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Arl2bp, A Novel Ciliopathy Protein, Is Required For Cilia Microtubule Formation, Abigail Ruth Moye 2018 West Virginia University

Arl2bp, A Novel Ciliopathy Protein, Is Required For Cilia Microtubule Formation, Abigail Ruth Moye

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Cilia are specialized organelles essential for cellular function. Not surprisingly, mutations in cilia- related genes are linked to multi-syndromic diseases termed ciliopathies. These include blinding diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP). One such novel gene is ARL2BP (ARL2-binding protein) and is linked to RP and situs inversus (organ reversal) in humans, a phenotype produced by defects in the nodal cilia of developing embryos. Defects in photoreceptor cilia, as well as situs inversus in human patients, suggest that ARL2BP plays an invaluable role in the structure and function of cilia. However little is known about the role for this protein in ...


Cks1 Expression In Melanocytic Nevi And Melanoma, Anna A. Brożyna, Andrew Aplin, Cynthia Cohen, Grant Carlson, Andrew Joseph Page, Michael Murphy, Andrzej T. Slominski, J. Andrew Carlson 2017 Nicolaus Copernicus University Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz

Cks1 Expression In Melanocytic Nevi And Melanoma, Anna A. Brożyna, Andrew Aplin, Cynthia Cohen, Grant Carlson, Andrew Joseph Page, Michael Murphy, Andrzej T. Slominski, J. Andrew Carlson

Department of Cancer Biology Faculty Papers

Cyclin-dependent kinase subunit 1 (Cks1) regulates the degradation of p27, an important G1-S inhibitor, which is up regulated by MAPK pathway activation. In this study, we sought to determine whether Cks1 expression is increased in melanocytic tumors and correlates with outcome and/or other clinicopathologic prognostic markers. Cks1 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 298 melanocytic lesions. The frequency and intensity of cytoplasmic and nuclear expression was scored as a labeling index and correlated with clinico-pathological data. Nuclear Cks1 protein was found in 63% of melanocytic nevi, 89% primary and 90% metastatic melanomas with mean labeling index of 7 ± 16 ...


Novel Therapeutic Strategies For Treatment Of Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer, Matthew A. Ingersoll 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Novel Therapeutic Strategies For Treatment Of Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer, Matthew A. Ingersoll

Theses & Dissertations

Prostate cancer (PCa) remains the most commonly diagnosed solid tumor and is the third leading cause of cancer-related death in United States men. While androgen deprivation therapy is the current standard-of-care treatment for metastatic PCa, most patients eventually relapse and develop castration-resistant (CR) tumors, for which there is currently no effective treatment. Therefore, synthesis of novel therapeutic agents and identification of alternative target proteins are necessary to improve treatment. Herein, I investigate the efficacy of novel imidazopyridine and statin derivatives as alternative therapeutic compounds. These molecules not only inhibit androgen receptor signaling, but also block activation of the AKT axis ...


Proteomic Characterization Of Human Multipotent Stromal Cells Secreted Proteins With Therapeutic Potential For Β-Cell Regeneration, Miljan Kuljanin 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Proteomic Characterization Of Human Multipotent Stromal Cells Secreted Proteins With Therapeutic Potential For Β-Cell Regeneration, Miljan Kuljanin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Novel strategies to stimulate the expansion of β-cell mass in situ are warranted for diabetes therapy. Cell-replacement therapies for the treatment of diabetes have become a focal point in recent years. Endogenous regeneration of β-cell mass has been demonstrated using human multipotent stromal cells (hMSC). However, the secretory factors responsible for initiating endogenous regeneration remain unknown. Successful large-scale proteomic applications to address these questions have been limited in part by difficulties in correctly selecting the appropriate methodologies. Thus, the goal of this thesis was a combination of assessing different proteomic workflows to facilitate investigation into hMSC biology, applying these methods ...


A Simple And Accurate Rule-Based Modeling Framework For Simulation Of Autocrine/Paracrine Stimulation Of Glioblastoma Cell Motility And Proliferation By L1cam In 2-D Culture., Justin Caccavale, David Fiumara, Michael Stapf, Liedeke Sweitzer, Hannah J. Anderson, Jonathan Gorky, Prasad Dhurjati, Deni S. Galileo 2017 University of Delaware

A Simple And Accurate Rule-Based Modeling Framework For Simulation Of Autocrine/Paracrine Stimulation Of Glioblastoma Cell Motility And Proliferation By L1cam In 2-D Culture., Justin Caccavale, David Fiumara, Michael Stapf, Liedeke Sweitzer, Hannah J. Anderson, Jonathan Gorky, Prasad Dhurjati, Deni S. Galileo

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a devastating brain cancer for which there is no known cure. Its malignancy is due to rapid cell division along with high motility and invasiveness of cells into the brain tissue. Simple 2-dimensional laboratory assays (e.g., a scratch assay) commonly are used to measure the effects of various experimental perturbations, such as treatment with chemical inhibitors. Several mathematical models have been developed to aid the understanding of the motile behavior and proliferation of GBM cells. However, many are mathematically complicated, look at multiple interdependent phenomena, and/or use modeling software not freely available to ...


Revealing A Non-Canonical Role Of Anti-Apoptotic Mcl-1 In Early Embryonic Development, Xue Yang 2017 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Revealing A Non-Canonical Role Of Anti-Apoptotic Mcl-1 In Early Embryonic Development, Xue Yang

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

MCL-1, a well-known pro-survival BCL-2 family member, is indispensable for the survival of various cellular lineages and is also among the most frequently amplified genes in a variety of human malignancies. Gene ablation studies previously revealed that Mcl-1 deficiency leads to embryonic lethality around E3.5 during peri-implantation stage. Strikingly, the study did not detect any increase in apoptotic cells of the blastocyst, indicating a function of MCL-1 beyond regulating apoptosis. Our previous studies revealed an unrecognized role of MCL-1 in promoting mitochondrial physiology, which is independent of its classical anti-apoptotic function and requires being imported into the mitochondrial matrix ...


The Role Of Rnf4 In Stripping Transcriptionally-Active Huntingtin, Jen Peek 2017 College of William and Mary

The Role Of Rnf4 In Stripping Transcriptionally-Active Huntingtin, Jen Peek

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Altered gene expression is a hallmark of neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington’s disease. The causative agent of Huntington’s is a mutant, aggregation-prone fragment of huntingtin (htt) that aggregates in the cytosol and nuclei of neuronal cells. The severity and onset of Huntington’s is correlated with the length of a polyglutamine (Q) tract encoded in the N-terminus of htt. Little is known about the nuclear accumulation of polyQ expanded htt, how it interacts with chromatin, and dysregulates transcriptional activity. In this thesis, we investigate the effect of nuclear localized htt on reporter gene activation and demonstrate that the ...


Induction Of Immune Surveillance Of The Dysmorphogenic Lens., Caitlin M. Logan, Caitlin J. Bowen, A. Sue Menko 2017 Thomas Jefferson University

Induction Of Immune Surveillance Of The Dysmorphogenic Lens., Caitlin M. Logan, Caitlin J. Bowen, A. Sue Menko

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

The lens has been considered to be an immune privileged site not susceptible to the immune processes normally associated with tissue injury and wound repair. However, as greater insight into the immune surveillance process is gained, we have reevaluated the concept of immune privilege. Our studies using an N-cadherin lens-specific conditional knockout mouse, N-cadΔlens, show that loss of this cell-cell junctional protein leads to lens degeneration, necrosis and fibrotic change, postnatally. The degeneration of this tissue induces an immune response resulting in immune cells populating the lens that contribute to the development of fibrosis. Additionally, we demonstrate that the lens ...


Niche Cadherins Control The Quiescence-To-Activation Transition In Muscle Stem Cells., Aviva J. Goel, Marysia-Kolbe Rieder, Hans-Henning Arnold, Glenn L. Radice, Robert S. Krauss 2017 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

Niche Cadherins Control The Quiescence-To-Activation Transition In Muscle Stem Cells., Aviva J. Goel, Marysia-Kolbe Rieder, Hans-Henning Arnold, Glenn L. Radice, Robert S. Krauss

Department of Medicine Faculty Papers

Many adult stem cells display prolonged quiescence, promoted by cues from their niche. Upon tissue damage, a coordinated transition to the activated state is required because non-physiological breaks in quiescence often lead to stem cell depletion and impaired regeneration. Here, we identify cadherin-mediated adhesion and signaling between muscle stem cells (satellite cells [SCs]) and their myofiber niche as a mechanism that orchestrates the quiescence-to-activation transition. Conditional removal of N-cadherin and M-cadherin in mice leads to a break in SC quiescence, with long-term expansion of a regeneration-proficient SC pool. These SCs have an incomplete disruption of the myofiber-SC adhesive junction and ...


Ros Control Mitochondrial Motility Through P38 And The Motor Adaptor Miro/Trak., Valentina Debattisti, Akos A. Gerencser, Masao Saotome, Sudipto Das, György Hajnóczky 2017 Thomas Jefferson University

Ros Control Mitochondrial Motility Through P38 And The Motor Adaptor Miro/Trak., Valentina Debattisti, Akos A. Gerencser, Masao Saotome, Sudipto Das, György Hajnóczky

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Mitochondrial distribution and motility are recognized as central to many cellular functions, but their regulation by signaling mechanisms remains to be elucidated. Here, we report that reactive oxygen species (ROS), either derived from an extracellular source or intracellularly generated, control mitochondrial distribution and function by dose-dependently, specifically, and reversibly decreasing mitochondrial motility in both rat hippocampal primary cultured neurons and cell lines. ROS decrease motility independently of cytoplasmic [Ca2+], mitochondrial membrane potential, or permeability transition pore opening, known effectors of oxidative stress. However, multiple lines of genetic and pharmacological evidence support that a ROS-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), p38α, is ...


Role Of Microglial Amylin Receptors In Mediating Beta Amyloid (Aβ)-Induced Inflammation, Wen Fu, Vlatka Vukojevic, Aarti Patel, Rania Soudy, David MacTavish, David Westaway, Kamaljit Kaur, Valeri Goncharuk, Jack Jhamandas 2017 University of Alberta

Role Of Microglial Amylin Receptors In Mediating Beta Amyloid (Aβ)-Induced Inflammation, Wen Fu, Vlatka Vukojevic, Aarti Patel, Rania Soudy, David Mactavish, David Westaway, Kamaljit Kaur, Valeri Goncharuk, Jack Jhamandas

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Background: Neuroinflammation in the brain consequent to activation of microglia is viewed as an important component of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. Amyloid beta (Aβ) protein is known to activate microglia and unleash an inflammatory cascade that eventually results in neuronal dysfunction and death. In this study, we sought to identify the presence of amylin receptors on human fetal and murine microglia and determine whether Aβ activation of the inflammasome complex and subsequent release of cytokines is mediated through these receptors.

Methods: The presence of dimeric components of the amylin receptor (calcitonin receptor and receptor activity modifying protein 3) were ...


Decorin-Evoked Paternally Expressed Gene 3 (Peg3) Is An Upstream Regulator Of The Transcription Factor Eb (Tfeb) In Endothelial Cell Autophagy., Thomas Neill, Catherine Sharpe, Rick T. Owens, Renato V. Iozzo 2017 Thomas Jefferson University

Decorin-Evoked Paternally Expressed Gene 3 (Peg3) Is An Upstream Regulator Of The Transcription Factor Eb (Tfeb) In Endothelial Cell Autophagy., Thomas Neill, Catherine Sharpe, Rick T. Owens, Renato V. Iozzo

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Macroautophagy is a fundamental and evolutionarily conserved catabolic process that eradicates damaged and aging macromolecules and organelles in eukaryotic cells. Decorin, an archetypical small leucine-rich proteoglycan, initiates a protracted autophagic program downstream of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) signaling that requires paternally expressed gene 3 (PEG3). We have discovered that PEG3 is an upstream transcriptional regulator of transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master transcription factor of lysosomal biogenesis, for decorin-evoked endothelial cell autophagy. We found a functional requirement of PEG3 for TFEB transcriptional induction and nuclear translocation in human umbilical vein endothelial and PAER2 cells. Mechanistically, inhibiting VEGFR2 or AMP-activated protein ...


Identification Of Stiffness-Induced Signalling Mechanisms In Cells From Patent And Fused Sutures Associated With Craniosynostosis., Sara Barreto, Arlyng Gonzalez Vazquez, Andrew R. Cameron, Fergal J. O'Brien, Dylan J Murray 2017 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

Identification Of Stiffness-Induced Signalling Mechanisms In Cells From Patent And Fused Sutures Associated With Craniosynostosis., Sara Barreto, Arlyng Gonzalez Vazquez, Andrew R. Cameron, Fergal J. O'Brien, Dylan J Murray

Anatomy Articles

Craniosynostosis is a bone developmental disease where premature ossification of the cranial sutures occurs leading to fused sutures. While biomechanical forces have been implicated in craniosynostosis, evidence of the effect of microenvironmental stiffness changes in the osteogenic commitment of cells from the sutures is lacking. Our aim was to identify the differential genetic expression and osteogenic capability between cells from patent and fused sutures of children with craniosynostosis and whether these differences are driven by changes in the stiffness of the microenvironment. Cells from both sutures demonstrated enhanced mineralisation with increasing substrate stiffness showing that stiffness is a stimulus capable ...


Effect Of Extracellular Survivin And Lymphoma Exosomes On Natural Killer Cells, Heather R. Ferguson Bennit 2017 Loma Linda University

Effect Of Extracellular Survivin And Lymphoma Exosomes On Natural Killer Cells, Heather R. Ferguson Bennit

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

Tumors alter their microenvironment to promote survival using methods such as angiogenesis promotion, growth signals, and immune suppression. The immune system becomes unresponsive to transformed neoplastic cells through a variety of methods including T cell suppression, increased myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), and reduced natural killer (NK) cell activity. NK cells have inherent killing capabilities and thus are among the first responders in recognizing and destroying abnormal cells. However, many types of cancers inhibit the surveillance and cytotoxic abilities of NK cells by releasing exosomes, vesicles that can modulate the tumor microenvironment (TME) and intercellular communication for the purpose of enhancing ...


Negative Regulation Of Urokinase Receptor Activity By A Gpi-Specific Phospholipase C In Breast Cancer Cells., Michiel van Veen, Elisa Matas-Rico, Koen van de Wetering, Daniela Leyton-Puig, Katarzyna M. Kedziora, Valentina De Lorenzi, Yvette Stijf-Bultsma, Bram van den Broek, Kees Jalink, Nicolai Sidenius, Anastassis Perrakis, Wouter H. Moolenaar 2017 The Netherlands Cancer Institute

Negative Regulation Of Urokinase Receptor Activity By A Gpi-Specific Phospholipase C In Breast Cancer Cells., Michiel Van Veen, Elisa Matas-Rico, Koen Van De Wetering, Daniela Leyton-Puig, Katarzyna M. Kedziora, Valentina De Lorenzi, Yvette Stijf-Bultsma, Bram Van Den Broek, Kees Jalink, Nicolai Sidenius, Anastassis Perrakis, Wouter H. Moolenaar

Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous Biology Faculty Papers

The urokinase receptor (uPAR) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein that promotes tissue remodeling, tumor cell adhesion, migration and invasion. uPAR mediates degradation of the extracellular matrix through protease recruitment and enhances cell adhesion, migration and signaling through vitronectin binding and interactions with integrins. Full-length uPAR is released from the cell surface, but the mechanism and significance of uPAR shedding remain obscure. Here we identify transmembrane glycerophosphodiesterase GDE3 as a GPI-specific phospholipase C that cleaves and releases uPAR with consequent loss of function, whereas its homologue GDE2 fails to attack uPAR. GDE3 overexpression depletes uPAR from distinct basolateral membrane domains ...


Finding Human Proteins That Bind To A Lassa Virus Protein, Maria Alejandra Pardo Ruge, Veronica J. Heintz, Douglas J. LaCount 2017 University of Los Andes, Colombia

Finding Human Proteins That Bind To A Lassa Virus Protein, Maria Alejandra Pardo Ruge, Veronica J. Heintz, Douglas J. Lacount

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Viral hemorrhagic fevers are severe illnesses caused by many different viruses. Lassa Virus is one of these important pathogens in Western Africa, causing hemorrhagic fever and eventually death without early medical treatment. There is no vaccine and there is little information on host-pathogen interactions. Therefore, the interaction between viral proteins and host targets is useful to understand Lassa virus’s lifecycle and pathology, and to develop ways to prevent infection. In this project, we study the nucleoprotein of Lassa virus (NP), which has been reported to have anti-interferon (IFN) activity through elimination of double stranded RNA (dsRNA). These features could ...


In Vivo Evaluation Of Stem Cell Aggregates On Osteochondral Regeneration., BanuPriya Sridharan, Amy D. Laflin, Michael A. Holtz, Donna M. Pacicca, Nicholas K. Wischmeier, Michael S. Detamore 2017 Children's Mercy Hospital

In Vivo Evaluation Of Stem Cell Aggregates On Osteochondral Regeneration., Banupriya Sridharan, Amy D. Laflin, Michael A. Holtz, Donna M. Pacicca, Nicholas K. Wischmeier, Michael S. Detamore

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

To date, many osteochondral regenerative approaches have utilized varied combinations of biocompatible materials and cells to engineer cartilage. Even in cell-based approaches, to date, no study has utilized stem cell aggregates alone for regenerating articular cartilage. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a novel stem cell-based aggregate approach in a fibrin carrier to regenerate osteochondral defects in the Sprague-Dawley rat trochlear groove model. Two different densities of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (rBMSC) aggregates were fabricated by the hanging drop technique. At 8 weeks, the cell aggregates supported the defects and served as ...


Metabolic Regulation Of Cellular Signaling, Rashid John Darbandi 2017 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Metabolic Regulation Of Cellular Signaling, Rashid John Darbandi

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Using the biochemically tractable Xenopus oocyte model system, we have previously characterized a novel metabolic regulation of cell death. We found that glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) via the pentose phosphate pathway leads to increased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) levels, a subsequent increase in cytosolic acetyl-coenzyme A and activation of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). We recently identified coenzyme A (CoA), derived from the breakdown of acetyl-CoA, as the key metabolic signal that mediates a novel mechanism of calmodulindependent activation of CaMKII. CoA binds directly to the calmodulin (CaM) binding domain (CaMBD) of CaMKII resulting in its activation and downstream inhibitory ...


Ubqln1 : A Multi-Domain Protein With Multiple Functions., Zimple Kurlawala 2017 University of Louisville

Ubqln1 : A Multi-Domain Protein With Multiple Functions., Zimple Kurlawala

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

There are 5 Ubiquilin proteins (UBQLN1-4, UBQLN-L), which are evolutionarily conserved and structurally similar. UBQLN proteins have 3 functional domains: N-terminal ubiquitin-like domain (UBL), C-terminal ubiquitin-associated domain (UBA) and STI chaperone-like regions in the middle. Alterations in UBQLN1 gene have been detected in a variety of disorders including Alzheimer’s disease, Amyotropic Lateral Sclerosis and lung cancer. UBQLN1 has been largely studied in neurodegenerative disorders in the context of protein quality control. Several studies have hypothesized that the UBA domain of UBQLN1 binds to poly-ubiquitin chains of substrate and shuttles it to the proteasome via its UBL domain for degradation ...


Towards A Personalized Cancer Gene Therapy: A Case Of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma, Dumitru Iacobas, Sanda Iacobas 2017 New York Medical College

Towards A Personalized Cancer Gene Therapy: A Case Of Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma, Dumitru Iacobas, Sanda Iacobas

NYMC Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


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