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Appetite Control With Relevance To Mitochondrial Biogenesis And Activation Of Post-Prandial Lipid Metabolism In Obesity Linked Diabetes, Ian J. Martins 2016 Edith Cowan University

Appetite Control With Relevance To Mitochondrial Biogenesis And Activation Of Post-Prandial Lipid Metabolism In Obesity Linked Diabetes, Ian J. Martins

ECU Publications Post 2013

In various communities in the developing and developed world the understanding of the ingestion of a healthy diet and hepatic fat metabolism has become of critical importance to the treatment of obesity linked Type 2 diabetes that is now linked to various organ diseases. In the developing world transition to healthy diets has become urgent to prevent insulin resistance and the obesity pandemic. The liver is the major organ for the metabolism of dietary fat and after consumption of a meal in healthy individuals the fat is rapidly metabolized by the liver. In obesity linked Type 2 diabetes the post-prandial ...


Novel Role Of Cd47 In Obesity-Associated Metabolic Dysfunctions, Heather L. Norman-Burgdolf 2016 University of Kentucky

Novel Role Of Cd47 In Obesity-Associated Metabolic Dysfunctions, Heather L. Norman-Burgdolf

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences

Obesity and its associated comorbidities are of global concern. These complications are largely driven by perturbations in energy homeostasis, inflammation, and oxidative stress within metabolic tissues. Although these underlying pathways have been established, molecular mechanisms augmenting metabolic dysfunction have not been fully defined. CD47, a ubiquitously expressed cell membrane receptor, has been previously implicated in the development of inflammation and oxidative stress in a number of disease conditions. Previous work from our lab and others has confirmed that the most potent ligand of CD47, TSP1, plays a critical role in facilitating inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in diet-induced obesity. Whether these ...


Profiling Igg N-Glycans As Potential Biomarker Of Chronological And Biological Ages: A Community-Based Study In A Han Chinese Population, Xinwei Yu, Youix Wang, Jasminka Krištić, Jing Dong, Xi Chu, Siqi Ge, Hao Wang, Honghong Fang, Qing Gao, Di Lui, Zhongya Zhao, Hongli Peng, Maja P. Baković, Lijuan Wu, Manshu Song, Igor Rudan, Harry Campbell, Gordan Lauc, Wei Wang 2016 Edith Cowan University

Profiling Igg N-Glycans As Potential Biomarker Of Chronological And Biological Ages: A Community-Based Study In A Han Chinese Population, Xinwei Yu, Youix Wang, Jasminka Krištić, Jing Dong, Xi Chu, Siqi Ge, Hao Wang, Honghong Fang, Qing Gao, Di Lui, Zhongya Zhao, Hongli Peng, Maja P. Baković, Lijuan Wu, Manshu Song, Igor Rudan, Harry Campbell, Gordan Lauc, Wei Wang

ECU Publications Post 2013

As an important post-translation modifying process, glycosylation significantly affects the structure and function of immunoglobulin G (IgG) molecules and is essential in many steps of the inflammatory cascade. Studies have demonstrated the potential of using glycosylation features of IgG as a component of predictive biomarkers for chronological age in several European populations, whereas no study has been reported in Chinese. Herein, we report various patterns of changes in IgG glycosylation associated with age by analyzing IgG glycosylation in 701 community-based Han Chinese (244 males, 457 females; 23-68 years old). Eleven IgG glycans, including FA2B, A2G1, FA2[6]G1, FA2[3 ...


A Urinary Metabolic Signature For Multiple Sclerosis And Neuromyelitis Optica, Teklab Gebregiworgis, Helle H. Nielsen, Chandirasegara Massilamany, Arunakumar Gangaplara, Jay Reddy, Zsolt Illes, Robert Powers 2016 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

A Urinary Metabolic Signature For Multiple Sclerosis And Neuromyelitis Optica, Teklab Gebregiworgis, Helle H. Nielsen, Chandirasegara Massilamany, Arunakumar Gangaplara, Jay Reddy, Zsolt Illes, Robert Powers

Jay Reddy Publications

Urine is a metabolite-rich biofluid that reflects the body’s effort to maintain chemical and osmotic homeostasis. Clinical diagnosis routinely relies on urine samples because the collection process is easy and noninvasive. Despite these advantages, urine is an under-investigated source of biomarkers for multiple sclerosis (MS). Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) has become a common approach for analyzing urinary metabolites for disease diagnosis and biomarker discovery. For illustration of the potential of urinary metabolites for diagnosing and treating MS patients, and for differentiating between MS and other illnesses, 38 urine samples were collected from healthy controls, MS patients, and neuromyelitis ...


Mitochondrial Function Assessed By 31p Mrs And Bold Mri In Non-Obese Type 2 Diabetic Rats, Yuchi Liu, Xunbai Mei, Jielei Li, Nicola Lai, Xin Yu 2016 Old Dominion University

Mitochondrial Function Assessed By 31p Mrs And Bold Mri In Non-Obese Type 2 Diabetic Rats, Yuchi Liu, Xunbai Mei, Jielei Li, Nicola Lai, Xin Yu

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

The study aims to characterize age-associated changes in skeletal muscle bioenergetics by evaluating the response to ischemia-reperfusion in the skeletal muscle of the Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a rat model of non-obese type 2 diabetes (T2D). 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) MRI was performed on the hindlimb of young (12 weeks) and adult (20 weeks) GK and Wistar (control) rats. 31P-MRS and BOLD-MRI data were acquired continuously during an ischemia and reperfusion protocol to quantify changes in phosphate metabolites and muscle oxygenation. The time constant of phosphocreatine recovery, an index of mitochondrial oxidative capacity ...


Mtorc2 And Ampk Differentially Regulate Muscle Triglyceride Content Via Perilipin 3, Maximilian Kleinert, Benjamin L. Parker, Rima Chaudhuri, Daniel J. Fazakerley, Annette Serup, Kristen C. Thomas, James R. Krycer, Lykke Sylow, Andreas M. Fritzen, Nolan John Hoffman, Jacob Jeppesen, Peter Schjerling, Markus A. Ruegg, Bente Kiens, David E. James, Erik A. Richter 2016 Australian Catholic University

Mtorc2 And Ampk Differentially Regulate Muscle Triglyceride Content Via Perilipin 3, Maximilian Kleinert, Benjamin L. Parker, Rima Chaudhuri, Daniel J. Fazakerley, Annette Serup, Kristen C. Thomas, James R. Krycer, Lykke Sylow, Andreas M. Fritzen, Nolan John Hoffman, Jacob Jeppesen, Peter Schjerling, Markus A. Ruegg, Bente Kiens, David E. James, Erik A. Richter

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objective: We have recently shown that acute inhibition of both mTOR complexes (mTORC1 and mTORC2) increases whole-body lipid utilization, while mTORC1 inhibition had no effect. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that mTORC2 regulates lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle. Methods: Body composition, substrate utilization and muscle lipid storage were measured in mice lacking mTORC2 activity in skeletal muscle (specific knockout of RICTOR (Ric mKO)). We further examined the RICTOR/mTORC2-controlled muscle metabolome and proteome; and performed follow-up studies in other genetic mouse models and in cell culture. Results: Ric mKO mice exhibited a greater reliance on fat as an energy substrate ...


Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Contributes To The Regulation Of Glucose Uptake In Skeletal Muscle, Robert S. Lee-Young, Nolan John Hoffman, Kate T. Murphy, Darren C. Henstridge, Dorit Samocha-Bonet, Andrew L. Siebel, Peter Iliades, Borivoj Zivanovic, Yet H. Hong, Timothy D. Colgan, Michael J. Kraakman, Clinton R. Bruce, Paul Gregorevic, Glenn K. McConell, Gordon S. Lynch, Grant R. Drummond, Bronwyn A. Kingwell, Jerry R. Greenfield, Mark A. Febbraio 2016 Australian Catholic University

Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Contributes To The Regulation Of Glucose Uptake In Skeletal Muscle, Robert S. Lee-Young, Nolan John Hoffman, Kate T. Murphy, Darren C. Henstridge, Dorit Samocha-Bonet, Andrew L. Siebel, Peter Iliades, Borivoj Zivanovic, Yet H. Hong, Timothy D. Colgan, Michael J. Kraakman, Clinton R. Bruce, Paul Gregorevic, Glenn K. Mcconell, Gordon S. Lynch, Grant R. Drummond, Bronwyn A. Kingwell, Jerry R. Greenfield, Mark A. Febbraio

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objective: The development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance is an early physiological defect, yet the intracellular mechanisms accounting for this metabolic defect remained unresolved. Here, we have examined the role of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Methods: Multiple mouse disease states exhibiting insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, as well as obese humans defined as insulin-sensitive, insulin-resistant, or pre-diabetic, were examined. Results: We identified increased glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity as a common intracellular adaptation that occurs in parallel with the induction of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and is present across animal and ...


Effect Of Enteral Feeding Timing In Septic Shock Patients, Shane D. Slone 2016 University of Kentucky

Effect Of Enteral Feeding Timing In Septic Shock Patients, Shane D. Slone

DNP Projects

The goal of this research project was to identify the effect of the timing of enteral nutrition (EN) initiation timing on in-hospital mortality, ICU LOS and hospital LOS among patients with septic shock requiring norepinephrine. The study design was a cross-sectional analysis of retrospective electronic health record data. Patients who had received norepinephrine for septic shock were divided into early EN initiation (within 48 hours of ICU admission) and late EN initiation (Greater than or equal to 48 hours after ICU admission) groups. 680 subjects were included; 469 in the early group and 211 in the late group. Demographics, comorbidities ...


Rapamycin Rescues Vascular, Metabolic And Learning Deficits In Apolipoprotein E4 Transgenic Mice With Pre-Symptomatic Alzheimer’S Disease, Ai-Ling Lin, Jordan B. Jahrling, Wei Zhang, Nicholas DeRosa, Vikas Bakshi, Peter Romero, Veronica Galvan, Arlan Richardson 2015 University of Kentucky

Rapamycin Rescues Vascular, Metabolic And Learning Deficits In Apolipoprotein E4 Transgenic Mice With Pre-Symptomatic Alzheimer’S Disease, Ai-Ling Lin, Jordan B. Jahrling, Wei Zhang, Nicholas Derosa, Vikas Bakshi, Peter Romero, Veronica Galvan, Arlan Richardson

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

Apolipoprotein E ɛ4 allele is a common susceptibility gene for late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Brain vascular and metabolic deficits can occur in cognitively normal apolipoprotein E ɛ4 carriers decades before the onset of Alzheimer's disease. The goal of this study was to determine whether early intervention using rapamycin could restore neurovascular and neurometabolic functions, and thus impede pathological progression of Alzheimer's disease-like symptoms in pre-symptomatic Apolipoprotein E ɛ4 transgenic mice. Using in vivo, multimodal neuroimaging, we found that apolipoprotein E ɛ4 mice treated with rapamycin had restored cerebral blood flow, blood–brain barrier integrity ...


Field Testing Adolescent Females For Cardiovascular Disease Risk, C. Brahler, Wesley Stephens, Betsy Donahoe Fillmore 2015 University of Dayton

Field Testing Adolescent Females For Cardiovascular Disease Risk, C. Brahler, Wesley Stephens, Betsy Donahoe Fillmore

C. Jayne Brahler

Over-fatness and poor cardiovascular (CV) fitness are well-documented risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adults, but less is known about their association with disease risk in adolescents. This study aimed to determine the relationship between anthropometrics, fitness, and CVD risk.

Six anthropometric indicators of body fatness, seven measures of fitness, and seven metabolic and hemodynamic CVD risk factors were measured in a convenience sample of 28 female high school students (15-18 years of age). A tally was made of the number of factors for which each subject was outside the normal reference range (CVD risk).

Correlation analyses were completed ...


Dashing Away Hypertension: Evaluating The Efficacy Of The Dietary Approaches To Stop Hypertension Diet In Controlling High Blood Pressure, Preeya Shah PhD, Kyle D. Maxwell, Joseph I. Shapiro MD 2015 Marshall University

Dashing Away Hypertension: Evaluating The Efficacy Of The Dietary Approaches To Stop Hypertension Diet In Controlling High Blood Pressure, Preeya Shah Phd, Kyle D. Maxwell, Joseph I. Shapiro Md

Biochemistry and Microbiology

The dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet has been developed and popularized as a non-pharmaceutical intervention for high blood pressure reduction since 1995. However, to date, a comprehensive description of the biochemical rationale behind the diet’s principal guidelines has yet to be compiled. With rising interest for healthy and reliable life-style modifications to combat cardiovascular disease, this review aims to compile the most recent and relevant studies on this topic and make an informed assessment as to the efficacy of and underlying mechanisms operant in the DASH diet. Specifically, the merits of lowering dietary intake of sodium and ...


Mice Deficient In Endothelial Α5 Integrin Are Profoundly Resistant To Experimental Ischemic Stroke, Jill Roberts, Leon de Hoog, Gregory J. Bix 2015 University of Kentucky

Mice Deficient In Endothelial Α5 Integrin Are Profoundly Resistant To Experimental Ischemic Stroke, Jill Roberts, Leon De Hoog, Gregory J. Bix

Sanders-Brown Center on Aging Faculty Publications

Stroke is a disease in dire need of better therapies. We have previously shown that a fragment of the extracellular matrix proteoglycan, perlecan, has beneficial effects following cerebral ischemia via the α5β1 integrin receptor. We now report that endothelial cell selective α5 integrin deficient mice (α5 KO) are profoundly resistant to ischemic infarct after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Specifically, α5 KOs had little to no infarct 2–3 days post-stroke, whereas controls had an increase in mean infarct volume over the same time period as expected. Functional outcome is also improved in the α5 KOs compared with controls. Importantly ...


C–N Bond Rotation And E–Z Isomerism In Some N-Benzyl-N-Methylcarbamoyl Chlorides: A Dft Study, Michael Horwath, Vladimir Benin 2015 University of Dayton

C–N Bond Rotation And E–Z Isomerism In Some N-Benzyl-N-Methylcarbamoyl Chlorides: A Dft Study, Michael Horwath, Vladimir Benin

Vladimir Benin

The current report presents the first theoretical study of the restricted CN bond rotation in carbamoyl chlorides. Several N-benzyl-N-methylcarbamoyl chlorides were investigated, with varying pattern of substitution in the aromatic ring. Optimizations and frequency calculations were conducted employing DFT at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d) level of theory. Each of the studied structures exhibits a pair of rotamers (s-Z and s-E), generated upon rotation around the C(O)N bond. The s-E isomer is the global minimum in every case, but the preference for it is usually less than 1 kcal/mol. Two possible transition state structures were identified for ...


Preparation And Characterization Of Some Substituted Benzyl N-Nitrosocarbamates Containing An N-2-(Methylthio)Ethyl Or A Bis(2-Aminoethyl)Sulfide Functionality, Satya Venkata, Eric Shamo, Vladimir Benin 2015 University of Dayton

Preparation And Characterization Of Some Substituted Benzyl N-Nitrosocarbamates Containing An N-2-(Methylthio)Ethyl Or A Bis(2-Aminoethyl)Sulfide Functionality, Satya Venkata, Eric Shamo, Vladimir Benin

Vladimir Benin

The synthesis and characterization of some substituted benzyl N-nitrosocarbamates with an N-2-(methylthio)ethyl or a bis(2-aminoethyl)sulfide functionality is reported, as a part of a long-term goal to design and prepare novel photolabile structures that could be used as substances for controlled release of alkylating and/or crosslinking agents. The synthesis was accomplished by reaction of benzyl chloroformates with the corresponding amines, resulting in the preparation of carbamates. The latter were subsequently nitrosated, utilizing two different N-nitrosation methods, to yield the target structures.


The Tetrafluoroborate Salt Of 4-Methoxybenzyl N-2-(Dimethylamino)Ethyl-N-Nitrosocarbamate: Synthesis, Crystal Structure And Dft Calculations, Helene Hedian, Vladimir Benin 2015 University of Dayton

The Tetrafluoroborate Salt Of 4-Methoxybenzyl N-2-(Dimethylamino)Ethyl-N-Nitrosocarbamate: Synthesis, Crystal Structure And Dft Calculations, Helene Hedian, Vladimir Benin

Vladimir Benin

The tetrafluoroborate salt of 4-methoxybenzyl N-2-(dimethylamino)ethyl-N-nitrosocarbamate was prepared in two steps, via the corresponding carbamate. Its crystal structure is monoclinic, space group P21/c. The unit cell dimensions are: a = 19.499(8) Å, b = 5.877(3) Å, c = 15.757(7) Å, α = 90°, β = 110.019(7)°, γ = 90°, V = 1696.5(12) Å3, Z = 4. The structure exhibits an unexpected, pseudo-gauche conformation with respect to the C2–C3 bond, due to a stabilizing hydrogen bond between the carbonyl oxygen (O1) and the hydrogen atom at the trialkylammonium center (H3n), with a distance between them ...


A Sodium Salt Of The Dimer Of Boronoterephthalic Acid Anhydride, Scott Simmons, Albert Fratini, Vladimir Benin 2015 University of Dayton

A Sodium Salt Of The Dimer Of Boronoterephthalic Acid Anhydride, Scott Simmons, Albert Fratini, Vladimir Benin

Vladimir Benin

The title compound, sodium bis­(6-carb­oxy-1-hy­droxy-3-oxo-1,3-dihydro-2,1-benzoxaborol-1-yl)oxidanium, Na+·C16H15B2O13-, was prepared in two steps from 2-bromo-p-xylene. Its crystal structure was determined at 140 K and has triclinic (P) symmetry. The compound presents a unique structural motif, including two units of the cyclic anhydride of boronoterephthalic acid, joined by a protonated, and thereby trivalent, oxonium center. Association in the crystal is realized by complementary hydrogen bonding of the carboxyl groups, as well as by coordination of the sodium cations to the oxygen centers on the five-membered rings.


Secondary N-Nitrosocarbamate Anions: Structure And Alkylation Reactions. A Dft Study, Vladimir Benin 2015 University of Dayton

Secondary N-Nitrosocarbamate Anions: Structure And Alkylation Reactions. A Dft Study, Vladimir Benin

Vladimir Benin

The current article reports theoretical studies (DFT: B3LYP/6-31+G(d)) on the structure and alkylation reactions of the anions of some secondary N-nitrosocarbamates, a class of ambident nucleophiles whose chemistry has been little explored. Several anions (1–4), with an increasing size of the carbamate alkyl (aryl) group were investigated, in an attempt to establish the influence of the size of that group on the thermal stability and regioselectivity of alkylation of the title anions. The conclusion is that thermal stability and the mode of reaction are affected significantly only in the presence of very large and branched carbamate ...


Preparation Of Phosphonoterephthalic Acids Via Palladium-Catalyzed Coupling Of Aromatic Iodoesters, Nathaniel Ivan, Vladimir Benin, Alexander Morgan 2015 University of Dayton

Preparation Of Phosphonoterephthalic Acids Via Palladium-Catalyzed Coupling Of Aromatic Iodoesters, Nathaniel Ivan, Vladimir Benin, Alexander Morgan

Vladimir Benin

The current article reports in detail the preparation of two phosphonoterephthalic acids: 2-phosphonoterephthalic acid (1) and 2,5-diphosphonoterephthalic acid (2). Efficient, scalable syntheses have been developed for both compounds based on Pd-catalyzed coupling reactions of iodinated terephthalate esters. Phosphonoterephthalic acids are potentially useful as flame-retardant additives or as monomers for the construction of acid-pendant polymer chains.


Preparation Of Some Substituted Terephthalic Acids, Susanna Branion, Vladimir Benin 2015 University of Dayton

Preparation Of Some Substituted Terephthalic Acids, Susanna Branion, Vladimir Benin

Vladimir Benin

We report in detail the preparation of two substituted terephthalic acids: 2‐sulfomethylterephthalic acid (1) and 2‐phosphonoterephthalic acid (2). Efficient, short syntheses have been developed for both compounds. They are potentially useful monomers for construction of acid‐pendant polymer chains.


Theoretical Investigation Of A Reported Antibiotic From The 'Miracle Tree' Moringa Oleifera, Michael Horwath, Vladimir Benin 2015 University of Dayton

Theoretical Investigation Of A Reported Antibiotic From The 'Miracle Tree' Moringa Oleifera, Michael Horwath, Vladimir Benin

Vladimir Benin

Moringa oleifera, sometimes called the “Miracle Tree,” has received international attention for its potential to improve health in impoverished tropical areas. In addition to high vitamin content in the leaves and pods, the tree contains compounds with antioxidant and antibacterial properties. This study focused on the theoretical investigation of the suggested structure of one antibacterial compound, “pterygospermin,” whose existence was proposed after some studies of the roots of M. oleifera. The structure of pterygospermin was first proposed by a research group working in the 1950s, but later studies have not found evidence of this compound and have instead attributed the ...


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