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Nanofabrication And Spectroscopy Of Magnetic Nanostructures Using A Focused Ion Beam, Ali Hadjikhani 2016 FIU

Nanofabrication And Spectroscopy Of Magnetic Nanostructures Using A Focused Ion Beam, Ali Hadjikhani

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This research used a focused ion beam in order to fabricate record small nano-magnetic structures, investigate the properties of magnetic materials in the rarely studied range of nanometer size, and exploit their extraordinary characteristics in medicine and nano-electronics. This study consists of two parts: (i) Fabrication and study of record small magnetic tunnel junctions (ii) Introduction of a novel method for detection of magnetoelectric nanoparticles (MENs) in the tissue.

A key challenge in further scaling of CMOS devices is being able to perform non-volatile logic with near zero power consumption. Sub-10-nm nanomagnetic spin transfer torque (STT) magnetic tunneling junctions (MTJs) …


Hit Identification For Pkcζ Inhibitors: Structure-Based Optimization, Virtual Screening, And Biological Evaluation, Xiaoxin Wu 2016 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Hit Identification For Pkcζ Inhibitors: Structure-Based Optimization, Virtual Screening, And Biological Evaluation, Xiaoxin Wu

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Protein kinase C ζ (PKCζ) is believed to be a promising target for the treatment of some diseases, including inflammatory diseases, obesity and diabetes. Hit identification of PKCζ inhibitors was conducted by structure-based modification, virtual screening and biological evaluation. Among all the compounds selected and synthesized, compound JW-1-60A showed moderate activity against PKCζ at 30 μM and 100 μM. The molecular modeling studies showed that the binding mode of JW-1-61A was very close to the binding mode of JP-3-149, a reported PKCζ inhibitor with very potent activity, which might partially explain the moderate activity of JW-1-61A. Based on the structure …


Vitamin D Deficiency: "At Risk" Patient Populations And Potential Drug Interactions, Dana Lycans MD, Elias Salloum MD, Matthew K. Wingate MD, Thomas Melvin MD, Grant S. Buchanan MD, Franklin D. Shuler MD, PhD 2016 Marshall University

Vitamin D Deficiency: "At Risk" Patient Populations And Potential Drug Interactions, Dana Lycans Md, Elias Salloum Md, Matthew K. Wingate Md, Thomas Melvin Md, Grant S. Buchanan Md, Franklin D. Shuler Md, Phd

Franklin D. Shuler

Vitamin D is known to play an essential role in calcium homeostasis; however, excessive amounts can have harmful effects. Calcium and vitamin D levels are known to be influenced by drug interactions and pathology ranging from of cancer to cardiovascular disease. Vitamin D supplementation has become widespread, and it is important for clinicians to understand the way that certain conditions and medications interact with vitamin D and calcium homeostasis. The purpose of this review is to outline the benefits and adverse effects of vitamin D and how its levels are affected by certain pathologic and pharmacologic interactions.


Na/K-Atpase Amplification Of Oxidant Stress; A Universal But Unrecognized Clinical Target?, Zijian Xie, PhD, Joseph I. Shapiro, MD 2016 Marshall University

Na/K-Atpase Amplification Of Oxidant Stress; A Universal But Unrecognized Clinical Target?, Zijian Xie, Phd, Joseph I. Shapiro, Md

Joseph I Shapiro MD

The Na/K-ATPase has a signaling function which appears to be separate from its ion pumping function. This signaling function refers to the transduction of conformational changes in the Na/K-ATPase alpha1 subunit into activating Src’s tyrosine kinase activity, triggering a cascade which generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), modulates other signaling pathways, and causes many physiological and pathophysiological effects. We have recently observed that ROS themselves as well as cardiotonic steroids can actually initiate the signal by directly inducing conformational changes in alpha1. It therefore appears that the Na/K-ATPase signal cascade can serve as a feed forward amplification for ROS with circulating …


Na/K-Atpase Amplification Of Oxidant Stress; A Universal But Unrecognized Clinical Target?, Zijian Xie, PhD, Joseph I. Shapiro, MD 2016 Marshall University

Na/K-Atpase Amplification Of Oxidant Stress; A Universal But Unrecognized Clinical Target?, Zijian Xie, Phd, Joseph I. Shapiro, Md

Marshall Journal of Medicine

The Na/K-ATPase has a signaling function which appears to be separate from its ion pumping function. This signaling function refers to the transduction of conformational changes in the Na/K-ATPase alpha1 subunit into activating Src’s tyrosine kinase activity, triggering a cascade which generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), modulates other signaling pathways, and causes many physiological and pathophysiological effects. We have recently observed that ROS themselves as well as cardiotonic steroids can actually initiate the signal by directly inducing conformational changes in alpha1. It therefore appears that the Na/K-ATPase signal cascade can serve as a feed forward amplification for ROS with circulating …


A Sodium Salt Of The Dimer Of Boronoterephthalic Acid Anhydride, Scott Simmons, Albert Fratini, Vladimir Benin 2016 University of Dayton

A Sodium Salt Of The Dimer Of Boronoterephthalic Acid Anhydride, Scott Simmons, Albert Fratini, Vladimir Benin

Albert Fratini

The title compound, sodium bis­(6-carb­oxy-1-hy­droxy-3-oxo-1,3-dihydro-2,1-benzoxaborol-1-yl)oxidanium, Na+·C16H15B2O13-, was prepared in two steps from 2-bromo-p-xylene. Its crystal structure was determined at 140 K and has triclinic (P) symmetry. The compound presents a unique structural motif, including two units of the cyclic anhydride of boronoterephthalic acid, joined by a protonated, and thereby trivalent, oxonium center. Association in the crystal is realized by complementary hydrogen bonding of the carboxyl groups, as well as by coordination of the sodium cations to the oxygen centers on the five-membered rings.


Role Of Serum Biomarkers In Early Detection Of Diabetic Cardiomyopathy In The West Virginian Population, Adam Shaver, Alexandra Nichols, Ellen A. Thompson, Amrita Mallick, Nandini Manne, Shanmuga Sundaram, Joseph I. Shapiro MD, Komal Sodhi 2016 Marshall University

Role Of Serum Biomarkers In Early Detection Of Diabetic Cardiomyopathy In The West Virginian Population, Adam Shaver, Alexandra Nichols, Ellen A. Thompson, Amrita Mallick, Nandini Manne, Shanmuga Sundaram, Joseph I. Shapiro Md, Komal Sodhi

Biochemistry and Microbiology

Objectives: Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is an established complication of diabetes mellitus. In West Virginia, the especially high incidence of diabetes and heart failure validate the necessity of developing new strategies for earlier detection of DCM. Since most DCM patients remain asymptomatic until the later stages of the disease when the fibrotic complications become irreversible, we aimed to explore biomarkers that can identify early-stage DCM.

Methods: The patients were grouped into 4 categories based on clinical diabetic and cardiac parameters: Control, Diabetes (DM), Diastolic dysfunction (DD), and Diabetes with diastolic dysfunction (DM+DD), the last group being the preclinical DCM group.

Results: …


Vitamin D Deficiency: "At Risk" Patient Populations And Potential Drug Interactions, Dana Lycans MD, Elias Salloum MD, Matthew K. Wingate MD, Thomas Melvin MD, Grant S. Buchanan MD, Franklin D. Shuler MD, PhD 2016 Marshall University

Vitamin D Deficiency: "At Risk" Patient Populations And Potential Drug Interactions, Dana Lycans Md, Elias Salloum Md, Matthew K. Wingate Md, Thomas Melvin Md, Grant S. Buchanan Md, Franklin D. Shuler Md, Phd

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Vitamin D is known to play an essential role in calcium homeostasis; however, excessive amounts can have harmful effects. Calcium and vitamin D levels are known to be influenced by drug interactions and pathology ranging from of cancer to cardiovascular disease. Vitamin D supplementation has become widespread, and it is important for clinicians to understand the way that certain conditions and medications interact with vitamin D and calcium homeostasis. The purpose of this review is to outline the benefits and adverse effects of vitamin D and how its levels are affected by certain pathologic and pharmacologic interactions.


Hexokinase Ii Localization Is Independent Of Ampk Activation In Hela Cells, Alyssa Brown 2016 Rowan University

Hexokinase Ii Localization Is Independent Of Ampk Activation In Hela Cells, Alyssa Brown

Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Theses and Dissertations

In order for a cancer cell to thrive, it must alter its metabolism to produce the energy needed for rapid growth. Cells accomplish this by the Warburg Effect, or switching metabolism to aerobic glycolysis, where a cell can rapidly break down sugar into ATP, lactic acid and additional byproducts. Hexokinase 2, the enzyme that catalyzes the first committed step of glycolysis, may also be upregulated in cancer cells to increase glucose breakdown. Similar proteins for metabolism are found in both S. cerevisiae and mammalian cells. S. cerevisiae regulates metabolism through glucose repression, by Snf1 (mammalian homolog: AMPK) activation, which aids …


N-Methyl 4-Methyl Amphetamine N-Alkyl Chain Extension Differentially Affects Ion Flux At The Human Dopamine And Norepinephrine Transporters, Alan C. Harris Jr. 2016 Virginia Commonwealth University

N-Methyl 4-Methyl Amphetamine N-Alkyl Chain Extension Differentially Affects Ion Flux At The Human Dopamine And Norepinephrine Transporters, Alan C. Harris Jr.

Theses and Dissertations

Amphetamine (AMPH) and its derivatives embody a remarkable breadth of pharmacology. These molecules exert their effects, both therapeutic and pathological, at the human monoamine transporters, which tune synaptic dynamics by evacuating monoamine neuromodulators from the synapse subsequent to neuronal impulses. These transporters are electrogenic, and the transporter-mediated current can be correlated to a surrogate measure of the change in membrane voltage: Ca++ currents from co-transfected L-type Ca++ channels. The present work makes use of this assay, with which it is possible to derive pharmacodynamic metrics from both substrates and inhibitors. This work presents data on a heretofore-unstudied class …


Molecular Determinants And Interaction Data Of Cyclic Peptide Inhibitor With The Extracellular Domain Of Trkb Receptor, Nitin Chitranshi, Vivek Gupta, Yogita Dheer, Veer Gupta, Roshana Vander Wall, Stuart Graham 2016 Edith Cowan University

Molecular Determinants And Interaction Data Of Cyclic Peptide Inhibitor With The Extracellular Domain Of Trkb Receptor, Nitin Chitranshi, Vivek Gupta, Yogita Dheer, Veer Gupta, Roshana Vander Wall, Stuart Graham

Research outputs 2014 to 2021

TrkB is a high affinity receptor for the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its phosphorylation stimulates activation of several intracellular signalling pathways linked to cellular growth, differentiation and maintenance. Identification of various activators and inhibitors of the TrkB receptor and greater understanding their binding mechanisms is critical to elucidate the biochemical and pharmacological pathways and analyse various protein crystallization studies. The data presented here is related to the research article entitled "Brain Derived neurotrophic factor is involved in the regulation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) signalling" [1]. Cyclotraxin B (CTXB) is a disulphide bridge linked cyclic peptide molecule …


The Neurochemistry Of Group Singing: Bonding And Oxytocin, Jason Keeler 2015 Western Michigan University

The Neurochemistry Of Group Singing: Bonding And Oxytocin, Jason Keeler

Masters Theses

The purpose of this study was to examine the neurochemical correlates of group vocal improvisation and to determine the feasibility of the research methods. One group of four participants sang together in two conditions: pre-composed and improvised. Concentrations of plasma oxytocin and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were measured before and after each singing condition to assess levels of hormones associated with social affiliation, engagement and arousal. Successful implementation of the methodology, including recruitment, data collection, and sample analysis, served as the primary outcome of this study. ACTH concentrations decreased in both conditions, and significantly so in the pre-composed singing condition. Mean …


C–N Bond Rotation And E–Z Isomerism In Some N-Benzyl-N-Methylcarbamoyl Chlorides: A Dft Study, Michael Horwath, Vladimir Benin 2015 University of Dayton

C–N Bond Rotation And E–Z Isomerism In Some N-Benzyl-N-Methylcarbamoyl Chlorides: A Dft Study, Michael Horwath, Vladimir Benin

Vladimir Benin

The current report presents the first theoretical study of the restricted CN bond rotation in carbamoyl chlorides. Several N-benzyl-N-methylcarbamoyl chlorides were investigated, with varying pattern of substitution in the aromatic ring. Optimizations and frequency calculations were conducted employing DFT at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d) level of theory. Each of the studied structures exhibits a pair of rotamers (s-Z and s-E), generated upon rotation around the C(O)N bond. The s-E isomer is the global minimum in every case, but the preference for it is usually less than 1 kcal/mol. Two possible transition state structures were identified for the rotamer interconversion: TSsyn and TSanti, …


Preparation And Characterization Of Some Substituted Benzyl N-Nitrosocarbamates Containing An N-2-(Methylthio)Ethyl Or A Bis(2-Aminoethyl)Sulfide Functionality, Satya Venkata, Eric Shamo, Vladimir Benin 2015 University of Dayton

Preparation And Characterization Of Some Substituted Benzyl N-Nitrosocarbamates Containing An N-2-(Methylthio)Ethyl Or A Bis(2-Aminoethyl)Sulfide Functionality, Satya Venkata, Eric Shamo, Vladimir Benin

Vladimir Benin

The synthesis and characterization of some substituted benzyl N-nitrosocarbamates with an N-2-(methylthio)ethyl or a bis(2-aminoethyl)sulfide functionality is reported, as a part of a long-term goal to design and prepare novel photolabile structures that could be used as substances for controlled release of alkylating and/or crosslinking agents. The synthesis was accomplished by reaction of benzyl chloroformates with the corresponding amines, resulting in the preparation of carbamates. The latter were subsequently nitrosated, utilizing two different N-nitrosation methods, to yield the target structures.


The Tetrafluoroborate Salt Of 4-Methoxybenzyl N-2-(Dimethylamino)Ethyl-N-Nitrosocarbamate: Synthesis, Crystal Structure And Dft Calculations, Helene Hedian, Vladimir Benin 2015 University of Dayton

The Tetrafluoroborate Salt Of 4-Methoxybenzyl N-2-(Dimethylamino)Ethyl-N-Nitrosocarbamate: Synthesis, Crystal Structure And Dft Calculations, Helene Hedian, Vladimir Benin

Vladimir Benin

The tetrafluoroborate salt of 4-methoxybenzyl N-2-(dimethylamino)ethyl-N-nitrosocarbamate was prepared in two steps, via the corresponding carbamate. Its crystal structure is monoclinic, space group P21/c. The unit cell dimensions are: a = 19.499(8) Å, b = 5.877(3) Å, c = 15.757(7) Å, α = 90°, β = 110.019(7)°, γ = 90°, V = 1696.5(12) Å3, Z = 4. The structure exhibits an unexpected, pseudo-gauche conformation with respect to the C2–C3 bond, due to a stabilizing hydrogen bond between the carbonyl oxygen (O1) and the hydrogen atom at the trialkylammonium center (H3n), with a distance between them of 2.37 Å. DFT calculations on …


A Sodium Salt Of The Dimer Of Boronoterephthalic Acid Anhydride, Scott Simmons, Albert Fratini, Vladimir Benin 2015 University of Dayton

A Sodium Salt Of The Dimer Of Boronoterephthalic Acid Anhydride, Scott Simmons, Albert Fratini, Vladimir Benin

Vladimir Benin

The title compound, sodium bis­(6-carb­oxy-1-hy­droxy-3-oxo-1,3-dihydro-2,1-benzoxaborol-1-yl)oxidanium, Na+·C16H15B2O13-, was prepared in two steps from 2-bromo-p-xylene. Its crystal structure was determined at 140 K and has triclinic (P) symmetry. The compound presents a unique structural motif, including two units of the cyclic anhydride of boronoterephthalic acid, joined by a protonated, and thereby trivalent, oxonium center. Association in the crystal is realized by complementary hydrogen bonding of the carboxyl groups, as well as by coordination of the sodium cations to the oxygen centers on the five-membered rings.


Secondary N-Nitrosocarbamate Anions: Structure And Alkylation Reactions. A Dft Study, Vladimir Benin 2015 University of Dayton

Secondary N-Nitrosocarbamate Anions: Structure And Alkylation Reactions. A Dft Study, Vladimir Benin

Vladimir Benin

The current article reports theoretical studies (DFT: B3LYP/6-31+G(d)) on the structure and alkylation reactions of the anions of some secondary N-nitrosocarbamates, a class of ambident nucleophiles whose chemistry has been little explored. Several anions (1–4), with an increasing size of the carbamate alkyl (aryl) group were investigated, in an attempt to establish the influence of the size of that group on the thermal stability and regioselectivity of alkylation of the title anions. The conclusion is that thermal stability and the mode of reaction are affected significantly only in the presence of very large and branched carbamate groups. The thermal decomposition …


Preparation Of Phosphonoterephthalic Acids Via Palladium-Catalyzed Coupling Of Aromatic Iodoesters, Nathaniel Ivan, Vladimir Benin, Alexander Morgan 2015 University of Dayton

Preparation Of Phosphonoterephthalic Acids Via Palladium-Catalyzed Coupling Of Aromatic Iodoesters, Nathaniel Ivan, Vladimir Benin, Alexander Morgan

Vladimir Benin

The current article reports in detail the preparation of two phosphonoterephthalic acids: 2-phosphonoterephthalic acid (1) and 2,5-diphosphonoterephthalic acid (2). Efficient, scalable syntheses have been developed for both compounds based on Pd-catalyzed coupling reactions of iodinated terephthalate esters. Phosphonoterephthalic acids are potentially useful as flame-retardant additives or as monomers for the construction of acid-pendant polymer chains.


Preparation Of Some Substituted Terephthalic Acids, Susanna Branion, Vladimir Benin 2015 University of Dayton

Preparation Of Some Substituted Terephthalic Acids, Susanna Branion, Vladimir Benin

Vladimir Benin

We report in detail the preparation of two substituted terephthalic acids: 2‐sulfomethylterephthalic acid (1) and 2‐phosphonoterephthalic acid (2). Efficient, short syntheses have been developed for both compounds. They are potentially useful monomers for construction of acid‐pendant polymer chains.


Theoretical Investigation Of A Reported Antibiotic From The 'Miracle Tree' Moringa Oleifera, Michael Horwath, Vladimir Benin 2015 University of Dayton

Theoretical Investigation Of A Reported Antibiotic From The 'Miracle Tree' Moringa Oleifera, Michael Horwath, Vladimir Benin

Vladimir Benin

Moringa oleifera, sometimes called the “Miracle Tree,” has received international attention for its potential to improve health in impoverished tropical areas. In addition to high vitamin content in the leaves and pods, the tree contains compounds with antioxidant and antibacterial properties. This study focused on the theoretical investigation of the suggested structure of one antibacterial compound, “pterygospermin,” whose existence was proposed after some studies of the roots of M. oleifera. The structure of pterygospermin was first proposed by a research group working in the 1950s, but later studies have not found evidence of this compound and have instead attributed the …


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