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Altered Intraerythrocytic Development Phenotypes Of Artemisinin-Resistant Plasmodium Falciparum Confer A Fitness Advantage, Amanda Hott 2015 University of South Florida

Altered Intraerythrocytic Development Phenotypes Of Artemisinin-Resistant Plasmodium Falciparum Confer A Fitness Advantage, Amanda Hott

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Resistance to artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) has emerged in southeast Asia threatening the most widely used treatment against antimalarial-resistant Plasmodium falciparum worldwide. Artemisinin resistance has been associated with a reduced rate of parasite clearance following treatment with an ACT and is attributed to increased survival of ring-stage parasites. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in kelch gene (K13) has been associated with delayed in vivo clearance half-life of artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum and is the only known molecular marker of resistance. The absence of reliable in vitro phenotypes for artemisinin resistance has limited our understanding of the resistance mechanism(s) and fitness costs ...


Detection Of Toxoplasma Gondii Antibodies In Swine Herds In Québec, Canada, S. Quessy, A. Letellier, C. Suprenant, P. Patrik Buholzer 2015 Université de Montréal

Detection Of Toxoplasma Gondii Antibodies In Swine Herds In Québec, Canada, S. Quessy, A. Letellier, C. Suprenant, P. Patrik Buholzer

International Conference on the Epidemiology and Control of Biological, Chemical and Physical Hazards in Pigs and Pork

Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by the intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. In human being, foodborne contamination is mostly associated to consumption and manipulation of raw or undercooked meat, unwashed vegetables and fruit or drinking water contaminated by oocystes. In Canada, very few recent prevalence studies are available to evaluate the human exposure to T. gondii by meat products.


A Novel Population Of Natural Killer Cells Plays A Critical Role In The Depletion Of Splenic B2 B Cells During Experimental African Trypanosomiasis, Deborah Frenkel 2015 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

A Novel Population Of Natural Killer Cells Plays A Critical Role In The Depletion Of Splenic B2 B Cells During Experimental African Trypanosomiasis, Deborah Frenkel

Doctoral Dissertations

Loss of humoral immune competence in T. brucei-infected mice is associated with the apoptotic depletion of splenic transitional, marginal zone and follicular B cells as well as a depletion of CD8+ T cells. This occurs rapidly after infection and impairs responses to vaccine antigens in addition to responses to newly arising VSG antigenic variants, leading to uncontrolled parasite growth and death of the infected mice. Infection-induced B2 B cell and CD8+ T cell loss requires the presence of a novel population of natural killer (NK) cells and is mediated by a perforin-dependent process consistent with perforin- and granzyme-mediated cytotoxicity ...


Identification Guide To Larval Stages Of Ticks Of Medical Importance In The Usa, Kymbreana Coley 2015 Georgia Southern University

Identification Guide To Larval Stages Of Ticks Of Medical Importance In The Usa, Kymbreana Coley

University Honors Program Theses

Scanning Electron Micrographs were prepared of four morphologically diagnostic regions (dorsal capitulum, ventral capitulum, scutum, leg coxae) for the larval stage of the 16 species of ixodid (hard) ticks known to parasitize humans in the USA. These species are: Amblyomma americanum, A. maculatum, A. mixtum, A. tuberculatum, Dermacentor albipictus, D. andersoni, D. occidentalis, D. variabilis, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, Ixodes angustus, I. cookei, I. pacificus, I. scapularis, I. spinipalpis, I. texanus, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Based on the morphological characters observed, a dichotomous identification key to ixodid larvae that parasitize humans in the USA was prepared. Common names, hosts and geographical distributions are ...


Assessment Of Longitudinal Efficacy Of Community Based Intervention For Schistosomiasis In Mara District, Lake Victoria Region Of Tanzania, Lauren Ogawa, Guy Bennallack, Aaron Heffner, Jason Duong, Robin Rosenblatt, Yasmin Nibbe, Eiman Mahmoud 2015 Touro University California

Assessment Of Longitudinal Efficacy Of Community Based Intervention For Schistosomiasis In Mara District, Lake Victoria Region Of Tanzania, Lauren Ogawa, Guy Bennallack, Aaron Heffner, Jason Duong, Robin Rosenblatt, Yasmin Nibbe, Eiman Mahmoud

College of Osteopathic Medicine (TUC) Publications and Research

Program/Project Purpose: An estimated 200 million people are infected with schistosomiasis, making the disease one of the top neglected tropical diseases and a major global health concern. In Tanzania, with a population just over 42 million, about 33 million are in need of treatment or preventative chemotherapy. The disease is of particular concern in the Lake Victoria region, due to daily use of lake water. In conjunction with the Shirati district hospital, Touro University-CA has led control programs carried out in mobile clinics at local villages by providing screening, treatment, and education. Recently there has been a push for ...


Influence Of Ecologic Factors On Prevalence Of Meningeal Worm (Parelaphostrongylus Tenuis) Infection In South Dakota, Usa, Christopher N. Jacques, Jonathan A. Jenks, Troy W. Grovenburg, Robert W. Klaver, Shelli A. Dubay 2015 South Dakota State University

Influence Of Ecologic Factors On Prevalence Of Meningeal Worm (Parelaphostrongylus Tenuis) Infection In South Dakota, Usa, Christopher N. Jacques, Jonathan A. Jenks, Troy W. Grovenburg, Robert W. Klaver, Shelli A. Dubay

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

The meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) is a nematode parasite that commonly infects white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; WTD) throughout the deciduous forest biome and deciduous-coniferous ecotone of eastern and central North America; the species is not known to occur west of the grassland biome of central North America. We used county-specific prevalence data to evaluate potential effects of landscape and climatologic factors on the spatial distribution of meningeal worm infection in South Dakota, US. Probability of infection increased 4-fold between eastern and western South Dakota and 1.3-fold for each 1-cm increase in summer precipitation. Sixty-three percent of WTD had only ...


An Improved Method For Generating Axenic Entomopathogenic Nematodes., Shruti Yadav, Upasana Shokal, Steven Forst, Ioannis Eleftherianos 2015 George Washington University

An Improved Method For Generating Axenic Entomopathogenic Nematodes., Shruti Yadav, Upasana Shokal, Steven Forst, Ioannis Eleftherianos

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Steinernema carpocapsae are parasitic nematodes that invade and kill insects. The nematodes are mutualistically associated with the bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila and together form an excellent model to study pathogen infection processes and host anti-nematode/antibacterial immune responses. To determine the contribution of S. carpocapsae and their associated X. nematophila to the successful infection of insects as well as to investigate the interaction of each mutualistic partner with the insect immune system, it is important to develop and establish robust methods for generating nematodes devoid of their bacteria.

FINDINGS: To produce S. carpocapsae nematodes without their associated X. nematophila bacteria ...


The Carcinogenic Liver Fluke Opisthorchis Viverrini Is A Reservoir For Species Of Helicobacter., Raksawan Deenonpoe, Chariya Chomvarin, Chawalit Pairojkul, Yaowalux Chamgramol, Alex Loukas, Paul J. Brindley, Banchob Sripa 2015 George Washington University

The Carcinogenic Liver Fluke Opisthorchis Viverrini Is A Reservoir For Species Of Helicobacter., Raksawan Deenonpoe, Chariya Chomvarin, Chawalit Pairojkul, Yaowalux Chamgramol, Alex Loukas, Paul J. Brindley, Banchob Sripa

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

There has been a strong, positive correlation between opisthorchiasis-associated cholangiocarcinoma and infection with Helicobacter. Here a rodent model of human infection with Opisthorchis viverrini was utilized to further investigate relationships of apparent co-infections with O. viverrini and H. pylori. A total of 150 hamsters were assigned to five groups: i) Control hamsters not infected with O. viverrini; ii) O. viverrini-infected hamsters; iii) non-O. viverrini infected hamsters treated with antibiotics (ABx); iv) O. viverrini-infected hamsters treated with ABx; and v) O. viverrini-infected hamsters treated both with ABx and praziquantel (PZQ). Stomach, gallbladder, liver, colonic tissue, colorectal feces and O. viverrini worms ...


Comparison Of Findings Using Ultrasonography And Cystoscopy In Urogenital Schistosomiasis In A Public Health Centre In Rural Angola, Julio Santos, Jacinta Chaves, Heriberto Araujo, Nuno Vale, Jose Manuel Costa, Paul J. Brindley, Carlos Lopes, Jean Naples, Clive Shiff, Jorge Dupret, Lucio Lara Santos 2015 George Washington University

Comparison Of Findings Using Ultrasonography And Cystoscopy In Urogenital Schistosomiasis In A Public Health Centre In Rural Angola, Julio Santos, Jacinta Chaves, Heriberto Araujo, Nuno Vale, Jose Manuel Costa, Paul J. Brindley, Carlos Lopes, Jean Naples, Clive Shiff, Jorge Dupret, Lucio Lara Santos

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Background. Schistosomiasis is a chronic disease caused by infection with parasitic worms of the genus Schistosoma. In sub-Saharan Africa, infections with S. haematobium are most common. Cystoscopic examination (CE) has been accepted as the gold-standard test for detecting the late manifestations of schistosomiasis, including urothelial cancer of the bladder. However, this procedure is invasive and 10 - 40% of tumours may remain undetected. A non-invasive examination and a new generation of biomarkers are needed for better monitoring of the disease.

Objective. To assess the usefulness of ultrasound (US) scans for monitoring of structural urinary tract disease by local public health services ...


Dual Engagement Of The Nlrp3 And Aim2 Inflammasomes By Plasmodium-Derived Hemozoin And Dna During Malaria, Parisa Kalantari, Rosane B. DeOliveira, Jennie Chan, Yolanda Corbett, Vijay A. K. Rathinam, Andrea Stutz, Eicke Latz, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Douglas T. Golenbock, Katherine A. Fitzgerald 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Dual Engagement Of The Nlrp3 And Aim2 Inflammasomes By Plasmodium-Derived Hemozoin And Dna During Malaria, Parisa Kalantari, Rosane B. Deoliveira, Jennie Chan, Yolanda Corbett, Vijay A. K. Rathinam, Andrea Stutz, Eicke Latz, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Douglas T. Golenbock, Katherine A. Fitzgerald

Katherine A. Fitzgerald

Hemozoin (Hz) is the crystalline detoxification product of hemoglobin in Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes. We previously proposed that Hz can carry plasmodial DNA into a subcellular compartment that is accessible to Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), inducing an inflammatory signal. Hz also activates the NLRP3 inflammasome in primed cells. We found that Hz appears to colocalize with DNA in infected erythrocytes, even before RBC rupture or phagolysosomal digestion. Using synthetic Hz coated in vitro with plasmodial genomic DNA (gDNA) or CpG oligodeoxynucleotides, we observed that DNA-complexed Hz induced TLR9 translocation, providing a priming and an activation signal for inflammasomes. After phagocytosis, Hz and ...


P53 And Cancer-Associated Sialylated Glygans Are Surrogate Markers Of Cancerization Of The Bladder Associated With Schistosoma Haematobium Infection, Julio Santos, Elisabete Fernandes, Jose Alexandre Ferreira, Luis Lima, Ana Tavares, Andreia Peixoto, Beatriz Parreira, Jose Manuel Correia da Costa, Paul J. Brindley, Carlos Lopes, Lucio L. Santos 2014 George Washington University

P53 And Cancer-Associated Sialylated Glygans Are Surrogate Markers Of Cancerization Of The Bladder Associated With Schistosoma Haematobium Infection, Julio Santos, Elisabete Fernandes, Jose Alexandre Ferreira, Luis Lima, Ana Tavares, Andreia Peixoto, Beatriz Parreira, Jose Manuel Correia Da Costa, Paul J. Brindley, Carlos Lopes, Lucio L. Santos

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Background

Bladder cancer is a significant health problem in rural areas of Africa and the Middle East where Schistosoma haematobium is prevalent, supporting an association between malignant transformation and infection by this blood fluke. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms linking these events are poorly understood. Bladder cancers in infected populations are generally diagnosed at a late stage since there is a lack of non-invasive diagnostic tools, hence enforcing the need for early carcinogenesis markers.

Methodology/Principal Findings

Forty-three formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded bladder biopsies of S. haematobium-infected patients, consisting of bladder tumours, tumour adjacent mucosa and pre-malignant/malignant urothelial lesions, were screened ...


Strengthening Neglected Tropical Disease Research Through Enhancing Research-Site Capacity: An Evaluation Of A Novel Web Application To Facilitate Research Collections, Tanzin Furtado, Samuel Franzen, Francois van Loggerenberg, Gwenaelle Carn, Shannon Grahek, Megan McBride, Maureen Power, Barbara Savarese, Margaret Ann Snowden, Gwynn Stevens, Almarie Uys, Trudie Lang 2014 University of Oxford

Strengthening Neglected Tropical Disease Research Through Enhancing Research-Site Capacity: An Evaluation Of A Novel Web Application To Facilitate Research Collections, Tanzin Furtado, Samuel Franzen, Francois Van Loggerenberg, Gwenaelle Carn, Shannon Grahek, Megan Mcbride, Maureen Power, Barbara Savarese, Margaret Ann Snowden, Gwynn Stevens, Almarie Uys, Trudie Lang

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Assessment Of Anthelmintic Efficacy Of Mebendazole In School Children In Six Countries Where Soil-Transmitted Helminths Are Endemic, Bruno Levecke, Antonio Montresor, Marco Albonico, Shaali M. Ame, Jerzy M. Behnke, Jeffrey M. Bethony, +15 additional authors 2014 George Washington University

Assessment Of Anthelmintic Efficacy Of Mebendazole In School Children In Six Countries Where Soil-Transmitted Helminths Are Endemic, Bruno Levecke, Antonio Montresor, Marco Albonico, Shaali M. Ame, Jerzy M. Behnke, Jeffrey M. Bethony, +15 Additional Authors

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND:

Robust reference values for fecal egg count reduction (FECR) rates of the most widely used anthelmintic drugs in preventive chemotherapy (PC) programs for controlling soil-transmitted helminths (STHs; Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm) are still lacking. However, they are urgently needed to ensure detection of reduced efficacies that are predicted to occur due to growing drug pressure. Here, using a standardized methodology, we assessed the FECR rate of a single oral dose of mebendazole (MEB; 500 mg) against STHs in six trials in school children in different locations around the world. Our results are compared with those previously obtained ...


Chagas Disease: A Dangerous Kiss, Stephen Maynard 2014 Otterbein University

Chagas Disease: A Dangerous Kiss, Stephen Maynard

Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) Student Scholarship

Parasitic infections are a common occurrence worldwide and are often more common in low income countries. While these infections are associated with poor compromised communities outside the United States these diseases effect people within the United States and are more common than realized. One specific parasitic infection infects its human host causing Chagas disease. Chagas disease is an infection that occurs from the parasite T. cruzi and was named for the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas who discovered the disease in 1909 (CDC, 2014). According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC, 2014), Chagas disease has been targeted as a priority ...


Ascaris Lumbricoides: The Unforeseen Diagnosis, Suzette Maynard 2014 Otterbein University

Ascaris Lumbricoides: The Unforeseen Diagnosis, Suzette Maynard

Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) Student Scholarship

Infections from Ascaris lumbricoides have become very prevalent in lesser developed countries. These infections are believed to migrate into the United States through the border with Mexico, and immigration from other countries, through increased world travel and international adoptions (Cardenas et al., 2010). A. lumbricoides have been found to cause cases in the United States, one being in Westerville, Ohio (J. Leonard, personal communication, September 6, 2014). As the world has become smaller, it has become imperative that as a nation we are able to prepare for infections that are popular outside the United States. The first step in preparing ...


Genetics Of The Pig Tapeworm In Madagascar Reveal A History Of Human Dispersal And Colonization, Tetsuya Yanagida, Jean-François Carod, Yasuhito Sako, Minoru Nakao, Eric P. Hoberg, Akira Ito 2014 Asahikawa Medical College

Genetics Of The Pig Tapeworm In Madagascar Reveal A History Of Human Dispersal And Colonization, Tetsuya Yanagida, Jean-François Carod, Yasuhito Sako, Minoru Nakao, Eric P. Hoberg, Akira Ito

Faculty Publications from the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology

An intricate history of human dispersal and geographic colonization has strongly affected the distribution of human pathogens. The pig tapeworm Taenia solium occurs throughout the world as the causative agent of cysticercosis, one of the most serious neglected tropical diseases. Discrete genetic lineages of T. solium in Asia and Africa/Latin America are geographically disjunct; only in Madagascar are they sympatric. Linguistic, archaeological and genetic evidence has indicated that the people in Madagascar have mixed ancestry from Island Southeast Asia and East Africa. Hence, anthropogenic introduction of the tapeworm from Southeast Asia and Africa had been postulated. This study shows ...


The Cd14+Cd16+ Inflammatory Monocyte Subset Displays Increased Mitochondrial Activity And Effector Function During Acute Plasmodium Vivax Malaria, Lis R.V. Antonelli, Fabiana M.S. Leoratti, Pedro A.C. Costa, Bruno C. Rocha, Suelen Q. Diniz, Mauro S. Tada, Dhelio B. Pereira, Andrea Teixeira-Carvalho, Douglas T. Golenbock, Ricardo Goncalves, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli 2014 Centro de Pesquisas Rene Rachou

The Cd14+Cd16+ Inflammatory Monocyte Subset Displays Increased Mitochondrial Activity And Effector Function During Acute Plasmodium Vivax Malaria, Lis R.V. Antonelli, Fabiana M.S. Leoratti, Pedro A.C. Costa, Bruno C. Rocha, Suelen Q. Diniz, Mauro S. Tada, Dhelio B. Pereira, Andrea Teixeira-Carvalho, Douglas T. Golenbock, Ricardo Goncalves, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli

Open Access Articles

Infection with Plasmodium vivax results in strong activation of monocytes, which are important components of both the systemic inflammatory response and parasite control. The overall goal of this study was to define the role of monocytes during P. vivax malaria. Here, we demonstrate that P. vivax-infected patients display significant increase in circulating monocytes, which were defined as CD14(+)CD16- (classical), CD14(+)CD16(+) (inflammatory), and CD14loCD16(+) (patrolling) cells. While the classical and inflammatory monocytes were found to be the primary source of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the CD16(+) cells, in particular the CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes, expressed the highest levels of activation markers, which ...


Evaluation Of Naturally Acquired Igg Antibodies To A Chimeric And Non-Chimeric Recombinant Species Of Plasmodium Vivax Reticulocyte Binding Protein-1: Lack Of Association With Hla-Drb1*/Dqb1* In Malaria Exposed Individuals From The Brazilian Amazon, Amanda Ribeiro Ferreira, Balwan Singh, Monica Cabrera-Mora, Alana Cristina Magri De Souza, Maria Teresa Queiroz Marques, Luis Cristovao Sobrino Porto, Fatima Santos, Dalma Maria Banic, J. Mauricio Calvo-Calle, Joseli Oliveira-Ferreira, Alberto Moreno, Josue Da Costa Lima-Junior 2014 Oswaldo Cruz Institute

Evaluation Of Naturally Acquired Igg Antibodies To A Chimeric And Non-Chimeric Recombinant Species Of Plasmodium Vivax Reticulocyte Binding Protein-1: Lack Of Association With Hla-Drb1*/Dqb1* In Malaria Exposed Individuals From The Brazilian Amazon, Amanda Ribeiro Ferreira, Balwan Singh, Monica Cabrera-Mora, Alana Cristina Magri De Souza, Maria Teresa Queiroz Marques, Luis Cristovao Sobrino Porto, Fatima Santos, Dalma Maria Banic, J. Mauricio Calvo-Calle, Joseli Oliveira-Ferreira, Alberto Moreno, Josue Da Costa Lima-Junior

Open Access Articles

The development of modular constructs that include antigenic regions targeted by protective immune responses is an attractive approach for subunit vaccine development. However, a main concern of using these vaccine platforms is how to preserve the antigenic identity of conformational B cell epitopes. In the present study we evaluated naturally acquired antibody responses to a chimeric protein engineered to contain a previously defined immunodominant domain of the Plasmodium vivax reticulocyte binding protein-1 located between amino acid positions K435-I777. The construct also includes three regions of the cognate protein (F571-D587, I1745-S1786 and L2235-E2263) predicted to contain MHC class II promiscuous T ...


The Hunt For Protective Correlates Of Immunity To Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria, Ann M. Moormann, V. Ann Stewart 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

The Hunt For Protective Correlates Of Immunity To Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria, Ann M. Moormann, V. Ann Stewart

Open Access Articles

Determining an immunologic correlate of protection against Plasmodium falciparum malaria has been the holy grail of natural infection studies, and sought after as an endpoint for malaria vaccine trials. An in vitro assay that provides an accurate and precise assessment of protective immunity to malaria would make smaller, short-duration studies feasible, rather than the currently powered study designs that use morbidity or mortality as outcomes. Such a biomarker would be especially desirable in situations where malaria control measures that result in decreases in clinical endpoints and putatively waning protective immunity have been implemented. In an article published in BMC Medicine ...


Immunization Against A Merozoite Sheddase Promotes Multiple Invasion Of Red Blood Cells And Attenuates Plasmodium Infection In Mice, Ryan C. Smith, Daisy D. Colón-López, Jürgen Bosch 2014 Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Immunization Against A Merozoite Sheddase Promotes Multiple Invasion Of Red Blood Cells And Attenuates Plasmodium Infection In Mice, Ryan C. Smith, Daisy D. Colón-López, Jürgen Bosch

Ryan C. Smith

Subtilisin-like protease 2 (SUB2) is a conserved serine protease utilized by Plasmodium parasites as a surface sheddase required for successful merozoite invasion of host red blood cells and has been implicated in ookinete invasion of the mosquito midgut. To determine if SUB2 is a suitable vaccine target to interfere with malaria parasite development, the effects of SUB2-immunization on the Plasmodium life cycle were examined in its vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. Swiss Webster mice were immunized with SUB2 peptides conjugated to Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or KLH alone, and then challenged with Plasmodium berghei. To determine the effects of immunization on ...


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