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Chemical and Pharmacologic Phenomena Commons

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Role Of Serum Biomarkers In Early Detection Of Diabetic Cardiomyopathy In The West Virginian Population, Adam Shaver, Alexandra Nichols, Ellen A. Thompson, Amrita Mallick, Nandini Manne, Shanmuga Sundaram, Joseph I. Shapiro MD, Komal Sodhi 2019 Marshall University

Role Of Serum Biomarkers In Early Detection Of Diabetic Cardiomyopathy In The West Virginian Population, Adam Shaver, Alexandra Nichols, Ellen A. Thompson, Amrita Mallick, Nandini Manne, Shanmuga Sundaram, Joseph I. Shapiro Md, Komal Sodhi

Joseph I Shapiro MD

Objectives: Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is an established complication of diabetes mellitus. In West Virginia, the especially high incidence of diabetes and heart failure validate the necessity of developing new strategies for earlier detection of DCM. Since most DCM patients remain asymptomatic until the later stages of the disease when the fibrotic complications become irreversible, we aimed to explore biomarkers that can identify early-stage DCM.

Methods: The patients were grouped into 4 categories based on clinical diabetic and cardiac parameters: Control, Diabetes (DM), Diastolic dysfunction (DD), and Diabetes with diastolic dysfunction (DM+DD), the last group being the preclinical DCM group.

Results: …


Role Of Serum Biomarkers In Early Detection Of Diabetic Cardiomyopathy In The West Virginian Population, Adam Shaver, Alexandra Nichols, Ellen A. Thompson, Amrita Mallick, Nandini Manne, Shanmuga Sundaram, Joseph I. Shapiro MD, Komal Sodhi 2019 Marshall University

Role Of Serum Biomarkers In Early Detection Of Diabetic Cardiomyopathy In The West Virginian Population, Adam Shaver, Alexandra Nichols, Ellen A. Thompson, Amrita Mallick, Nandini Manne, Shanmuga Sundaram, Joseph I. Shapiro Md, Komal Sodhi

Komal Sodhi

Objectives: Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is an established complication of diabetes mellitus. In West Virginia, the especially high incidence of diabetes and heart failure validate the necessity of developing new strategies for earlier detection of DCM. Since most DCM patients remain asymptomatic until the later stages of the disease when the fibrotic complications become irreversible, we aimed to explore biomarkers that can identify early-stage DCM.

Methods: The patients were grouped into 4 categories based on clinical diabetic and cardiac parameters: Control, Diabetes (DM), Diastolic dysfunction (DD), and Diabetes with diastolic dysfunction (DM+DD), the last group being the preclinical DCM group.

Results: …


An Investigation Of Stimulants: Reviewing Their Effects On The Brain, Including Memory And Microglia, Michael Douchey 2019 University of Nebraska at Omaha

An Investigation Of Stimulants: Reviewing Their Effects On The Brain, Including Memory And Microglia, Michael Douchey

UNO Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Stimulants are a class of drugs that have a variety of effects on the brain, including changes in receptor activity in the brain areas responsible for- memory, attention, emotion, motor control, and the reward pathway. Stimulants may be generally classified by their availability. For example, prescription stimulants, which include drugs such as methylphenidate (Concerta™, Ritalin™) and mixed amphetamine salts (Adderall™), must be prescribed by medical professionals. Another regulated stimulant, albeit one available without a prescription, is nicotine; a highly addictive chemical that is age-restricted by the U.S. federal government. Nicotine is found in tobacco products, and in tobacco-free alternatives including …


Icatibant Is Not Helpful For The Treatment Of Ace Inhibitor-Induced Angioedema, Samantha R. Schwartz 2019 Wayne State University School of Medicine

Icatibant Is Not Helpful For The Treatment Of Ace Inhibitor-Induced Angioedema, Samantha R. Schwartz

Clinical Research in Practice: The Journal of Team Hippocrates

A critical appraisal and clinical application of Sinert R, Levy P, Bernstein JA, et al. Randomized trial of icatibant for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-induced upper airway angioedema. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2017; 5(5): 1402-1409. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2017.03.003.


Toward An Enzyme-Coupled, Bioorthogonal Platform For Methyltransferases: Probing The Specificity Of Methionine Adenosyltransferases, Tyler D. Huber 2019 University of Kentucky

Toward An Enzyme-Coupled, Bioorthogonal Platform For Methyltransferases: Probing The Specificity Of Methionine Adenosyltransferases, Tyler D. Huber

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

Methyl group transfer from S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet) to various substrates including DNA, proteins, and natural products (NPs), is accomplished by methyltransferases (MTs). Analogs of AdoMet, bearing an alternative S-alkyl group can be exploited, in the context of an array of wild-type MT-catalyzed reactions, to differentially alkylate DNA, proteins, and NPs. This technology provides a means to elucidate MT targets by the MT-mediated installation of chemoselective handles from AdoMet analogs to biologically relevant molecules and affords researchers a fresh route to diversify NP scaffolds by permitting the differential alkylation of chemical sites vulnerable to NP MTs that are unreactive to …


Family Medicine Resident Education On Perioperative Management Of Patients On Anticoagulation, Hanna Mathers 2019 University of Vermont

Family Medicine Resident Education On Perioperative Management Of Patients On Anticoagulation, Hanna Mathers

Family Medicine Clerkship Student Projects

Family Medicine residents at CMMC in Lewiston, Maine manage patients in an outpatient clinic as well as on an inpatient family medicine teaching service. Many patients in the community are anticoagulated for native valve atrial fibrillation and undergo surgical procedures both in the inpatient and outpatient setting. Residents are often asked on to determine the necessity and timing of anticoagulation discontinuation for patients that they see. With patients on newer oral anticoagulants and various degrees of risk, it can be a challenge to make an informed choice. Residents have found that they would feel more confident in perioperative management of …


Natural Product Induction In Pencillium And Human Caspase Crystallography, kelly j. mcgrath 2019 University of Montana, Missoula

Natural Product Induction In Pencillium And Human Caspase Crystallography, Kelly J. Mcgrath

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

No abstract provided.


Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes Increase The Antiproliferative Activity Of Doxorubicin In Breast Cancer, Alexander M. Hirsch 2019 Virginia Commonwealth University

Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes Increase The Antiproliferative Activity Of Doxorubicin In Breast Cancer, Alexander M. Hirsch

Theses and Dissertations

The field of cancer research has grown immensely in recent decades and has led to a better understanding of the causes of the disease, as well as greatly improved treatment for various types of cancers, especially breast cancer. One of the most effective treatments involves the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOX). DOX is an effective tool against all types of breast cancer, especially against triple negative breast cancer. However, DOX causes adverse side effects that include damage to the heart and skeletal muscle, particularly above specific cumulative doses. Recent evidence suggests that embryonic stem cell-derived (ES) exosomes, nanoscale extracellular vesicles that …


Leucine Supplementation In Cuprizone-Induced Oligodendrocyte Toxicity, Michael Ley 2019 The University of Akron

Leucine Supplementation In Cuprizone-Induced Oligodendrocyte Toxicity, Michael Ley

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Cuprizone is a copper chelator that induces demyelination in the central nervous system when fed to mice. This compound is thought to target Complex IV and disrupt mitochondrial metabolism leading to loss of myelin-producing oligodendrocytes. In this proposal, we further examine the chemical and toxicological properties of cuprizone. Immunofluorescence imaging and microarray data on MO3.13 cells treated with cuprizone revealed the possibility of alterations in lysosomal function, as well as mitochondrial disruption via mTOR and Electron Transport Chain (ETC) related pathways. Cell viability assays conducted suggest that addition of Branched-Chain Amino Acids, most commonly used from literature, leucine, can increase …


Is Tpmt Testing A Predictor Of Duration Of Use Or Long-Term Benefit Of Thiopurine Agents?, Shatoya R. Wilson 2018 Grand Valley State University

Is Tpmt Testing A Predictor Of Duration Of Use Or Long-Term Benefit Of Thiopurine Agents?, Shatoya R. Wilson

Masters Theses

Background: Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) affects as many as 1.3 million Americans and includes both ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD). Recent practices have moved towards using immunomodulators early in the course of disease to prevent disease progression. Patients have shown improved outcomes on immunomodulators compared to aminosalicylates, and reduced risk for tachyphylaxis compared to corticosteroid treatment. Thiopurine agents such as azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine are immunomodulators often used to treat IBD. Unfortunately, many patients experience cytotoxicity from thiopurine use. Recent studies have shown that patients deficient in thiopurine-S-methyltransferase (TMPT), produce an overabundance of the therapeutic end product, 6-thioguanine nucleotide …


Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (Egfr) Inhibition By Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contributes To Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (Nafld)., Josiah Hardesty 2018 University of Louisville

Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (Egfr) Inhibition By Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contributes To Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (Nafld)., Josiah Hardesty

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation describes how poly-chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exacerbate the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). While PCBs were banned in 1979, they still persist in contaminated biota, including food, and are detected in human plasma and adipose. The body burden of PCBs is associated with elevation of liver enzymes and necrosis markers in humans, characteristic of NAFLD. PCB exposure in high-fat diet fed mice leads to steatohepatitis that recapitulate the findings seen in exposed humans. The global estimate of people diagnosed with NAFLD is up to 1 in 4 people, unrelated to dietary or genetic factors. The hepatic mechanisms …


Efficacy And Renal Outcomes Of Sglt2 Inhibitors In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes And Chronic Kidney Disease, Michael S. Kelly, Jelena Lewis, Ashley M. Huntsberry, Lauren Dea, Ivan Portillo 2018 Chapman University

Efficacy And Renal Outcomes Of Sglt2 Inhibitors In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes And Chronic Kidney Disease, Michael S. Kelly, Jelena Lewis, Ashley M. Huntsberry, Lauren Dea, Ivan Portillo

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Objective: To review glucose-lowering efficacy and changes in renal function associated with sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Data sources: A literature search of MEDLINE and Cochrane databases was performed from 2000 to August 2018 using search terms: SGLT2 inhibitors, sodium glucose co-transporter 2, canagliflozin, empagliflozin, dapagliflozin, ertugliflozin, and chronic kidney disease. References of identified articles were also reviewed.

Study selection and data extraction: English-language studies investigating glucose-lowering endpoints and/or changes in renal function with one of four U.S. approved SGLT2 inhibitors were included. A …


Kinetics Of Dextromethorphan-O-Demethylase Activity And Distribution Of Cyp2d In Four Commonly-Used Subcellular Fractions Of Rat Brain, Barent N. Dubois, Farideh Amirrad, Reza Mehvar 2018 Chapman University

Kinetics Of Dextromethorphan-O-Demethylase Activity And Distribution Of Cyp2d In Four Commonly-Used Subcellular Fractions Of Rat Brain, Barent N. Dubois, Farideh Amirrad, Reza Mehvar

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The purpose of this study was to compare the enzymatic kinetics and distribution of cytochrome P450 2D (CYP2D) among different rat brain subcellular fractions.

Rat brains were used to prepare total membrane, crude mitochondrial, purified mitochondrial, and microsomal fractions, in addition to total homogenate. Michaelis–Menten kinetics of the brain CYP2D activity was estimated based on the conversion of dextromethorphan (DXM) to dextrorphan using UPLC-MS/MS. Protein levels of CYP2D and subcellular markers were determined by Western blot.

Microsomal CYP2D exhibited high affinity and low capacity, compared with the mitochondrial CYP2D that had a much lower (∼50-fold) affinity but a higher (∼six-fold) …


Synthesis And Antiproliferative Activities Of Doxorubicin Thiol Conjugates And Doxorubicin-Ss-Cyclic Peptide, Shaban Darwish, Neda Sadeghiani, Shirley Fong, Saghar Mozaffari, Parinaz Hamidi, Thimanthi Withana, Sun Yang, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari, Keykavous Parang 2018 Chapman University

Synthesis And Antiproliferative Activities Of Doxorubicin Thiol Conjugates And Doxorubicin-Ss-Cyclic Peptide, Shaban Darwish, Neda Sadeghiani, Shirley Fong, Saghar Mozaffari, Parinaz Hamidi, Thimanthi Withana, Sun Yang, Rakesh Kumar Tiwari, Keykavous Parang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Myocardial toxicity and drug resistance caused by drug efflux are major limitations of doxorubicin (Dox)-based chemotherapy. Dox structure modification could be used to develop conjugates with an improved biological profile, such as antiproliferative activity and higher cellular retention. Thus, Dox thiol conjugates, Dox thiol (Dox-SH), thiol-reactive Dox-SS-pyridine (SS = disulfide), and a Dox-SS-cell-penetrating cyclic peptide, Dox-SS-[C(WR)4K], were synthesized. Dox was reacted with Traut's reagent to generate Dox-SH. The thiol group was activated by the reaction with dithiodipyridine to afford the corresponding Dox-SS-Pyridine (Dox-SS-Pyr). A cyclic cell-penetrating peptide containing a cysteine residue [C(WR)4K] was prepared using Fmoc solid-phase strategy. Dox-SS-Py was …


Correcting Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency With A Small-Molecule Activator, Sunhee Hwang, Karen Mruk, Simin Rahighi, Andrew G. Raub, Che-Hong Chen, Lisa E. Dorn, Naoki Horikoshi, Soichi Wakatsuki, James K. Chen, Daria Mochly-Rosen 2018 Stanford University

Correcting Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency With A Small-Molecule Activator, Sunhee Hwang, Karen Mruk, Simin Rahighi, Andrew G. Raub, Che-Hong Chen, Lisa E. Dorn, Naoki Horikoshi, Soichi Wakatsuki, James K. Chen, Daria Mochly-Rosen

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, one of the most common human genetic enzymopathies, is caused by over 160 different point mutations and contributes to the severity of many acute and chronic diseases associated with oxidative stress, including hemolytic anemia and bilirubin-induced neurological damage particularly in newborns. As no medications are available to treat G6PD deficiency, here we seek to identify a small molecule that corrects it. Crystallographic study and mutagenesis analysis identify the structural and functional defect of one common mutant (Canton, R459L). Using high-throughput screening, we subsequently identify AG1, a small molecule that increases the activity of the wild-type, the …


Iron-Dependent Cleavage Of Ribosomal Rna During Oxidative Stress In The Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Jessica A Zinskie, Arnab Ghosh, Brandon M Trainor, Daniel Shedlovskiy, Dimitri G Pestov, Natalia Shcherbik 2018 Rowan University

Iron-Dependent Cleavage Of Ribosomal Rna During Oxidative Stress In The Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Jessica A Zinskie, Arnab Ghosh, Brandon M Trainor, Daniel Shedlovskiy, Dimitri G Pestov, Natalia Shcherbik

Rowan-Virtua School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Stress-induced strand breaks in rRNA have been observed in many organisms, but the mechanisms by which they originate are not well-understood. Here we show that a chemical rather than an enzymatic mechanism initiates rRNA cleavages during oxidative stress in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). We used cells lacking the mitochondrial glutaredoxin Grx5 to demonstrate that oxidant-induced cleavage formation in 25S rRNA correlates with intracellular iron levels. Sequestering free iron by chemical or genetic means decreased the extent of rRNA degradation and relieved the hypersensitivity of grx5Δ cells to the oxidants. Importantly, subjecting purified ribosomes to an in vitro iron/ascorbate …


Uplc-Ms/Ms Analysis Of Dextromethorphan-O-Demethylation Kinetics In Rat Brain Microsomes, Barent N. DuBois, Reza Mehvar 2018 Chapman University

Uplc-Ms/Ms Analysis Of Dextromethorphan-O-Demethylation Kinetics In Rat Brain Microsomes, Barent N. Dubois, Reza Mehvar

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Formation of dextrorphan (DXT) from dextromethorphan (DXM) has been widely used to assess cytochrome P450 2D (CYP2D) activity. Additionally, the kinetics of CYP2D activity have been well characterized in the liver microsomes. However, studies in brain microsomes are limited due to the lower microsomal content and abundance of CYP2D in the brain relative to the liver. In the present study, we developed a micro-scale enzymatic incubation method, coupled with a sensitive UPLC-MS/MS assay for the quantitation of the rate of DXT formation from DXM in brain microsomes. Rat brain microsomes were incubated with different concentrations of DXM for various times. …


30-Day Oral Acetaminophen Tolerance In Adult Horses, Sarah E. Foreman 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

30-Day Oral Acetaminophen Tolerance In Adult Horses, Sarah E. Foreman

Celebration of Learning

There are no controlled studies of acetaminophen toxicity in horses. The objective was to test the hypotheses that oral acetaminophen administered at a dosage 25% higher than that sometimes used in horses would result in measurable hepatic toxicity as seen in humans and other species. Six healthy adult horses were administered 25 mg/kg acetaminophen powder in corn syrup twice daily for 30 days. Three other horses served as negative controls receiving only corn syrup. Jugular venous blood samples were obtained on days 7 and 1 before treatment; on treatment days 1, 2, 5, 8, 12, 15, 19, 22, 26 and …


The Beta-Catenin/Muc1.Ct Interaction In Pancreatic Cancer, Edwin Wiest 2018 University of Nebraska Medical Center

The Beta-Catenin/Muc1.Ct Interaction In Pancreatic Cancer, Edwin Wiest

Theses & Dissertations

MUC1 is overexpressed in over 90% of pancreatic cancer cases, and its interaction with beta-catenin promotes progression of the disease. Various in vitro and in vivo methods show that beta-catenin and MUC1 interact by way of the cytoplasmic tail of MUC1 (MUC1.CT). This interaction occurs in the membrane of pancreatic cancer cells but is found to a smaller extent in the nucleus as well. Biophysical methods suggest that MUC1 interacts with beta-catenin through a sequence of amino acids in the tail of MUC1 that sit very near the transmembrane domain of MUC1. In pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells, it appears that …


Linear Ubiquitin Chain-Binding Domains, Lilian Fennell, Simin Rahighi, Fumiyo Ikeda 2018 Vienna BioCenter

Linear Ubiquitin Chain-Binding Domains, Lilian Fennell, Simin Rahighi, Fumiyo Ikeda

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Ubiquitin modification (ubiquitination) of target proteins can vary with respect to chain lengths, linkage type, and chain forms, such as homologous, mixed, and branched ubiquitin chains. Thus, ubiquitination can generate multiple unique surfaces on a target protein substrate. Ubiquitin‐binding domains (UBDs) recognize ubiquitinated substrates, by specifically binding to these unique surfaces, modulate the formation of cellular signaling complexes and regulate downstream signaling cascades. Among the eight different homotypic chain types, Met1‐linked (also termed linear) chains are the only chains in which linkage occurs on a non‐Lys residue of ubiquitin. Linear ubiquitin chains have been implicated in immune responses, cell death …


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