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257 full-text articles. Page 7 of 11.

Strengthening Neglected Tropical Disease Research Through Enhancing Research-Site Capacity: An Evaluation Of A Novel Web Application To Facilitate Research Collections, Tanzin Furtado, Samuel Franzen, Francois van Loggerenberg, Gwenaelle Carn, Shannon Grahek, Megan McBride, Maureen Power, Barbara Savarese, Margaret Ann Snowden, Gwynn Stevens, Almarie Uys, Trudie Lang 2014 University of Oxford

Strengthening Neglected Tropical Disease Research Through Enhancing Research-Site Capacity: An Evaluation Of A Novel Web Application To Facilitate Research Collections, Tanzin Furtado, Samuel Franzen, Francois Van Loggerenberg, Gwenaelle Carn, Shannon Grahek, Megan Mcbride, Maureen Power, Barbara Savarese, Margaret Ann Snowden, Gwynn Stevens, Almarie Uys, Trudie Lang

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Assessment Of Anthelmintic Efficacy Of Mebendazole In School Children In Six Countries Where Soil-Transmitted Helminths Are Endemic, Bruno Levecke, Antonio Montresor, Marco Albonico, Shaali M. Ame, Jerzy M. Behnke, Jeffrey M. Bethony, +15 additional authors 2014 George Washington University

Assessment Of Anthelmintic Efficacy Of Mebendazole In School Children In Six Countries Where Soil-Transmitted Helminths Are Endemic, Bruno Levecke, Antonio Montresor, Marco Albonico, Shaali M. Ame, Jerzy M. Behnke, Jeffrey M. Bethony, +15 Additional Authors

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND:

Robust reference values for fecal egg count reduction (FECR) rates of the most widely used anthelmintic drugs in preventive chemotherapy (PC) programs for controlling soil-transmitted helminths (STHs; Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm) are still lacking. However, they are urgently needed to ensure detection of reduced efficacies that are predicted to occur due to growing drug pressure. Here, using a standardized methodology, we assessed the FECR rate of a single oral dose of mebendazole (MEB; 500 mg) against STHs in six trials in school children in different locations around the world. Our results are compared with those previously obtained ...


Chagas Disease: A Dangerous Kiss, Stephen Maynard 2014 Otterbein University

Chagas Disease: A Dangerous Kiss, Stephen Maynard

Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) Student Scholarship

Parasitic infections are a common occurrence worldwide and are often more common in low income countries. While these infections are associated with poor compromised communities outside the United States these diseases effect people within the United States and are more common than realized. One specific parasitic infection infects its human host causing Chagas disease. Chagas disease is an infection that occurs from the parasite T. cruzi and was named for the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas who discovered the disease in 1909 (CDC, 2014). According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC, 2014), Chagas disease has been targeted as a priority ...


Ascaris Lumbricoides: The Unforeseen Diagnosis, Suzette Maynard 2014 Otterbein University

Ascaris Lumbricoides: The Unforeseen Diagnosis, Suzette Maynard

Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) Student Scholarship

Infections from Ascaris lumbricoides have become very prevalent in lesser developed countries. These infections are believed to migrate into the United States through the border with Mexico, and immigration from other countries, through increased world travel and international adoptions (Cardenas et al., 2010). A. lumbricoides have been found to cause cases in the United States, one being in Westerville, Ohio (J. Leonard, personal communication, September 6, 2014). As the world has become smaller, it has become imperative that as a nation we are able to prepare for infections that are popular outside the United States. The first step in preparing ...


Genetics Of The Pig Tapeworm In Madagascar Reveal A History Of Human Dispersal And Colonization, Tetsuya Yanagida, Jean-François Carod, Yasuhito Sako, Minoru Nakao, Eric P. Hoberg, Akira Ito 2014 Asahikawa Medical College

Genetics Of The Pig Tapeworm In Madagascar Reveal A History Of Human Dispersal And Colonization, Tetsuya Yanagida, Jean-François Carod, Yasuhito Sako, Minoru Nakao, Eric P. Hoberg, Akira Ito

Faculty Publications from the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology

An intricate history of human dispersal and geographic colonization has strongly affected the distribution of human pathogens. The pig tapeworm Taenia solium occurs throughout the world as the causative agent of cysticercosis, one of the most serious neglected tropical diseases. Discrete genetic lineages of T. solium in Asia and Africa/Latin America are geographically disjunct; only in Madagascar are they sympatric. Linguistic, archaeological and genetic evidence has indicated that the people in Madagascar have mixed ancestry from Island Southeast Asia and East Africa. Hence, anthropogenic introduction of the tapeworm from Southeast Asia and Africa had been postulated. This study shows ...


The Cd14+Cd16+ Inflammatory Monocyte Subset Displays Increased Mitochondrial Activity And Effector Function During Acute Plasmodium Vivax Malaria, Lis R.V. Antonelli, Fabiana M.S. Leoratti, Pedro A.C. Costa, Bruno C. Rocha, Suelen Q. Diniz, Mauro S. Tada, Dhelio B. Pereira, Andrea Teixeira-Carvalho, Douglas T. Golenbock, Ricardo Goncalves, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli 2014 Centro de Pesquisas Rene Rachou

The Cd14+Cd16+ Inflammatory Monocyte Subset Displays Increased Mitochondrial Activity And Effector Function During Acute Plasmodium Vivax Malaria, Lis R.V. Antonelli, Fabiana M.S. Leoratti, Pedro A.C. Costa, Bruno C. Rocha, Suelen Q. Diniz, Mauro S. Tada, Dhelio B. Pereira, Andrea Teixeira-Carvalho, Douglas T. Golenbock, Ricardo Goncalves, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli

Open Access Articles

Infection with Plasmodium vivax results in strong activation of monocytes, which are important components of both the systemic inflammatory response and parasite control. The overall goal of this study was to define the role of monocytes during P. vivax malaria. Here, we demonstrate that P. vivax-infected patients display significant increase in circulating monocytes, which were defined as CD14(+)CD16- (classical), CD14(+)CD16(+) (inflammatory), and CD14loCD16(+) (patrolling) cells. While the classical and inflammatory monocytes were found to be the primary source of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the CD16(+) cells, in particular the CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes, expressed the highest levels of activation markers, which ...


Evaluation Of Naturally Acquired Igg Antibodies To A Chimeric And Non-Chimeric Recombinant Species Of Plasmodium Vivax Reticulocyte Binding Protein-1: Lack Of Association With Hla-Drb1*/Dqb1* In Malaria Exposed Individuals From The Brazilian Amazon, Amanda Ribeiro Ferreira, Balwan Singh, Monica Cabrera-Mora, Alana Cristina Magri De Souza, Maria Teresa Queiroz Marques, Luis Cristovao Sobrino Porto, Fatima Santos, Dalma Maria Banic, J. Mauricio Calvo-Calle, Joseli Oliveira-Ferreira, Alberto Moreno, Josue Da Costa Lima-Junior 2014 Oswaldo Cruz Institute

Evaluation Of Naturally Acquired Igg Antibodies To A Chimeric And Non-Chimeric Recombinant Species Of Plasmodium Vivax Reticulocyte Binding Protein-1: Lack Of Association With Hla-Drb1*/Dqb1* In Malaria Exposed Individuals From The Brazilian Amazon, Amanda Ribeiro Ferreira, Balwan Singh, Monica Cabrera-Mora, Alana Cristina Magri De Souza, Maria Teresa Queiroz Marques, Luis Cristovao Sobrino Porto, Fatima Santos, Dalma Maria Banic, J. Mauricio Calvo-Calle, Joseli Oliveira-Ferreira, Alberto Moreno, Josue Da Costa Lima-Junior

Open Access Articles

The development of modular constructs that include antigenic regions targeted by protective immune responses is an attractive approach for subunit vaccine development. However, a main concern of using these vaccine platforms is how to preserve the antigenic identity of conformational B cell epitopes. In the present study we evaluated naturally acquired antibody responses to a chimeric protein engineered to contain a previously defined immunodominant domain of the Plasmodium vivax reticulocyte binding protein-1 located between amino acid positions K435-I777. The construct also includes three regions of the cognate protein (F571-D587, I1745-S1786 and L2235-E2263) predicted to contain MHC class II promiscuous T ...


The Hunt For Protective Correlates Of Immunity To Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria, Ann M. Moormann, V. Ann Stewart 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Hunt For Protective Correlates Of Immunity To Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria, Ann M. Moormann, V. Ann Stewart

Open Access Articles

Determining an immunologic correlate of protection against Plasmodium falciparum malaria has been the holy grail of natural infection studies, and sought after as an endpoint for malaria vaccine trials. An in vitro assay that provides an accurate and precise assessment of protective immunity to malaria would make smaller, short-duration studies feasible, rather than the currently powered study designs that use morbidity or mortality as outcomes. Such a biomarker would be especially desirable in situations where malaria control measures that result in decreases in clinical endpoints and putatively waning protective immunity have been implemented. In an article published in BMC Medicine ...


Immunization Against A Merozoite Sheddase Promotes Multiple Invasion Of Red Blood Cells And Attenuates Plasmodium Infection In Mice, Ryan C. Smith, Daisy D. Colón-López, Jürgen Bosch 2014 Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Immunization Against A Merozoite Sheddase Promotes Multiple Invasion Of Red Blood Cells And Attenuates Plasmodium Infection In Mice, Ryan C. Smith, Daisy D. Colón-López, Jürgen Bosch

Ryan C. Smith

Subtilisin-like protease 2 (SUB2) is a conserved serine protease utilized by Plasmodium parasites as a surface sheddase required for successful merozoite invasion of host red blood cells and has been implicated in ookinete invasion of the mosquito midgut. To determine if SUB2 is a suitable vaccine target to interfere with malaria parasite development, the effects of SUB2-immunization on the Plasmodium life cycle were examined in its vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Swiss Webster mice were immunized with SUB2 peptides conjugated to Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or KLH alone, and then challenged with Plasmodium berghei. To determine the effects of immunization on ...


Global Burden Of Disease Study 2010: Interpretation And Implications For The Neglected Tropical Diseases, Peter J. Hotez, Miriam Alvarado, Maria Gloria Basanez, Ian Bolliger, et al. 2014 Baylor College of Medicine

Global Burden Of Disease Study 2010: Interpretation And Implications For The Neglected Tropical Diseases, Peter J. Hotez, Miriam Alvarado, Maria Gloria Basanez, Ian Bolliger, Et Al.

Baylor Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Induction Of Il-12 Production In Human Peripheral Monocytes By Trypanosoma Cruzi Is Mediated By Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Mucin-Like Glycoproteins And Potentiated By Ifn- Gamma And Cd40-Cd40l Interactions, Lucia Cristina Abel Jamli, Ludmila Rodrigues Ferreira Pinto, Isabela Cunha Navarro, Monique Andrade Baron, Jorge Kalil, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Luiz Vicente Rizzo, Edecio Cunha-Neto 2014 University of Sao Paulo

Induction Of Il-12 Production In Human Peripheral Monocytes By Trypanosoma Cruzi Is Mediated By Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Mucin-Like Glycoproteins And Potentiated By Ifn- Gamma And Cd40-Cd40l Interactions, Lucia Cristina Abel Jamli, Ludmila Rodrigues Ferreira Pinto, Isabela Cunha Navarro, Monique Andrade Baron, Jorge Kalil, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Luiz Vicente Rizzo, Edecio Cunha-Neto

Open Access Articles

Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), is characterized by immunopathology driven by IFN-gamma secreting Th1-like T cells. T. cruzi has a thick coat of mucin-like glycoproteins covering its surface, which plays an important role in parasite invasion and host immunomodulation. It has been extensively described that T. cruzi or its products-like GPI anchors isolated from GPI-anchored mucins from the trypomastigote life cycle stage (tGPI-mucins)-are potent inducers of proinflammatory responses (i.e., cytokines and NO production) by IFN-gamma primed murine macrophages. However, little is known about whether T. cruzi or GPI-mucins exert a similar action ...


An Unstable Th Epitope Of P. Falciparum Fosters Central Memory T Cells And Anti-Cs Antibody Responses, Carlos A. Parra-Lopez, David Bernal -Estevez, Luis Eduardo Eduardo Vargas, Carolina Pulido -Calixto, Luz Mary Salazar, J. Mauricio Calvo-Calle, Lawrence J. Stern 2014 Universidad Nacional de Colombia

An Unstable Th Epitope Of P. Falciparum Fosters Central Memory T Cells And Anti-Cs Antibody Responses, Carlos A. Parra-Lopez, David Bernal -Estevez, Luis Eduardo Eduardo Vargas, Carolina Pulido -Calixto, Luz Mary Salazar, J. Mauricio Calvo-Calle, Lawrence J. Stern

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Malaria is transmitted by Plasmodium-infected anopheles mosquitoes. Widespread resistance of mosquitoes to insecticides and resistance of parasites to drugs highlight the urgent need for malaria vaccines. The most advanced malaria vaccines target sporozoites, the infective form of the parasite. A major target of the antibody response to sporozoites are the repeat epitopes of the circumsporozoite (CS) protein, which span almost one half of the protein. Antibodies to these repeats can neutralize sporozoite infectivity. Generation of protective antibody responses to the CS protein (anti-CS Ab) requires help by CD4 T cells. A CD4 T cell epitope from the CS protein designated ...


Genetic Vaccination Against Experimental Infection With Myotropic Parasite Strains Of Trypanosoma Cruzi, Adriano Fernando Araujo, Gabriel de Oliveira, Juliana Fraga Vasconcelos, Jonatan Ersching, Mariana Ribeiro Dominguez, Jose Ronnie Vasconcelos, Alexandre Vieira Machado, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Oscar Bruna-Romero, Milena Botelho Soares, Mauricio Martins Rodrigues 2014 Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo

Genetic Vaccination Against Experimental Infection With Myotropic Parasite Strains Of Trypanosoma Cruzi, Adriano Fernando Araujo, Gabriel De Oliveira, Juliana Fraga Vasconcelos, Jonatan Ersching, Mariana Ribeiro Dominguez, Jose Ronnie Vasconcelos, Alexandre Vieira Machado, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Oscar Bruna-Romero, Milena Botelho Soares, Mauricio Martins Rodrigues

Open Access Articles

In earlier studies, we reported that a heterologous prime-boost regimen using recombinant plasmid DNA followed by replication-defective adenovirus vector, both containing Trypanosoma cruzi genes encoding trans-sialidase (TS) and amastigote surface protein (ASP) 2, provided protective immunity against experimental infection with a reticulotropic strain of this human protozoan parasite. Herein, we tested the outcome of genetic vaccination of F1 (CB10XBALB/c) mice challenged with myotropic parasite strains (Brazil and Colombian). Initially, we determined that the coadministration during priming of a DNA plasmid containing the murine IL-12 gene improved the immune response and was essential for protective immunity elicited by the heterologous ...


Functional Characterization Of A Novel Family Of Acetylcholine-Gated Chloride Channels In Schistosoma Mansoni, Kevin MacDonald, Samuel Buxton, Michael J. Kimber, Timothy A. Day, Alan P. Robertson, Paula Ribeiro 2014 McGill University

Functional Characterization Of A Novel Family Of Acetylcholine-Gated Chloride Channels In Schistosoma Mansoni, Kevin Macdonald, Samuel Buxton, Michael J. Kimber, Timothy A. Day, Alan P. Robertson, Paula Ribeiro

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Acetylcholine is the canonical excitatory neurotransmitter of the mammalian neuromuscular system. However, in the trematode parasite Schistosoma mansoni, cholinergic stimulation leads to muscle relaxation and a flaccid paralysis, suggesting an inhibitory mode of action. Information about the pharmacological mechanism of this inhibition is lacking. Here, we used a combination of techniques to assess the role of cholinergic receptors in schistosome motor function. The neuromuscular effects of acetylcholine are typically mediated by gated cation channels of the nicotinic receptor (nAChR) family. Bioinformatics analyses identified numerous nAChR subunits in the S. mansoni genome but, interestingly, nearly half of these subunits carried a ...


Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis: Amoebicidal Effects Of Clinically Approved Drugs Against Naegleria Fowleri, Abdul Baig, Huma Kulsoom, Naveed Khan 2014 Aga Khan University

Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis: Amoebicidal Effects Of Clinically Approved Drugs Against Naegleria Fowleri, Abdul Baig, Huma Kulsoom, Naveed Khan

Abdul Mannan Baig

Here we tested the effects of clinically approved drugs targeting vital cellular receptors and biochemical pathways against Naegleria fowleri. For the first time, our findings revealed that digoxin and procyclidine showed potent amoebicidal effects as no viable trophozoites were observed (>95% kill rate). In view of the devastating nature of this disease and the problems associated with chemotherapy, the present findings offer promising drug-leads for clinical practice. Drugs tested in the present study are FDA approved and should be of potential value in the management of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis.


Cytokine Changes In Colonic Mucosa Associated With Blastocystis Spp. Subtypes 1 And 3 In Diarrhoea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Javed Yakoob, Zaigham Abbas, Muhammad Waqas Usman, Aisha Sultana, Muhammad Islam, Safia Awan, Zubair Ahmad, Saeed Hamid, Wasim Jafri 2014 Aga Khan University

Cytokine Changes In Colonic Mucosa Associated With Blastocystis Spp. Subtypes 1 And 3 In Diarrhoea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Javed Yakoob, Zaigham Abbas, Muhammad Waqas Usman, Aisha Sultana, Muhammad Islam, Safia Awan, Zubair Ahmad, Saeed Hamid, Wasim Jafri

Section of Gastroenterology

We determined cytokines (e.g. interleukin-8, 10, 12 and TNF-α) expression by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and in rectal mucosa in diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS) with Blastocystis spp. Eighty patients with D-IBS and Blastocystis spp. infection were classified as 'cases' and 80 with D-IBS without Blastocystis spp. infection were classified as 'control'. Cases were subdivided into D-IBS and Blastocystis sp. defined type 1 (subtype-specific primer SB83) and type 3 (SB227). Stool microscopy and culture were performed. Rectal biopsies were obtained for histology and cytokines by real-time PCR for mRNA expression of cytokines. PBMCs IL-8 was similar in different ...


New Insights Into The Flpergic Complements Of Parasitic Nematodes: Informing Deorphanisation Approaches, Ciaran J. McCoy, Louise E. Atkinson, Mostafa Zamanian, Paul McVeigh, Timothy A. Day, Michael J. Kimber, Nikki J. Marks, Aaron G. Maule, Angela Mousley 2014 Queen's University Belfast

New Insights Into The Flpergic Complements Of Parasitic Nematodes: Informing Deorphanisation Approaches, Ciaran J. Mccoy, Louise E. Atkinson, Mostafa Zamanian, Paul Mcveigh, Timothy A. Day, Michael J. Kimber, Nikki J. Marks, Aaron G. Maule, Angela Mousley

Biomedical Sciences Publications

FMRFamide-like peptide (FLP) receptors are appealing as putative anthelmintic targets. To date, 31 flp-encoding genes have been identified in Caenorhabditis elegans and thirteen FLP-activated G-protein coupled receptors (FLP-GPCRs) have been reported. The lack of knowledge on FLPs and FLP-GPCRs in parasites impedes their functional characterisation and chemotherapeutic exploitation. Using homology-based BLAST searches and phylogenetic analyses this study describes the identification of putative flpand flp-GPCR gene homologues in 17 nematode parasites providing the first pan-phylum genome-based overview of the FLPergic complement. These data will facilitate FLP-receptor deorphanisation efforts in the quest for novel control targets for nematode parasites.


Laboratory Testing Of Clinically Approved Drugs Against Balamuthia Mandrillaris., Abdul Baig 2014 Aga Khan University

Laboratory Testing Of Clinically Approved Drugs Against Balamuthia Mandrillaris., Abdul Baig

Abdul Mannan Baig

Balamuthia mandrillaris is a free-living protist pathogen that can cause life-threatening granulomatous amoebic encephalitis. Given the lack of effective available drugs against B. mandrillaris encephalitis with a mortality rate of more than 90 %, here we screened drugs, targeting vital cellular receptors and biochemical pathways, that are already in approved clinical use for their potential clinical usefulness. Amoebicidal assays were performed by incubating B. mandrillaris with drugs (3 × 105 cells/0.5 mL/well) in phosphate buffered saline for 24 h and viability was determined using Trypan blue exclusion staining. For controls, amoebae were incubated with the solvent alone. To determine ...


A Multifactorial Role For P. Falciparum Malaria In Endemic Burkitt's Lymphoma Pathogenesis, Charles Torgbor, Peter Awuah, Kirk Deitsch, Parisa Kalantari, Karen A. Duca, David A Thorley-Lawson 2014 Tufts University School of Medicine

A Multifactorial Role For P. Falciparum Malaria In Endemic Burkitt's Lymphoma Pathogenesis, Charles Torgbor, Peter Awuah, Kirk Deitsch, Parisa Kalantari, Karen A. Duca, David A Thorley-Lawson

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Endemic Burkitt's lymphoma (eBL) arises from the germinal center (GC). It is a common tumor of young children in tropical Africa and its occurrence is closely linked geographically with the incidence of P. falciparum malaria. This association was noted more than 50 years ago. Since then we have learned that eBL contains the oncogenic herpes virus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and a defining translocation that activates the c-myc oncogene. However the link to malaria has never been explained. Here we provide evidence for a mechanism arising in the GC to explain this association. Accumulated evidence suggests that eBL arises in ...


Bedbugs Biting Back? A Multifactorial Consideration Of Bedbug Resurgence, Vanessa L. Abejuela-Matt 2014 Department of Family Medicine, Aurora St. Luke's Medical Center, Aurora Health Care

Bedbugs Biting Back? A Multifactorial Consideration Of Bedbug Resurgence, Vanessa L. Abejuela-Matt

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Bedbugs, previously thought to be eradicated during the mid-20th century, have reemerged in the new millennium with unforeseen furor. Affected patients and families frequently present in primary care settings, not only with complaints of pruritus or rash, but with anxiety and shame regarding the condition. Changes in eradication techniques and resistance, as well as lack of reporting – from both patients and lodging institutions – have hindered control. The increased mobility of goods and the human population has provided further avenues for bedbug spread. While current literature thoroughly describes the clinical presentation of bedbugs and the increasingly problematic effects on society, less ...


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