yamamoto, Hideko Kaji, Akira Kaji 2023 Teikyo University

Role Of Ribosome Recycling Factor In Natural Termination And Translational Coupling As A Ribosome Releasing Factor, Yoshio Inokuchi, Fabio Quaglia, Akikazu Hirashima, Yoshihiro Yamamoto, Hideko Kaji, Akira Kaji

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

The role of ribosome recycling factor (RRF) of E. coli was studied in vivo and in vitro. We used the translational coupling without the Shine-Dalgarno sequence of downstream ORF (d-ORF) as a model system of the RRF action in natural termination of protein synthesis. For the in vivo studies we used the translational coupling by the adjacent coat and lysis genes of RNA phage GA sharing the termination and initiation (UAAUG) and temperature sensitive RRF. The d-ORF translation was measured by the expression of the reporter lacZ gene connected to the 5'-terminal part of the lysis gene. The results showed …


Estimated Impact Of Low Isolate Numbers On The Reliability Of Cumulative Antibiogram Data, Christian Tran, John Hargy, Bryan Hess, Matthew Pettengill 2023 Thomas Jefferson University

Estimated Impact Of Low Isolate Numbers On The Reliability Of Cumulative Antibiogram Data, Christian Tran, John Hargy, Bryan Hess, Matthew Pettengill

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Antibiograms are cumulative reports of antimicrobial susceptibility results that are used to guide the selection of empirical antibiotic therapy. Although Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines recommend including only organisms that have at least 30 isolates in an antibiogram, previous studies demonstrated that adherence to this recommendation is highly variable. This paper aims to model the impact of small sample sizes on expected levels of error in cumulative antibiograms by comparing percent susceptibility results for random samples to those of the larger, entire data set. The results demonstrate relatively high error rates when utilizing low numbers of isolates in …


Massive Loss Of Proprioceptive Ia Synapses In Rat Spinal Motoneurons After Nerve Crush Injuries In The Postnatal Period, Ariadna Arbat-Plana, Sara Bolívar, Xavier Navarro, Esther Udina, Francisco J. Alvarez 2023 Wright State University

Massive Loss Of Proprioceptive Ia Synapses In Rat Spinal Motoneurons After Nerve Crush Injuries In The Postnatal Period, Ariadna Arbat-Plana, Sara Bolívar, Xavier Navarro, Esther Udina, Francisco J. Alvarez

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

Peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs) induce the retraction from the ventral horn of the synaptic collaterals of Ia afferents injured in the nerve, effectively removing Ia synapses from α-motoneurons. The loss of Ia input impairs functional recovery and could explain, in part, better recovery after PNIs with better Ia synaptic preservation. Synaptic losses correlate with injury severity, speed, and efficiency of muscle reinnervation and requires ventral microglia activation. It is unknown whether this plasticity is age dependent. In neonates, axotomized motoneurons and sensory neurons undergo apoptosis, but after postnatal day 10 most survive. The goal of this study was to analyze …


Development Of A Novel Mathematical Model That Explains Sars-Cov-2 Infection Dynamics In Caco-2 Cells, Vladimir Staroverov, Stepan Nersisyan, Alexei Galatenko, Dmitriy Alekseev, Sofya Lukashevich, Fedor Ployakov, Nikita Anisimov, Alexander Tonevitsky 2023 HSE University

Development Of A Novel Mathematical Model That Explains Sars-Cov-2 Infection Dynamics In Caco-2 Cells, Vladimir Staroverov, Stepan Nersisyan, Alexei Galatenko, Dmitriy Alekseev, Sofya Lukashevich, Fedor Ployakov, Nikita Anisimov, Alexander Tonevitsky

COVID-19 Papers, Posters, and Presentations

Mathematical modeling is widely used to study within-host viral dynamics. However, to the best of our knowledge, for the case of SARS-CoV-2 such analyses were mainly conducted with the use of viral load data and for the wild type (WT) variant of the virus. In addition, only few studies analyzed models for in vitro data, which are less noisy and more reproducible. In this work we collected multiple data types for SARS-CoV-2-infected Caco-2 cell lines, including infectious virus titers, measurements of intracellular viral RNA, cell viability data and percentage of infected cells for the WT and Delta variants. We showed …


Fast Blue And Cholera Toxin-B Survival Guide For Alpha-Motoneurons Labeling: Less Is Better In Young B6sjl Mice, But More Is Better In Aged C57bl/J Mice, Hasan Farid, Weston B. Gleford, Lori L. Goss, Teresa L. Garrett, Sherif M. Elbasiouny 2023 Wright State University

Fast Blue And Cholera Toxin-B Survival Guide For Alpha-Motoneurons Labeling: Less Is Better In Young B6sjl Mice, But More Is Better In Aged C57bl/J Mice, Hasan Farid, Weston B. Gleford, Lori L. Goss, Teresa L. Garrett, Sherif M. Elbasiouny

Neuroscience, Cell Biology & Physiology Faculty Publications

Fast Blue (FB) and Cholera Toxin-B (CTB) are two retrograde tracers extensively used to label alpha-motoneurons (α-MNs). The overall goals of the present study were to (1) assess the effectiveness of different FB and CTB protocols in labeling α-MNs, (2) compare the labeling quality of these tracers at standard concentrations reported in the literature (FB 2% and CTB 0.1%) versus lower concentrations to overcome tracer leakage, and (3) determine an optimal protocol for labeling α-MNs in young B6SJL and aged C57Bl/J mice (when axonal transport is disrupted by aging). Hindlimb muscles of young B6SJL and aged C57Bl/J mice were intramuscularly …


Editorial: Hallmark Of Cancer: Reprogramming Of Cellular Metabolism, Baljinder Kaur, Yahya Sohrabi, Abhinav Achreja, Michael P. Lisanti, Ubaldo Emilio Martinez-Outshoorn 2023 Punjabi University

Editorial: Hallmark Of Cancer: Reprogramming Of Cellular Metabolism, Baljinder Kaur, Yahya Sohrabi, Abhinav Achreja, Michael P. Lisanti, Ubaldo Emilio Martinez-Outshoorn

Department of Medical Oncology Faculty Papers

No abstract provided.


Molecular Subtyping And Survival Analysis Of Osteosarcoma Reveals Prognostic Biomarkers And Key Canonical Pathways, Siddesh Southekal, Sushil Kumar Shakyawar, Prachi Bajpai, Amr Elkholy, Upender Manne, Nitish Kumar Mishra, Chittibabu Guda 2023 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Molecular Subtyping And Survival Analysis Of Osteosarcoma Reveals Prognostic Biomarkers And Key Canonical Pathways, Siddesh Southekal, Sushil Kumar Shakyawar, Prachi Bajpai, Amr Elkholy, Upender Manne, Nitish Kumar Mishra, Chittibabu Guda

Journal Articles: Genetics, Cell Biology & Anatomy

Osteosarcoma (OS) is a common bone malignancy in children and adolescents. Although histological subtyping followed by improved OS treatment regimens have helped achieve favorable outcomes, a lack of understanding of the molecular subtypes remains a challenge to characterize its genetic heterogeneity and subsequently to identify diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for developing effective treatments. In the present study, global analysis of DNA methylation, and mRNA and miRNA gene expression in OS patient samples were correlated with their clinical characteristics. The mucin family of genes, MUC6, MUC12, and MUC4, were found to be highly mutated in the OS patients. …


A Facile Strategy For The Fabrication Of Cell-Laden Porous Alginate Hydrogels Based On Two-Phase Aqueous Emulsions, Wen Xue, Donghee Lee, Yunfan Kong, Mitchell A. Kuss, Ying Huang, Taesung Kim, Soonkyu Chung, Andrew T. Dudley, Seung-hyun Ro, Bin Duan 2023 University of Nebraska Medical Center

A Facile Strategy For The Fabrication Of Cell-Laden Porous Alginate Hydrogels Based On Two-Phase Aqueous Emulsions, Wen Xue, Donghee Lee, Yunfan Kong, Mitchell A. Kuss, Ying Huang, Taesung Kim, Soonkyu Chung, Andrew T. Dudley, Seung-Hyun Ro, Bin Duan

Journal Articles: Genetics, Cell Biology & Anatomy

Porous alginate (Alg) hydrogels possess many advantages as cell carriers. However, current pore generation methods require either complex or harsh fabrication processes, toxic components, or extra purification steps, limiting the feasibility and affecting the cellular survival and function. In this study, a simple and cell-friendly approach to generate highly porous cell-laden Alg hydrogels based on two-phase aqueous emulsions is reported. The pre-gel solutions, which contain two immiscible aqueous phases of Alg and caseinate (Cas), are cross-linked by calcium ions. The porous structure of the hydrogel construct is formed by subsequently removing the Cas phase from the ion-cross-linked Alg hydrogel. Those …


Msdrp: A Deep Learning Model Based On Multisource Data For Predicting Drug Response, Haochen Zhao, Xiaoyu Zhang, Qichang Zhao, Yaohang Li, Jianxin Wang 2023 Central South University

Msdrp: A Deep Learning Model Based On Multisource Data For Predicting Drug Response, Haochen Zhao, Xiaoyu Zhang, Qichang Zhao, Yaohang Li, Jianxin Wang

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Motivation: Cancer heterogeneity drastically affects cancer therapeutic outcomes. Predicting drug response in vitro is expected to help formulate personalized therapy regimens. In recent years, several computational models based on machine learning and deep learning have been proposed to predict drug response in vitro. However, most of these methods capture drug features based on a single drug description (e.g. drug structure), without considering the relationships between drugs and biological entities (e.g. target, diseases, and side effects). Moreover, most of these methods collect features separately for drugs and cell lines but fail to consider the pairwise interactions between drugs and cell …


Molecular Mechanisms Of Prdm16 As A Tumor Suppressor In Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma, Eric Hurwitz 2023 Virginia Commonwealth University

Molecular Mechanisms Of Prdm16 As A Tumor Suppressor In Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma, Eric Hurwitz

Theses and Dissertations

The transcription factor Prdm16 functions as a potent suppressor of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-b) signaling, whose inactivation is deemed essential to the progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Using the KrasG12D-based mouse model of human PDAC, we surprisingly found that ablating Prdm16 did not block but instead accelerated PDAC formation and progression, suggesting that Prdm16 might function as a tumor suppressor in this malignancy. Subsequent genetic experiments showed that ablating Prdm16 along with Smad4 resulted in a shift from a well-differentiated and confined neoplasm to a highly aggressive and metastatic disease, which was associated with a striking deviation …


Hypoxia Regulates Vessel-Modifying Macrophages And Vice Versa In Tumors, Kayla Jo Steinberger 2023 West Virginia University

Hypoxia Regulates Vessel-Modifying Macrophages And Vice Versa In Tumors, Kayla Jo Steinberger

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Hypoxia, or low oxygen, is a common feature of solid tumors correlating with poor survival in cancer patients. Growing tumors need a blood supply to deliver oxygen. Tumors attempt to re-acquire oxygen by forming new blood vessels from nearby, pre-existing vessels, a process known as angiogenesis. Past treatments aimed at preventing this process yielded not only disappointing results in the clinic but sometimes worsened the patient’s prognosis making the tumor more hypoxic, emphasizing the urgent need for novel targets. In tumors, angiogenesis is notoriously dysfunctional resulting in leaky, under-perfused blood vessels which cannot adequately deliver oxygen and exacerbates hypoxia. Emerging …


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