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Intergenerational Effects Of Nicotine In An Animal Model Of Paternal Nicotine Exposure, Markus Parzival Vallaster 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Intergenerational Effects Of Nicotine In An Animal Model Of Paternal Nicotine Exposure, Markus Parzival Vallaster

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Environmental conditions imposed onto organisms during certain phases of their life cycles such as embryogenesis or puberty can not only impact the organisms’ own health, but also affect subsequent generations. The underlying mechanisms causing intergenerational phenotypes are not encoded in the genome, but the result of reversible epigenetic modifications. This work investigates in a mouse model the impact of paternal nicotine exposure on the next generation regarding addictive behavior modulation, metabolic changes, and molecular mechanisms. It provides evidence that male offspring from nicotine-exposed fathers (NIC offspring) is more resistant to lethal doses of nicotine. This phenotype is gender-specific and depends ...


Activin Receptor Type 2a (Acvr2a) Functions Directly In Osteoblasts As A Negative Regulator Of Bone Mass, Brian C. Goh, Vandana Singhal, Angelica J. Herrera, Ryan E. Tomlinson, Soohyun Kim, Marie-Claude Faugere, Emily L. Germain-Lee, Thomas L. Clemens, Se-Jin Lee, Douglas J. DiGirolamo 2017 Johns Hopkins University

Activin Receptor Type 2a (Acvr2a) Functions Directly In Osteoblasts As A Negative Regulator Of Bone Mass, Brian C. Goh, Vandana Singhal, Angelica J. Herrera, Ryan E. Tomlinson, Soohyun Kim, Marie-Claude Faugere, Emily L. Germain-Lee, Thomas L. Clemens, Se-Jin Lee, Douglas J. Digirolamo

Internal Medicine Faculty Publications

Bone and skeletal muscle mass are highly correlated in mammals, suggesting the existence of common anabolic signaling networks that coordinate the development of these two anatomically adjacent tissues. The activin signaling pathway is an attractive candidate to fulfill such a role. Here, we generated mice with conditional deletion of activin receptor (ACVR) type 2A, ACVR2B, or both, in osteoblasts, to determine the contribution of activin receptor signaling in regulating bone mass. Immunohistochemistry localized ACVR2A and ACVR2B to osteoblasts and osteocytes. Primary osteoblasts expressed activin signaling components, including ACVR2A, ACVR2B, and ACVR1B (ALK4) and demonstrated increased levels of phosphorylated Smad2/3 ...


Regulation Of Iron-Related Molecules In The Rat Hippocampus: Sex- And Age-Associated Differences, Srinivasarao Thulluri, Miaozong Wu, Eric R. Blough, Nandini D.P.K. Manne, Ashley B. Litchfield, Bin Wang 2017 Marshall University

Regulation Of Iron-Related Molecules In The Rat Hippocampus: Sex- And Age-Associated Differences, Srinivasarao Thulluri, Miaozong Wu, Eric R. Blough, Nandini D.P.K. Manne, Ashley B. Litchfield, Bin Wang

Nandini Manne

Iron accumulation, especially that of free oxidized ferrous iron, has been shown to induce tissue oxidative damage and contribute to brain aging and the development of neurodegenerative disease. Here we examine whether sex and advanced age affect the expression of iron-related molecules that participate in regulating free iron levels (heme oxygenase I (HOI), iron-regulatory protein I (IRPI), and ferritin heavy chain (FTH)) and whether changes in the expression of these molecules are associated with differences in the expression of alpha-synuclein (ASN) which is thought to be a critical regulator in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. Using a well-established aging animal model ...


Autophagy And Protein Turnover Responses To Exercise-Nutrient Interactions In Human Skeletal Muscle, William J. Smiles 2017 Australian Catholic University

Autophagy And Protein Turnover Responses To Exercise-Nutrient Interactions In Human Skeletal Muscle, William J. Smiles

Theses

Skeletal muscle is a dynamic tissue comprising the largest protein reservoir of the human body with a rate of turnover of ~1-2% per day. Protein turnover is regulated by the coordination of intracellular systems regulating protein synthesis and breakdown that converge in a spatiotemporal manner on lysosomal organelles responsible for integrating a variety of contractile and nutritional stimuli. One such system, autophagy, which literally means to ‘self-eat,’ involves capturing of cellular material for deliver to, and disintegration by, the lysosome. The autophagic ‘cargo’ is subsequently recycled for use in synthetic reactions and thus maintenance of protein balance. As a dynamic ...


Glycolytic Reliance Promotes Anabolism In Photoreceptors, Yashodhan Chinchore, Tedi Begaj, David Wu, Eugene Drokhlyansky, Constance L. Cepko 2017 Harvard Medical School

Glycolytic Reliance Promotes Anabolism In Photoreceptors, Yashodhan Chinchore, Tedi Begaj, David Wu, Eugene Drokhlyansky, Constance L. Cepko

Senior Scholars Program

Vertebrate photoreceptors are among the most metabolically active cells, exhibiting a high rate of ATP consumption. This is coupled with a high anabolic demand, necessitated by the diurnal turnover of a specialized membrane-rich organelle, the outer segment, which is the primary site of phototransduction. How photoreceptors balance their catabolic and anabolic demands is poorly understood. Here, we show that rod photoreceptors in mice rely on glycolysis for their outer segment biogenesis. Genetic perturbations targeting allostery or key regulatory nodes in the glycolytic pathway impacted the size of the outer segments. Fibroblast growth factor signaling was found to regulate glycolysis, with ...


Obesity, Metabolic Factors And Risk Of Different Histological Types Of Lung Cancer: A Mendelian Randomization Study, Robert Carreras-Torres, Mattias Johansson, Philip C. Haycock, Kaitlin H. Wade, Caroline L. Relton, Richard M. Martin, George Davey Smith, Demetrius Albanes, Melinda C. Aldrich, Angeline Andrew, Susanne M. Arnold, Heike Bickeböller, Stig E. Bojesen, Hans Brunnström, Jonas Manjer, Irene Brüske, Neil E. Caporaso, Chu Chen, David C. Christiani, Warren Jay Christian, Jennifer A. Doherty, Eric J. Duell, John K. Field, Michael P. A. Davies, Michael W. Marcus, Gary E. Goodman, Kjell Grankvist, Aage Haugen, Yun-Chul Hong, Lambertus A. Kiemeney 2017 International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), France

Obesity, Metabolic Factors And Risk Of Different Histological Types Of Lung Cancer: A Mendelian Randomization Study, Robert Carreras-Torres, Mattias Johansson, Philip C. Haycock, Kaitlin H. Wade, Caroline L. Relton, Richard M. Martin, George Davey Smith, Demetrius Albanes, Melinda C. Aldrich, Angeline Andrew, Susanne M. Arnold, Heike Bickeböller, Stig E. Bojesen, Hans Brunnström, Jonas Manjer, Irene Brüske, Neil E. Caporaso, Chu Chen, David C. Christiani, Warren Jay Christian, Jennifer A. Doherty, Eric J. Duell, John K. Field, Michael P. A. Davies, Michael W. Marcus, Gary E. Goodman, Kjell Grankvist, Aage Haugen, Yun-Chul Hong, Lambertus A. Kiemeney

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

Background

Assessing the relationship between lung cancer and metabolic conditions is challenging because of the confounding effect of tobacco. Mendelian randomization (MR), or the use of genetic instrumental variables to assess causality, may help to identify the metabolic drivers of lung cancer.

Methods and findings

We identified genetic instruments for potential metabolic risk factors and evaluated these in relation to risk using 29,266 lung cancer cases (including 11,273 adenocarcinomas, 7,426 squamous cell and 2,664 small cell cases) and 56,450 controls. The MR risk analysis suggested a causal effect of body mass index (BMI) on lung ...


Exploring Cancer Metabolism Using Stable Isotope-Resolved Metabolomics (Sirm), Ronald C. Bruntz, Andrew N. Lane, Richard M. Higashi, Teresa W. -M. Fan 2017 University of Kentucky

Exploring Cancer Metabolism Using Stable Isotope-Resolved Metabolomics (Sirm), Ronald C. Bruntz, Andrew N. Lane, Richard M. Higashi, Teresa W. -M. Fan

Center for Environmental and Systems Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer. The changes in metabolism are adaptive to permit proliferation, survival, and eventually metastasis in a harsh environment. Stable isotope-resolved metabolomics (SIRM) is an approach that uses advanced approaches of NMR and mass spectrometry to analyze the fate of individual atoms from stable isotope-enriched precursors to products to deduce metabolic pathways and networks. The approach can be applied to a wide range of biological systems, including human subjects. This review focuses on the applications of SIRM to cancer metabolism and its use in understanding drug actions.


A National Perspective On Childhood Obesity Medical Education: Do Medical Students In Canada Perceive That They Are Prepared To Treat Children With Obesity?, Dr. Dalia Hasan 2017 The University of Western Ontario

A National Perspective On Childhood Obesity Medical Education: Do Medical Students In Canada Perceive That They Are Prepared To Treat Children With Obesity?, Dr. Dalia Hasan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purposes of this survey-based, mixed-methods study were to investigate medical students’ perceptions of: (1) the overall level of medical school training acquired in relation to childhood obesity treatment; (2) the medical school training acquired in relation to specific competencies associated with the treatment of children with obesity and their caregiver(s); and (3) additional training needed. Results showed that of the 507 students who provided complete data, approximately 60% (n = 303) disagreed or strongly disagreed that their medical training related to childhood obesity was adequate. With regard to specific competencies and additional training needed, quantitative and qualitative data revealed ...


Dynamics Of Maternal And Infant Vitamin E Tocopherols During Nicu Hospitalization, Jana K. Wells 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Dynamics Of Maternal And Infant Vitamin E Tocopherols During Nicu Hospitalization, Jana K. Wells

Theses & Dissertations

OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this prospective cohort is to investigate serum levels of vitamin E tocopherol isoforms (specifically alpha and gamma) in mothers and infants admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) in relation to infant feeding modality.

METHODS: This was a prospective cohort of 34 mothers and their infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Samples of maternal and cord blood were collected at the time of delivery, and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was administered to the mother to measure maternal vitamin E tocopherol intake. After nutrition treatment of each feeding modality had been ...


Effect Of Obesity And Exercise On The Expression Of The Novel Myokines, Myonectin And Fibronectin Type Iii Domain Containing 5, Jonathan M. Peterson, Ryan Mart, Cherie E. Bond 2017 East Tennessee State University

Effect Of Obesity And Exercise On The Expression Of The Novel Myokines, Myonectin And Fibronectin Type Iii Domain Containing 5, Jonathan M. Peterson, Ryan Mart, Cherie E. Bond

Jonathan Peterson

Metabolic dysfunction in skeletal muscle is a major contributor to the development of type 2 diabetes. Endurance exercise training has long been established as an effective means to directly restore skeletal muscle glucose and lipid uptake and metabolism. However, in addition to the direct effects of skeletal muscle on glucose and lipids, there is renewed interest in the ability of skeletal muscle to coordinate metabolic activity of other tissues, such as adipose tissue and liver. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of endurance exercise on the expression level of two novel muscle-derived secreted factors, or myokines ...


Investigating The Mechanism Of Novel Anticancer Agent, As1411 : Does Metabolism To Guanine Play A Role?, Parker T Howard 2017 University of Louisville

Investigating The Mechanism Of Novel Anticancer Agent, As1411 : Does Metabolism To Guanine Play A Role?, Parker T Howard

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

AS1411 is an oligonucleotide that has shown promising results in lab experiments and clinical trials as an anti-cancer drug, Likewise, treatments with guanine based purine compounds (GBPCs) have demonstrated similar anti-proliferative effects in vitro. This activity is dependent on the HGPRT enzyme. Similarities in activity and physical structure has led us to believe that AS1411 and GBPCs operate by a similar mechanism. To test this, we compare the activity of both in the presence of HGPRT siRNAs and HGPRT deficient cells. While siRNA treatment was unable to alter the activity of GBPCs or AS1411 in our cell lines, HGPRT deficient ...


Optical Imaging Of Metabolic Adaptability As A Biomarker For Metastatic Potential In Breast Cancer Cells, Mason G. Harper 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Optical Imaging Of Metabolic Adaptability As A Biomarker For Metastatic Potential In Breast Cancer Cells, Mason G. Harper

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Breast cancer metastasis is the main cause for mortality in breast cancer patients. However, knowledge of metastatic recurrence is limited, and there is a need to understand metastatic recurrence in order to treat breast cancer patients more effectively. Highly invasive metastatic breast cancer has shown to exhibit metabolic adaptability, transitioning from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation in the presence of microenvironmental stress. NADH and FAD are naturally occurring cofactor products during glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, respectively, and they are of particular importance during these metabolic processes due to their endogenous fluorescence. Measuring the ratio of fluorescence intensities of these cofactors through ...


Effects Of Storage Time On Glycolysis In Donated Human Blood Units, Zhen Qi, John D. Roback, Eberhard O. Voit 2017 University of Kentucky

Effects Of Storage Time On Glycolysis In Donated Human Blood Units, Zhen Qi, John D. Roback, Eberhard O. Voit

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

Background: Donated blood is typically stored before transfusions. During storage, the metabolism of red blood cells changes, possibly causing storage lesions. The changes are storage time dependent and exhibit donor-specific variations. It is necessary to uncover and characterize the responsible molecular mechanisms accounting for such biochemical changes, qualitatively and quantitatively; Study Design and Methods: Based on the integration of metabolic time series data, kinetic models, and a stoichiometric model of the glycolytic pathway, a customized inference method was developed and used to quantify the dynamic changes in glycolytic fluxes during the storage of donated blood units. The method provides a ...


P33. Design And Evaluation Of An Escherichia Coli Biomarker For Indication Of Ph, Kevin X. Zhou, Luana Langlois, Ashmita Singh, John Prince 2017 Western University

P33. Design And Evaluation Of An Escherichia Coli Biomarker For Indication Of Ph, Kevin X. Zhou, Luana Langlois, Ashmita Singh, John Prince

Western Research Forum

Measuring pH is one of the most commonly used techniques in both the laboratory as well as the field due to its importance in a multitude of biochemical processes. Traditional methods of measuring pH may be highly developed in accuracy and precision but often involve disruption of the environment. Biological markers offer an alternative that allows for long-term pH monitoring. This innovative approach allows for vast applications such as in the manufacturing, food processing and research industries. Under moderate acidic conditions, the asr (acid shock RNA) gene is highly inducible and has been demonstrated to be crucial for growth at ...


The Host Microbiome Regulates And Maintains Human Health: A Primer And Perspective For Non-Microbiologists, Sunil Thomas, Jacques Izard, Emily Walsh, Kristen Batich, Pakawat Chongsathidkiet, Gerard Clarke, David A. Sela, Alexander J. Muller, James M. Mullin, Korin Albert, John P. Gilligan, Katherine DiGuilio, Rima Dilbarova, Walker Alexander, George P. Prendergast 2017 Lankenau Institute for Medical Research, Wynnewood, Pennsylvania

The Host Microbiome Regulates And Maintains Human Health: A Primer And Perspective For Non-Microbiologists, Sunil Thomas, Jacques Izard, Emily Walsh, Kristen Batich, Pakawat Chongsathidkiet, Gerard Clarke, David A. Sela, Alexander J. Muller, James M. Mullin, Korin Albert, John P. Gilligan, Katherine Diguilio, Rima Dilbarova, Walker Alexander, George P. Prendergast

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Humans consider themselves discrete autonomous organisms, but recent research is rapidly strengthening the appreciation that associated microorganisms make essential contributions to human health and well being. Each person is inhabited and also surrounded by his/her own signature microbial cloud. A low diversity of microorganisms is associated with a plethora of diseases, including allergy, diabetes, obesity, arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, and even neuropsychiatric disorders. Thus, an interaction of microorganisms with the host immune system is required for a healthy body. Exposure to microorganisms from the moment we are born and appropriate microbiome assembly during childhood are essential for establishing an ...


Amh/Mis As A Contraceptive That Protects The Ovarian Reserve During Chemotherapy, Motohiro Kano, Amanda E. Sosulski, LiHua Zhang, Hatice D. Saatcioglu, Dan Wang, Nicholas Nagykery, Mary E. Sabatini, Guangping Gao, Patricia K. Donahoe, David Pepin 2017 Massachusetts General Hospital

Amh/Mis As A Contraceptive That Protects The Ovarian Reserve During Chemotherapy, Motohiro Kano, Amanda E. Sosulski, Lihua Zhang, Hatice D. Saatcioglu, Dan Wang, Nicholas Nagykery, Mary E. Sabatini, Guangping Gao, Patricia K. Donahoe, David Pepin

Open Access Articles

The ovarian reserve represents the stock of quiescent primordial follicles in the ovary which is gradually depleted during a woman's reproductive lifespan, resulting in menopause. Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS) (or anti-Mullerian hormone/AMH), which is produced by granulosa cells of growing follicles, has been proposed as a negative regulator of primordial follicle activation. Here we show that long-term parenteral administration of superphysiological doses of MIS, using either an adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) gene therapy vector or recombinant protein, resulted in a complete arrest of folliculogenesis in mice. The ovaries of MIS-treated mice were smaller than those in controls ...


Novel Interconnections In Lipid Metabolism Revealed By Overexpression Of Sphingomyelin Synthase-1, Gergana M. Deevska, Patrick P. Dotson II, Alexander A. Karakashian, Giorgis Isaac, Mark Wrona, Samuel B. Kelly, Alfred H. Merrill Jr., Mariana N. Nikolova‑Karakashian 2017 University of Kentucky

Novel Interconnections In Lipid Metabolism Revealed By Overexpression Of Sphingomyelin Synthase-1, Gergana M. Deevska, Patrick P. Dotson Ii, Alexander A. Karakashian, Giorgis Isaac, Mark Wrona, Samuel B. Kelly, Alfred H. Merrill Jr., Mariana N. Nikolova‑Karakashian

Physiology Faculty Publications

This study investigates the consequences of elevating sphingomyelin synthase 1 (SMS1) activity, which generates the main mammalian sphingolipid, sphingomyelin. HepG2 cells stably transfected with SMS1 (HepG2-SMS1) exhibit elevated enzyme activity in vitro and increased sphingomyelin content (mainly C22:0- and C24:0-sphingomyelin) but lower hexosylceramide (Hex-Cer) levels. HepG2-SMS1 cells have fewer triacylglycerols than controls but similar diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity, triacylglycerol secretion, and mitochondrial function. Treatment with 1 mm palmitate increases de novo ceramide synthesis in both cell lines to a similar degree, causing accumulation of C16:0-ceramide (and some C18:0-, C20:0-, and C22:0-ceramides) as well as C16 ...


Short And Long Chain Free Fatty Acids Differentially Regulate Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 And Peptide Yy Transcript Levels In Enteroendocrine Cells (Stc-1), Colin M. Catherman 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University

Short And Long Chain Free Fatty Acids Differentially Regulate Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 And Peptide Yy Transcript Levels In Enteroendocrine Cells (Stc-1), Colin M. Catherman

Theses and Dissertations

The regulation of glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide YY hormone levels are regulated based on different influential factors, but primarily levels are dependent upon ingested food content. As meals today become more fat-enriched, there is greater requirement for evaluation of these hormones that regulate insulin and satiety levels within the body. We have shown that the gene expression transcript production of glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide YY are modulated by different concentrations, and times of short-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty acids. Although the peptide hormone levels have the influential physiological role on effector tissue, the regulation of these hormones begins at ...


Aging And The Plasma Metabolome: Relation To Physiological Function, Lawrence Cody Johnson 2017 University of Colorado at Boulder

Aging And The Plasma Metabolome: Relation To Physiological Function, Lawrence Cody Johnson

Integrative Physiology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Advancing age is associated with declines across numerous physiological systems, leading to an increased risk of chronic disease and disability. Whereas aging itself is inevitable, the rate at which physiological impairments occur is highly variable among individuals. Differences in the trajectory of physiological decline are due to complex biological processes; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying physiological impairments are not well understood. Metabolomics provides the unique opportunity to investigate systemic molecular changes in vivo by capturing perturbations in metabolic signaling linked to changes in physiological function. Therefore, the purpose of this dissertation was to determine the relation between metabolomic signatures and ...


Neonatal Supplemental Oxygen Exposure Promotes The Development Of Metabolic Disease In Adult Rats, Madison E. Sturgeon, Michael Hoover, Rachel Leuhrs, Shilpa Vellookunnel, Shreya Chandrasekar, Austin Murphy, Melissa L. Bates 2017 University of Iowa

Neonatal Supplemental Oxygen Exposure Promotes The Development Of Metabolic Disease In Adult Rats, Madison E. Sturgeon, Michael Hoover, Rachel Leuhrs, Shilpa Vellookunnel, Shreya Chandrasekar, Austin Murphy, Melissa L. Bates

Honors Theses at the University of Iowa

Premature infants frequently require supplemental oxygen to sustain life, but little is known about how supplemental oxygen administered during the critical developmental window after birth increases the risk of age-related disease, including obesity and diabetes. We hypothesized that neonatal rats exposed to supplemental oxygen (OXY) would have impaired glucose tolerance and that they would develop a diabetes phenotype earlier than controls (CON), when offered a high fat diet. We used an established rat model of neonatal oxygen exposure (80% O2 for 8-14 days) and glucose tolerance was evaluated 14 days and 12 months post-natally. To evaluate glucose tolerance, baseline blood ...


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