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Chemical and Pharmacologic Phenomena Commons

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234 full-text articles. Page 11 of 11.

Effects Of Combined Opioids On Pain And Mood In Mammals, David J. Mokler, Richard H. Rech, Shannon L. Briggs 2012 University of New England

Effects Of Combined Opioids On Pain And Mood In Mammals, David J. Mokler, Richard H. Rech, Shannon L. Briggs

Biomedical Sciences Faculty Publications

The authors review the opioid literature for evidence of increased analgesia and reduced adverse side effects by combining opioid-receptor (MOR) agonists, kappa-opioid-recepter (KOR) agonists, and nonselective low-dose-opioid antagonists (LD-ANT). We tested fentanyl (MOR agonist) and spiradoline (KOR agonist), singly and combined, against somatic and visceral pain models. Combined agonists induced additive analgesia in somatic pain and synergistic analgesia in visceral pain. Other investigators report similar effects and reduced tolerance and dependence with combined MOR agonist and KOR agonist. LD-Ant added to either a MOR agonist or KOR agonist markedly enhanced analgesia of either agonist. In accordance with other place-condition (PC) …


Synthesis And Flame Retardant Testing Of New Boronated And Phosphonated Aromatic Compounds, Vladimir Benin, Sravanthi Durganala, Alexander Morgan 2012 University of Dayton

Synthesis And Flame Retardant Testing Of New Boronated And Phosphonated Aromatic Compounds, Vladimir Benin, Sravanthi Durganala, Alexander Morgan

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The present report describes the preparation and use of some dimethyl terephthalate derivatives in transition metal-catalyzed coupling reactions to produce new reactive flame retardants. Dimethyl iodoterephthalate and dimethyl 2,5-diiodoterephthalate were successfully employed in the preparation of phosphonic and boronic esters and acids. The latter were tested for heat release with a microcombustion calorimeter (ASTM D7309) to determine the potential for heat release reduction of these flame retardant molecules. The results showed that the addition of boronic or phosphonic acids greatly lowered the heat release, due to a condensed phase (char formation) mechanism. Adding ester groups to the boronic acids or …


The Tetrafluoroborate Salt Of 4-Methoxybenzyl N-2-(Dimethylamino)Ethyl-N-Nitrosocarbamate: Synthesis, Crystal Structure And Dft Calculations, Helene Hedian, Vladimir Benin 2011 University of Dayton

The Tetrafluoroborate Salt Of 4-Methoxybenzyl N-2-(Dimethylamino)Ethyl-N-Nitrosocarbamate: Synthesis, Crystal Structure And Dft Calculations, Helene Hedian, Vladimir Benin

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The tetrafluoroborate salt of 4-methoxybenzyl N-2-(dimethylamino)ethyl-N-nitrosocarbamate was prepared in two steps, via the corresponding carbamate. Its crystal structure is monoclinic, space group P21/c. The unit cell dimensions are: a = 19.499(8) Å, b = 5.877(3) Å, c = 15.757(7) Å, α = 90°, β = 110.019(7)°, γ = 90°, V = 1696.5(12) Å3, Z = 4. The structure exhibits an unexpected, pseudo-gauche conformation with respect to the C2–C3 bond, due to a stabilizing hydrogen bond between the carbonyl oxygen (O1) and the hydrogen atom at the trialkylammonium center (H3n), with a distance between them of …


Modelling Β2ar Regulation, Sharat J. Vayttaden 2011 The University of Texas Graudate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Modelling Β2ar Regulation, Sharat J. Vayttaden

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

The β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) regulates smooth muscle relaxation in the vasculature and airways. Long- and Short-acting β-agonists (LABAs/SABAs) are widely used in treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD) and asthma. Despite their widespread clinical use we do not understand well the dominant β2AR regulatory pathways that are stimulated during therapy and bring about tachyphylaxis, which is the loss of drug effects. Thus, an understanding of how the β2AR responds to various β-agonists is crucial to their rational use. Towards that end we have developed deterministic models that explore the mechanism of drug- induced β2AR regulation. These mathematical models …


Substrate Envelope And Drug Resistance: Crystal Structure Of Ro1 In Complex With Wild-Type Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease, Moses Prabu-Jeyabalan, Nancy M. King, Ellen A. Nalivaika, Gabrielle Heilek-Snyder, Nick Cammack, Celia A. Schiffer 2011 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Substrate Envelope And Drug Resistance: Crystal Structure Of Ro1 In Complex With Wild-Type Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Protease, Moses Prabu-Jeyabalan, Nancy M. King, Ellen A. Nalivaika, Gabrielle Heilek-Snyder, Nick Cammack, Celia A. Schiffer

Celia A. Schiffer

In our previous crystallographic studies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease-substrate complexes, we described a conserved "envelope" that appears to be important for substrate recognition and the selection of drug-resistant mutations. In this study, the complex of HIV-1 protease with the inhibitor RO1 was determined and comparison with the substrate envelope provides a rationale for mutational patterns.


Intratracheal Instillation Of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Induces Hepatic Toxicity In Male Sprague-Dawley Rats, Siva Krishna Nalabotu, Madhukar Babu Kolli, William E. Triest, Jane Y. Ma, Nandini DPK Manne, Anjaiah Katta, Hari S. Addagarla, Kevin M. Rice, Eric R. Blough 2011 Marshall University

Intratracheal Instillation Of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Induces Hepatic Toxicity In Male Sprague-Dawley Rats, Siva Krishna Nalabotu, Madhukar Babu Kolli, William E. Triest, Jane Y. Ma, Nandini Dpk Manne, Anjaiah Katta, Hari S. Addagarla, Kevin M. Rice, Eric R. Blough

MIIR Faculty Research

Background: Cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles have been posited to have both beneficial and toxic effects on biological systems. Herein, we examine if a single intratracheal instillation of CeO2 nanoparticles is associated with systemic toxicity in male Sprague-Dawley rats.


Methods and results: Compared with control animals, CeO2 nanoparticle exposure was associated with increased liver ceria levels, elevations in serum alanine transaminase levels, reduced albumin levels, a diminished sodium-potassium ratio, and decreased serum triglyceride levels (P < 0.05). Consistent with these data, rats exposed to CeO2nanoparticles also exhibited reductions in liver weight (P < 0.05) and dose-dependent hydropic degeneration, hepatocyte enlargement, sinusoidal dilatation, and accumulation of granular material. No histopathological alterations were observed in the kidney, spleen, and heart. Analysis of serum biomarkers suggested an elevation of acute phase reactants and markers of hepatocyte injury in the rats exposed to CeO2 nanoparticles.


Conclusion: Taken together, these data suggest that intratracheal instillation …


Application Of Raman Spectroscopy To Lubricants, Lubricated Surfaces And Lubrication Phenomena, David W. Johnson 2011 University of Dayton

Application Of Raman Spectroscopy To Lubricants, Lubricated Surfaces And Lubrication Phenomena, David W. Johnson

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Recent advances in lasers and detector technologies and the development of low-cost instruments and fiber-optic probes have brought about an explosion in the lubrication systems being studied by Raman spectroscopy. This article provides examples of the use of Raman spectroscopy in the study of lubrication phenomena, including the characterization of liquid lubricants, lubricant additives, and solid lubricants; the study of vapor-phase lubrication; and the use of coated nanoparticles as lubricants.


A Sodium Salt Of The Dimer Of Boronoterephthalic Acid Anhydride, Scott Simmons, Albert Fratini, Vladimir Benin 2011 University of Dayton

A Sodium Salt Of The Dimer Of Boronoterephthalic Acid Anhydride, Scott Simmons, Albert Fratini, Vladimir Benin

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The title compound, sodium bis­(6-carb­oxy-1-hy­droxy-3-oxo-1,3-dihydro-2,1-benzoxaborol-1-yl)oxidanium, Na+·C16H15B2O13-, was prepared in two steps from 2-bromo-p-xylene. Its crystal structure was determined at 140 K and has triclinic (P) symmetry. The compound presents a unique structural motif, including two units of the cyclic anhydride of boronoterephthalic acid, joined by a protonated, and thereby trivalent, oxonium center. Association in the crystal is realized by complementary hydrogen bonding of the carboxyl groups, as well as by coordination of the sodium cations to the oxygen centers on the five-membered rings.


Theoretical Investigation Of A Reported Antibiotic From The 'Miracle Tree' Moringa Oleifera, Michael Horwath, Vladimir Benin 2011 University of Dayton

Theoretical Investigation Of A Reported Antibiotic From The 'Miracle Tree' Moringa Oleifera, Michael Horwath, Vladimir Benin

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Moringa oleifera, sometimes called the “Miracle Tree,” has received international attention for its potential to improve health in impoverished tropical areas. In addition to high vitamin content in the leaves and pods, the tree contains compounds with antioxidant and antibacterial properties. This study focused on the theoretical investigation of the suggested structure of one antibacterial compound, “pterygospermin,” whose existence was proposed after some studies of the roots of M. oleifera. The structure of pterygospermin was first proposed by a research group working in the 1950s, but later studies have not found evidence of this compound and have instead …


Exhausted Or Unlicensed: Can Field-Of-Use Restrictions In Biotech License Agreements Still Prevent Off-Label Use Promotion After Quanta Computer?, Kristal M. Wicks 2010 Franklin Pierce Law Center

Exhausted Or Unlicensed: Can Field-Of-Use Restrictions In Biotech License Agreements Still Prevent Off-Label Use Promotion After Quanta Computer?, Kristal M. Wicks

The University of New Hampshire Law Review

[Excerpt] “In the biotechnology (biotech) industry, companies must be increasingly aware of their intellectual property and how their licensing strategies can impact their rights. When licensing patented technology, it is common practice for biotech companies to include restricted field-of-use provisions in their license agreements. Such provisions permit a licensee to only use licensed technology in a defined field and restrict use or development in another field. This licensing strategy plays an important role within the biotech industry because it allows companies to more effectively control their intellectual property and to more efficiently research and develop pharmaceutical products.

A problem that …


Using Photoactive Vitamin Nanoparticles As Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapeutic (Pact) Agents To Treat Chronic Wounds, Rahul A. Khanke 2010 Governors State University

Using Photoactive Vitamin Nanoparticles As Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapeutic (Pact) Agents To Treat Chronic Wounds, Rahul A. Khanke

All Capstone Projects

The objective of the proposed study is to develop new materials and methods to manage microbial growth in chronic wounds using phototherapy. Chronic wounds are considered as a worldwide health problem. The most common chronic wounds can be classified into three categories: venous ulcers, diabetic ulcers, and pressure ulcers. Venous ulcers, which usually occur in the legs, account for about 70% to 90% of chronic wounds and can become infected easily. Venous ulcers are sores that develop after veins in the legs have been damaged. These ulcers can penetrate deeply into the skin. Occasionally, if a venous ulcer persists for …


Pk/Pd Modelling Of Comb-Shaped Pegylated Salmon Calcitonin Conjugates Of Differing Molecular Weights, Sinead Ryan, Jesus Maria Frias, David H. Haddleton, David J. Brayden 2010 Technological University Dublin

Pk/Pd Modelling Of Comb-Shaped Pegylated Salmon Calcitonin Conjugates Of Differing Molecular Weights, Sinead Ryan, Jesus Maria Frias, David H. Haddleton, David J. Brayden

Articles

Salmon calcitonin (sCT) was conjugated via cysteine-1 to novel combed-shaped end-functionalised poly(PEG) methyl ether methacrylate) (sCT-P) comb-shaped polymers, to yield conjugates of total molecular weights (MW) inclusive of sCT: 6.5, 9.5, 23 and 40 kDa. The conjugates were characterised by HPLC and their in vitro and in vivo bioactivity was measured by cAMP assay on human T47D cells and following intravenous (i.v.) injection to rats, respectively. Stability against endopeptidases, rat serum and liver homogenates was assessed. There were linear and exponential relationships between conjugate MW with potency and efficacy respectively, however the largest MW conjugate still retained 70% of E …


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