Puma Amplifies Necroptosis Signaling By Activating Cytosolic Dna Sensors., 2018 UPMC Hillman Cancer Center; University of Pittsburgh
Puma Amplifies Necroptosis Signaling By Activating Cytosolic Dna Sensors., Dongshi Chen, Jingshan Tong, Liheng Yang, Liang Wei, Donna B. Stolz, Jian Yu, Jianke Zhang, Lin Zhang
Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers
Necroptosis, a form of regulated necrotic cell death, is governed by RIP1/RIP3-mediated activation of MLKL. However, the signaling process leading to necroptotic death remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found that PUMA, a proapoptotic BH3-only Bcl-2 family member, is transcriptionally activated in an RIP3/MLKL-dependent manner following induction of necroptosis. The induction of PUMA, which is mediated by autocrine TNF-α and enhanced NF-κB activity, contributes to necroptotic death in RIP3-expressing cells with caspases inhibited. On induction, PUMA promotes the cytosolic release of mitochondrial DNA and activation of the DNA sensors DAI/Zbp1 and STING, leading to enhanced ...
The Effect Of Cx43 On The Motility Of Prostate Cancer Cells, 2018 Kent State University
The Effect Of Cx43 On The Motility Of Prostate Cancer Cells, Suzanne Hales, Abdulaziz Aloliqi, Gail Fraizer
Undergraduate Research Symposium
Prostate cancer (PC) is a very common type of cancer in males and metastatic growth often leads to death. Connexins (Cx) are important to intercellular communication and may also play a role in metastasis. Cultured PC3 metastatic prostate cancer cells have high levels of Cx43 and readily migrate in Boyden chambers, a model for metastasis. We previously silenced Cx43 in PC3 cells and tested their migration in Boyden chamber assays. Silencing Cx34 reduced the motility of the migratory PC3 cells. Conversely, LNCaP prostate cancer cells are not migratory and express very little Cx43. We hypothesized that over-expressing Cx43 in LNCaP ...
Comparison Of Serum And Cervical Cytokine Levels Throughout Pregnancy Between Preterm And Term Births, 2018 University of Kentucky
Comparison Of Serum And Cervical Cytokine Levels Throughout Pregnancy Between Preterm And Term Births, Kristin Ashford, Niraj R. Chavan, Amanda T. Wiggins, Molly Malany Sayre, Andrea Mccubbin, Agatha S. Critchfield, John O'Brien
Nursing Faculty Publications
Objective To assess differences in cytokine levels in cervicovaginal fluid (CVF) and serum across trimesters between women with preterm births (PTBs) and full-term births.
Study Design This multicenter study enrolled 302 women with a singleton gestation. CVF and serum cytokines, interleukin 1α (IL-1α), IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8, were measured. Women with at least one cytokine assessment and noted PTB status in their medical record were retained in the study (N = 272). Data were analyzed using mixed modeling (main effects of PTBs and time/trimester).
Results For the ...
Comparative Cytotoxicity Study Of Nicotine And Cotinine On Mrc-5 Cell Line, 2018 Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Toxicology
Comparative Cytotoxicity Study Of Nicotine And Cotinine On Mrc-5 Cell Line, Ana-Maria Vlasceanu, Daniela Luiza Baconi, Bianca Galateanu, Miriana Stan, Cristian Balalau
Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences
Nicotine has several health hazards regarding carcinogenic potential. It also imparts increased risk for respiratory, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal disorders. Several mechanisms have been proposed for the carcinogenic potential, including effects on cell proliferation, inducing oxidative stress, DNA mutation, or inhibition of apoptosis. The cotinine metabolite is generally thought to have effects similar to nicotine in some experimental systems. The purpose of this study was to assess the nicotine and cotinine cytotoxicity on MRC-5 lung fibroblasts. The pulmonary fibroblasts were treated with various concentrations of nicotine or cotinine (in the range 1 µM – 2 mM) for 24 or 48 h and ...
Expression Of Carbonic Anhydrase Iii, A Nucleus Pulposus Phenotypic Marker, Is Hypoxia-Responsive And Confers Protection From Oxidative Stress-Induced Cell Death., Elizabeth S. Silagi, Philip Batista, Irving Shapiro, Makarand V. Risbud
Department of Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine Faculty Papers & Presentations
The integrity of the avascular nucleus pulposus (NP) phenotype plays a crucial role in the maintenance of intervertebral disc health. While advances have been made to define the molecular phenotype of healthy NP cells, the functional relevance of several of these markers remains unknown. In this study, we test the hypothesis that expression of Carbonic Anhydrase III (CAIII), a marker of the notochordal NP, is hypoxia-responsive and functions as a potent antioxidant without a significant contribution to pH homeostasis. NP, but not annulus fibrosus or end-plate cells, robustly expressed CAIII protein in skeletally mature animals. Although CAIII expression was hypoxia-inducible ...
Spsnet: Subpopulation-Sensitive Network-Based Analysis Of Heterogeneous Gene Expression Data., 2018 Thomas Jefferson University; National University of Singapore
Spsnet: Subpopulation-Sensitive Network-Based Analysis Of Heterogeneous Gene Expression Data., Abha Belorkar, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli, Limsoon Wong
Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers
BACKGROUND: Transcriptomic datasets often contain undeclared heterogeneity arising from biological variation such as diversity of disease subtypes, treatment subgroups, time-series gene expression, nested experimental conditions, as well as technical variation due to batch effects, platform differences in integrated meta-analyses, etc. However, current analysis approaches are primarily designed to handle comparisons between experimental conditions represented by homogeneous samples, thus precluding the discovery of underlying subphenotypes. Unsupervised methods for subtype identification are typically based on individual gene level analysis, which often result in irreproducible gene signatures for potential subtypes. Emerging methods to study heterogeneity have been largely developed in the context of ...
Investigating Ampk Signalling Regulation Of Autophagy In A Model Of Ovarian Tumour Dormancy, 2018 Western University
Investigating Ampk Signalling Regulation Of Autophagy In A Model Of Ovarian Tumour Dormancy, Jeremi Laski
Western Research Forum
Investigating AMPK signalling regulation of autophagy in a model of ovarian tumour dormancy
Jeremi Laski and Trevor G. Shepherd
Ovarian cancer is the most deadly gynecologic malignancy in women. A particular subset of this disease, epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), is responsible for over 70% of all diagnosed ovarian cancer cases, yet the mechanisms governing disease progression are poorly understood. One of the unique hallmarks of EOC metastasis lies in the process of spheroid formation, whereby tumour cells aggregate into larger 3D structures. These EOC spheroids have been shown to be metabolically dormant, while concurrently up-regulating autophagy (cellular waste recycling ...
Silencing Of The Pink1 Gene Expression By Conditional Rnai Does Not Induce Dopaminergic Neuron Death In Mice., 2018 Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University
Silencing Of The Pink1 Gene Expression By Conditional Rnai Does Not Induce Dopaminergic Neuron Death In Mice., Hongxia Zhou, Björn H Falkenburger, Jörg B Schulz, Kim Tieu, Zuoshang Xu, Xu Gang Xia
Transgenic RNAi, an alternative to the gene knockout approach, can induce hypomorphic phenotypes that resemble those of the gene knockout in mice. Conditional transgenic RNAi is an attractive choice of method for reverse genetics in vivo because it can achieve temporal and spatial silencing of targeted genes. Pol III promoters such as U6 are widely used to drive the expression of RNAi transgenes in animals. Tested in transgenic mice, a Cre-loxP inducible U6 promoter drove the broad expression of an shRNA against the Pink1 gene whose loss-of-functional mutations cause one form of familial Parkinson's disease. The expression of the ...
A Lin28b Tumor-Specific Transcript In Cancer, 2018 University of Kentucky
A Lin28b Tumor-Specific Transcript In Cancer, Weijie Guo, Zhixiang Hu, Yichao Bao, Yuchen Li, Shengli Li, Qiupeng Zheng, Dongbin Lyu, Di Chen, Tao Yu, Yan Li, Xiaodong Zhu, Jie Ding, Yingjun Zhao, Xianghuo He, Shenglin Huang
Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications
The diversity and complexity of the cancer transcriptome may contain transcripts unique to the tumor environment. Here, we report a LIN28B variant, LIN28B-TST, which is specifically expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and many other cancer types. Expression of LIN28B-TST is associated with significantly poor prognosis in HCC patients. LIN28B-TST initiates from a de novo alternative transcription initiation site that harbors a strong promoter regulated by NFYA but not c-Myc. Demethylation of the LIN28B-TST promoter might be a prerequisite for its transcription and transcriptional regulation. LIN28B-TST encodes a protein isoform with additional N-terminal amino acids and is critical for cancer cell ...
Temporal Changes In Innate Immune Signals In A Rat Model Of Alcohol Withdrawal In Emotional And Cardiorespiratory Homeostatic Nuclei., 2018 Thomas Jefferson University
Temporal Changes In Innate Immune Signals In A Rat Model Of Alcohol Withdrawal In Emotional And Cardiorespiratory Homeostatic Nuclei., Kate Freeman, Anthony Brureau, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli, Mary M Staehle, Melanie M Brureau, Gregory E Gonye, Jan B Hoek, D Craig Hooper, James S Schwaber
BACKGROUND: Chronic alcohol use changes the brain's inflammatory state. However, there is little work examining the progression of the cytokine response during alcohol withdrawal, a period of profound autonomic and emotional upset. This study examines the inflammatory response in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and dorsal vagal complex (DVC), brain regions neuroanatomically associated with affective and cardiorespiratory regulation in an in vivo rat model of withdrawal following a single chronic exposure.
METHODS: For qRT-PCR studies, we measured the expression of TNF-α, NOS-2, Ccl2 (MCP-1), MHC II invariant chain CD74, and the TNF receptor Tnfrsf1a in CeA and ...
Microrna 1207-3p In Prostate Cancer, 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York
Microrna 1207-3p In Prostate Cancer, Dibash Das
All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed male cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death for men in the United States. Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in progression from the asymptomatic androgen-dependent PCa to the lethal castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a major challenge. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), are known to be dysregulated in PCa. MicroRNA-1207-3p (miR-1207-3p) is encoded by the non-protein coding gene locus PVT1 on the 8q24 human chromosomal region, an established PCa susceptibility locus. However, the role of miR-1207-3p in PCa is unclear. We have discovered that miR-1207-3p is significantly underexpressed in PCa cell lines ...
Arl2bp, A Novel Ciliopathy Protein, Is Required For Cilia Microtubule Formation, 2018 West Virginia University
Arl2bp, A Novel Ciliopathy Protein, Is Required For Cilia Microtubule Formation, Abigail Ruth Moye
Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports
Cilia are specialized organelles essential for cellular function. Not surprisingly, mutations in cilia- related genes are linked to multi-syndromic diseases termed ciliopathies. These include blinding diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP). One such novel gene is ARL2BP (ARL2-binding protein) and is linked to RP and situs inversus (organ reversal) in humans, a phenotype produced by defects in the nodal cilia of developing embryos. Defects in photoreceptor cilia, as well as situs inversus in human patients, suggest that ARL2BP plays an invaluable role in the structure and function of cilia. However little is known about the role for this protein in ...
The Meiosis-Specific Cdc20 Family-Member Ama1 Promotes Binding Of The Ssp2 Activator To The Smk1 Map Kinase., 2018 Thomas Jefferson University
The Meiosis-Specific Cdc20 Family-Member Ama1 Promotes Binding Of The Ssp2 Activator To The Smk1 Map Kinase., Gregory Omerza, Chong Wai Tio, Timothy Philips, Aviva Diamond, Aaron M. Neiman, Edward Winter
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers
Smk1 is a meiosis-specific MAP kinase (MAPK) in budding yeast that is required for spore formation. It is localized to prospore membranes (PSMs), the structures that engulf haploid cells during meiosis II (MII). Similar to canonically activated MAPKs, Smk1 is controlled by phosphorylation of its activation-loop threonine (T) and tyrosine (Y). However, activation loop phosphorylation occurs via a noncanonical two-step mechanism in which 1) the cyclin-dependent kinase activating kinase Cak1 phosphorylaytes T207 during MI, and 2) Smk1 autophosphorylates Y209 as MII draws to a close. Autophosphorylation of Y209 and catalytic activity for substrates require Ssp2, a meiosis-specific protein that is ...
The Effect Of Dna Methylation On Tp73 Expression In Tumorgenesis, 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University
The Effect Of Dna Methylation On Tp73 Expression In Tumorgenesis, Nujuma A. Moussa
Undergraduate Research Posters
Abstract: The Effect of DNA Methylation on TP73 Expression in Tumorgenesis
Nujuma Moussa, Zhixing Yao, Zaki A. Sherif
Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Howard University College of Medicine
TP73 is a member of the TP53 family of proteins that acts as a transcription factor to help regulate cellular distress. This tumor protein may play a dual role as a tumor suppressor and tumor promoter. The TP73 gene is mapped to chromosome 1p36, a frequently deleted region in neuroblastoma and other types of tumors. While mutations in the TP53 gene are commonly known to cause noxious cancers, 30% of cancers result ...
Mlk Book Read 2018 (Research Materials), 2018 College of the Holy Cross
Mlk Book Read 2018 (Research Materials), Holy Cross Libraries
Library Resources for Campus Events
A bibliography of resources available through the Holy Cross Libraries which provide additional information related to the MLK Winter Book Read, based on the best-seller “The Immortal LIfe of Henrietta Lacks” by Rebecca Skoot.
Gene Knockout Of Prfa And The Arginine Deiminase Pathway In Listeria Monocytogenes, 2018 Eastern Kentucky University
Gene Knockout Of Prfa And The Arginine Deiminase Pathway In Listeria Monocytogenes, Kearstin Edmonds
Online Theses and Dissertations
Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive facultative intracellular pathogen. This species is a common cause of food-borne illness outbreaks with high fatality rates. L. monocytogenes is known to produce a number of virulence factors, including enzymes and toxins, which are involved in the disease process. The arginine deiminase pathway has the ability to regulate acidic environments by converting arginine to ammonia, ornithine, and ATP. With the help of a membrane-bound antiporter, the ornithine is transported out of the cell while the ammonia is converted to ammonium. The ATP by-product can also be used with the F0F1-ATPase system to help maintain homeostasis ...
Reduction Of Oxidative Stress And Storage Lesions (Rcsl) In Red Blood Cells: Analysis Of Ascorbic Acid (Aa), N-Acetylcysteine Amide (Ad4), And Serotonin (5-Ht), Shanmuka Gadiraju
Auctus: The Journal of Undergraduate Research and Creative Scholarship
Oxidative stress is a common occurrence in red blood cell (RBC) storage in blood banks throughout the world. Typically RBC units stored under routine standard protocol (stored in SAGM-CPD additive solution) can only be kept up to forty-two days for transfusion usage before being discarded. I am studying the effects of Ascorbic Acid (AA), N-acetylcysteine amide (AD4), and Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5- HT) as additives in blood bank storage to find out if these additives can reduce storageinduced oxidative stress on red blood cells (RBCs), as well as to understand how potential blood storage additives can affect the shelf life ...
The State Of The Translational Chaperone Icd-1 During Apoptosis In Caenorhabditis Elegans, 2018 James Madison University
The State Of The Translational Chaperone Icd-1 During Apoptosis In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Kyle Cicalese
Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current
The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a signal transduction cascade that mitigates low levels of misfolded protein stress in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in an effort to save the affected cell, while prolonged and/or acute ER stress leads to UPR-initiated apoptosis (programmed cell death). One putative step driving apoptosis is the cleavage of chaperones, proteins tasked to help misfolded proteins refold, by caspases, proteases essential to the execution of apoptosis. We are studying the nascent polypeptide-associated complex (NAC), a heterodimeric chaperone complex essential for viability, to determine if its beta subunit is cleaved by caspases during apoptosis to prevent ...
The Function Of Erbin, A Scaffold Protein, As A Tumor Suppressor In Colon Cancer, 2018 University of Kentucky
The Function Of Erbin, A Scaffold Protein, As A Tumor Suppressor In Colon Cancer, Payton D. Stevens
Theses and Dissertations--Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Erbin belongs to the LAP (leucine-rich repeat and PDZ domain) family of scaffolding proteins that play important roles in orchestrating cell signaling. Here, we show that Erbin functions as a tumor suppressor in colon cancer. Analysis of Erbin expression in patient specimens reveals that Erbin is downregulated at both mRNA and protein levels in tumor tissues. Functionally, knockdown of Erbin disrupts epithelial cell polarity and increases cell proliferation in 3D culture. In addition, silencing Erbin results in an increase in the amplitude and duration of signaling through Akt and RAS/RAF pathways. Moreover, Erbin-loss induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which coincides ...
Loss Of Cd73 Shifts Tgf-Β1 From Tumor Suppressor To Tumor Promoter In Endometrial Cancer, 2018 University of Colorado, Boulder
Loss Of Cd73 Shifts Tgf-Β1 From Tumor Suppressor To Tumor Promoter In Endometrial Cancer, Claire Kazen
Undergraduate Honors Theses
In cancer, transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) paradoxically functions as both a tumor suppressor and tumor promoter. In early-stage disease, TGFβ suppresses tumor growth by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In late-stage disease, TGFβ promotes tumor cell invasiveness and metastasis. Often, mutations or genomic alterations in the TGFβ pathway are responsible for shifting the balance of TGFβ from tumor suppressor to tumor promoter. In endometrial cancer (EC), TGFβ pathway mutations and genomic alterations are rare, which suggests that the loss or gain of downstream targets are involved in shifting the balance. Another molecule, CD73, has also been implicated in ...