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257 full-text articles. Page 6 of 11.

Opisthorchiasis: An Overlooked Danger., Ludmila M Ogorodova, Olga S Fedorova, Banchob Sripa, Viatcheslav A Mordvinov, Aleksei V Katokhin, Jennifer Keiser, Peter Odermatt, Paul J. Brindley, Oleg A Mayboroda, Thirumalaisamy P Velavan, Maxim B Freidin, Alexey E Sazonov, Irina V Saltykova, Mariya Y Pakharukova, Yulia V Kovshirina, Kostas Kaloulis, Olga Y Krylova, Maria Yazdanbakhsh 2015 George Washington University

Opisthorchiasis: An Overlooked Danger., Ludmila M Ogorodova, Olga S Fedorova, Banchob Sripa, Viatcheslav A Mordvinov, Aleksei V Katokhin, Jennifer Keiser, Peter Odermatt, Paul J. Brindley, Oleg A Mayboroda, Thirumalaisamy P Velavan, Maxim B Freidin, Alexey E Sazonov, Irina V Saltykova, Mariya Y Pakharukova, Yulia V Kovshirina, Kostas Kaloulis, Olga Y Krylova, Maria Yazdanbakhsh

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Impact Of Antimalarial Treatment And Chemoprevention On The Drug Sensitivity Of Malaria Parasites Isolated From Ugandan Children, Patrick Tumwebaze, Melissa D. Conrad, Andrew Walakira, Norbert LeClair, Oswald Byaruhanga, Christine Nakazibwe, Benjamin Kozak, Jessica Bloome, Jaffer Okiring, Abel Kakuru, Victor Bigira, James Kapisi, Jennifer Legac, Jiri Gut, Roland A. Cooper, Moses R. Kamya, Diane V. Havlir, Grant Dorsey, Bryan Greenhouse, Samuel L. Nsobya, Philip J. Rosenthal 2015 Infectious Diseases Research Collaboration, Kampala, Uganda

Impact Of Antimalarial Treatment And Chemoprevention On The Drug Sensitivity Of Malaria Parasites Isolated From Ugandan Children, Patrick Tumwebaze, Melissa D. Conrad, Andrew Walakira, Norbert Leclair, Oswald Byaruhanga, Christine Nakazibwe, Benjamin Kozak, Jessica Bloome, Jaffer Okiring, Abel Kakuru, Victor Bigira, James Kapisi, Jennifer Legac, Jiri Gut, Roland A. Cooper, Moses R. Kamya, Diane V. Havlir, Grant Dorsey, Bryan Greenhouse, Samuel L. Nsobya, Philip J. Rosenthal

Collected Faculty and Staff Scholarship

Changing treatment practices may be selecting for changes in the drug sensitivity of malaria parasites. We characterized ex vivo drug sensitivity and parasite polymorphisms associated with sensitivity in 459 Plasmodium falciparum samples obtained from subjects enrolled in two clinical trials in Tororo, Uganda, from 2010 to 2013. Sensitivities to chloroquine and monodesethylamodiaquine varied widely; sensitivities to quinine, dihydroartemisinin, lumefantrine, and piperaquine were generally good. Associations between ex vivo drug sensitivity and parasite polymorphisms included decreased chloroquine and monodesethylamodiaquine sensitivity and increased lumefantrine and piperaquine sensitivity with pfcrt 76T, as well as increased lumefantrine sensitivity with pfmdr1 86Y, Y184, and 1246Y ...


Sociocultural And Structural Factors Contributing To Delays In Treatment For Children With Severe Malaria: A Qualitative Study In Southwestern Uganda, Radhika Sundararajan, Juliet Mwanga-Amumpaire, Harriet Adrama, Jackline Tumuhairwe, Sheilla Mbabazi, Kenneth Mworozi, Ryan W. Carroll, David Bangsberg, Yap Boum II, Norma C. Ware 2015 University of California, SanDiego

Sociocultural And Structural Factors Contributing To Delays In Treatment For Children With Severe Malaria: A Qualitative Study In Southwestern Uganda, Radhika Sundararajan, Juliet Mwanga-Amumpaire, Harriet Adrama, Jackline Tumuhairwe, Sheilla Mbabazi, Kenneth Mworozi, Ryan W. Carroll, David Bangsberg, Yap Boum Ii, Norma C. Ware

OHSU-PSU Joint School of Public Health Faculty Publications and Presentations

Malaria is a leading cause of pediatric mortality, and Uganda has among the highest incidences in the world. Increased morbidity and mortality are associated with delays to care. This qualitative study sought to characterize barriers to prompt allopathic care for children hospitalized with severe malaria in the endemic region of southwestern Uganda. Minimally structured, qualitative interviews were conducted with guardians of children admitted to a regional hospital with severe malaria. Using an inductive and content analytic approach, transcripts were analyzed to identify and define categories that explain delayed care. These categories represented two broad themes: sociocultural and structural factors. Sociocultural ...


Time-To-Infection By Plasmodium Falciparum Is Largely Determined By Random Factors, Mykola Pinkevych, Kiprotich Chelimo, John Vulule, James W. Kazura, Ann M. Moormann, Miles P. Davenport 2015 University of New South Wales

Time-To-Infection By Plasmodium Falciparum Is Largely Determined By Random Factors, Mykola Pinkevych, Kiprotich Chelimo, John Vulule, James W. Kazura, Ann M. Moormann, Miles P. Davenport

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: The identification of protective immune responses to P. falciparum infection is an important goal for the development of a vaccine for malaria. This requires the identification of susceptible and resistant individuals, so that their immune responses may be studied. Time-to-infection studies are one method for identifying putative susceptible individuals (infected early) versus resistant individuals (infected late). However, the timing of infection is dependent on random factors, such as whether the subject was bitten by an infected mosquito, as well as individual factors, such as their level of immunity. It is important to understand how much of the observed variation ...


A Human Type 5 Adenovirus-Based Trypanosoma Cruzi Therapeutic Vaccine Re-Programs Immune Response And Reverses Chronic Cardiomyopathy, Isabela Resende Pereira, Glaucia Vilar-Pereira, Virginia Marques, Andrea Alice da Silva, Braulia Caetano, Otacilio Cruz Moreira, Alexandre Vieira Machado, Oscar Bruna-Romero, Mauricio Martins Rodrigues, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Joseli Lannes-Vieira 2015 Instituto Oswaldo Cruz/Fiocruz

A Human Type 5 Adenovirus-Based Trypanosoma Cruzi Therapeutic Vaccine Re-Programs Immune Response And Reverses Chronic Cardiomyopathy, Isabela Resende Pereira, Glaucia Vilar-Pereira, Virginia Marques, Andrea Alice Da Silva, Braulia Caetano, Otacilio Cruz Moreira, Alexandre Vieira Machado, Oscar Bruna-Romero, Mauricio Martins Rodrigues, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Joseli Lannes-Vieira

Open Access Articles

Chagas disease (CD), caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is a prototypical neglected tropical disease. Specific immunity promotes acute phase survival. Nevertheless, one-third of CD patients develop chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCC) associated with parasite persistence and immunological unbalance. Currently, the therapeutic management of patients only mitigates CCC symptoms. Therefore, a vaccine arises as an alternative to stimulate protective immunity and thereby prevent, delay progression and even reverse CCC. We examined this hypothesis by vaccinating mice with replication-defective human Type 5 recombinant adenoviruses (rAd) carrying sequences of amastigote surface protein-2 (rAdASP2) and trans-sialidase (rAdTS) T. cruzi antigens. For prophylactic vaccination, naive ...


The Leishmania Years At Unl (Or, My Life As A Cell Biologist, 1966-1981), John J. Janovy Jr. 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Leishmania Years At Unl (Or, My Life As A Cell Biologist, 1966-1981), John J. Janovy Jr.

Faculty Publications from the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology

Slides for a talk during which Professor Janovy discussed the methods he used in researching Leishmania during the years 1966-1981. Includes lists of references.


Functional Analysis Of Girardia Tigrina Transcriptome Seeds Pipeline For Anthelmintic Target Discovery, Nicholas J. Wheeler, Prince N. Agbedanu, Michael J. Kimber, Paula Ribeiro, Timothy A. Day, Mostafa Zamanian 2015 Iowa State University

Functional Analysis Of Girardia Tigrina Transcriptome Seeds Pipeline For Anthelmintic Target Discovery, Nicholas J. Wheeler, Prince N. Agbedanu, Michael J. Kimber, Paula Ribeiro, Timothy A. Day, Mostafa Zamanian

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Background Neglected diseases caused by helminth infections impose a massive hindrance to progress in the developing world. While basic research on parasitic flatworms (platyhelminths) continues to expand, researchers have yet to broadly adopt a free-living model to complement the study of these important parasites.

Methods We report the high-coverage sequencing (RNA-Seq) and assembly of the transcriptome of the planarian Girardia tigrina across a set of dynamic conditions. The assembly was annotated and extensive orthology analysis was used to seed a pipeline for the rational prioritization and validation of putative anthelmintic targets. A small number of targets conserved between parasitic and ...


Intravenous Artesunate For Severe Malaria, Karl M. Hess, Jeffery A. Goad, Paul M. Arguin 2015 Western University of Health Sciences

Intravenous Artesunate For Severe Malaria, Karl M. Hess, Jeffery A. Goad, Paul M. Arguin

Jeff Goad

OBJECTIVE: To review the pharmacodynamics and pharmacotherapeutic use of intravenous artesunate for the treatment of severe malaria.

DATA SOURCES: Literature was retrieved through PubMed (1999 March 2010), MEDLINE (1996 March 2010), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), using the search terms artemisinin, artesunate, malaria, and severe malaria. In addition, reference citations from publications identified were reviewed.

STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: All articles in English that were identified from the data sources were reviewed. Focus was placed on post-marketing trials examining the safety and efficacy of artesunate in comparison with other regimens.

DATA SYNTHESIS: The treatment of ...


Two Potential Hookworm Daf-16 Target Genes, Snr-3 And Lpp-1: Gene Structure, Expression Profile, And Implications Of A Cis-Regulatory Element In The Regulation Of Gene Expression, Xin Gao, Kevin Goggin, Camille Dowling, Jason Qian, John Hawdon 2015 Washington University in St Louis

Two Potential Hookworm Daf-16 Target Genes, Snr-3 And Lpp-1: Gene Structure, Expression Profile, And Implications Of A Cis-Regulatory Element In The Regulation Of Gene Expression, Xin Gao, Kevin Goggin, Camille Dowling, Jason Qian, John Hawdon

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Background

Hookworms infect nearly 700 million people, causing anemia and developmental stunting in heavy infections. Little is known about the genomic structure or gene regulation in hookworms, although recent publication of draft genome assemblies has allowed the first investigations of these topics to be undertaken. The transcription factor DAF-16 mediates multiple developmental pathways in the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and is involved in the recovery from the developmentally arrested L3 in hookworms. Identification of downstream targets of DAF-16 will provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of hookworm infection.

Methods

Genomic Fragment 2.23 containing a DAF-16 binding ...


Detection Of Toxoplasma Gondii Antibodies In Swine Herds In Québec, Canada, S. Quessy, A. Letellier, C. Suprenant, P. Patrik Buholzer 2015 Université de Montréal

Detection Of Toxoplasma Gondii Antibodies In Swine Herds In Québec, Canada, S. Quessy, A. Letellier, C. Suprenant, P. Patrik Buholzer

International Conference on the Epidemiology and Control of Biological, Chemical and Physical Hazards in Pigs and Pork

Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by the intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. In human being, foodborne contamination is mostly associated to consumption and manipulation of raw or undercooked meat, unwashed vegetables and fruit or drinking water contaminated by oocystes. In Canada, very few recent prevalence studies are available to evaluate the human exposure to T. gondii by meat products.


An Improved Method For Generating Axenic Entomopathogenic Nematodes., Shruti Yadav, Upasana Shokal, Steven Forst, Ioannis Eleftherianos 2015 George Washington University

An Improved Method For Generating Axenic Entomopathogenic Nematodes., Shruti Yadav, Upasana Shokal, Steven Forst, Ioannis Eleftherianos

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Steinernema carpocapsae are parasitic nematodes that invade and kill insects. The nematodes are mutualistically associated with the bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila and together form an excellent model to study pathogen infection processes and host anti-nematode/antibacterial immune responses. To determine the contribution of S. carpocapsae and their associated X. nematophila to the successful infection of insects as well as to investigate the interaction of each mutualistic partner with the insect immune system, it is important to develop and establish robust methods for generating nematodes devoid of their bacteria.

FINDINGS: To produce S. carpocapsae nematodes without their associated X. nematophila bacteria ...


Altered Intraerythrocytic Development Phenotypes Of Artemisinin-Resistant Plasmodium Falciparum Confer A Fitness Advantage, Amanda Hott 2015 University of South Florida

Altered Intraerythrocytic Development Phenotypes Of Artemisinin-Resistant Plasmodium Falciparum Confer A Fitness Advantage, Amanda Hott

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Resistance to artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) has emerged in southeast Asia threatening the most widely used treatment against antimalarial-resistant Plasmodium falciparum worldwide. Artemisinin resistance has been associated with a reduced rate of parasite clearance following treatment with an ACT and is attributed to increased survival of ring-stage parasites. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in kelch gene (K13) has been associated with delayed in vivo clearance half-life of artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum and is the only known molecular marker of resistance. The absence of reliable in vitro phenotypes for artemisinin resistance has limited our understanding of the resistance mechanism(s) and fitness costs ...


The Carcinogenic Liver Fluke Opisthorchis Viverrini Is A Reservoir For Species Of Helicobacter., Raksawan Deenonpoe, Chariya Chomvarin, Chawalit Pairojkul, Yaowalux Chamgramol, Alex Loukas, Paul J. Brindley, Banchob Sripa 2015 George Washington University

The Carcinogenic Liver Fluke Opisthorchis Viverrini Is A Reservoir For Species Of Helicobacter., Raksawan Deenonpoe, Chariya Chomvarin, Chawalit Pairojkul, Yaowalux Chamgramol, Alex Loukas, Paul J. Brindley, Banchob Sripa

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

There has been a strong, positive correlation between opisthorchiasis-associated cholangiocarcinoma and infection with Helicobacter. Here a rodent model of human infection with Opisthorchis viverrini was utilized to further investigate relationships of apparent co-infections with O. viverrini and H. pylori. A total of 150 hamsters were assigned to five groups: i) Control hamsters not infected with O. viverrini; ii) O. viverrini-infected hamsters; iii) non-O. viverrini infected hamsters treated with antibiotics (ABx); iv) O. viverrini-infected hamsters treated with ABx; and v) O. viverrini-infected hamsters treated both with ABx and praziquantel (PZQ). Stomach, gallbladder, liver, colonic tissue, colorectal feces and O. viverrini worms ...


Comparison Of Findings Using Ultrasonography And Cystoscopy In Urogenital Schistosomiasis In A Public Health Centre In Rural Angola, Julio Santos, Jacinta Chaves, Heriberto Araujo, Nuno Vale, Jose Manuel Costa, Paul J. Brindley, Carlos Lopes, Jean Naples, Clive Shiff, Jorge Dupret, Lucio Lara Santos 2015 George Washington University

Comparison Of Findings Using Ultrasonography And Cystoscopy In Urogenital Schistosomiasis In A Public Health Centre In Rural Angola, Julio Santos, Jacinta Chaves, Heriberto Araujo, Nuno Vale, Jose Manuel Costa, Paul J. Brindley, Carlos Lopes, Jean Naples, Clive Shiff, Jorge Dupret, Lucio Lara Santos

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Background. Schistosomiasis is a chronic disease caused by infection with parasitic worms of the genus Schistosoma. In sub-Saharan Africa, infections with S. haematobium are most common. Cystoscopic examination (CE) has been accepted as the gold-standard test for detecting the late manifestations of schistosomiasis, including urothelial cancer of the bladder. However, this procedure is invasive and 10 - 40% of tumours may remain undetected. A non-invasive examination and a new generation of biomarkers are needed for better monitoring of the disease.

Objective. To assess the usefulness of ultrasound (US) scans for monitoring of structural urinary tract disease by local public health services ...


Assessment Of Longitudinal Efficacy Of Community Based Intervention For Schistosomiasis In Mara District, Lake Victoria Region Of Tanzania, Lauren Ogawa, Guy Bennallack, Aaron Heffner, Jason Duong, Robin Rosenblatt, Yasmin Nibbe, Eiman Mahmoud 2015 Touro University California

Assessment Of Longitudinal Efficacy Of Community Based Intervention For Schistosomiasis In Mara District, Lake Victoria Region Of Tanzania, Lauren Ogawa, Guy Bennallack, Aaron Heffner, Jason Duong, Robin Rosenblatt, Yasmin Nibbe, Eiman Mahmoud

College of Osteopathic Medicine (TUC) Publications and Research

Program/Project Purpose: An estimated 200 million people are infected with schistosomiasis, making the disease one of the top neglected tropical diseases and a major global health concern. In Tanzania, with a population just over 42 million, about 33 million are in need of treatment or preventative chemotherapy. The disease is of particular concern in the Lake Victoria region, due to daily use of lake water. In conjunction with the Shirati district hospital, Touro University-CA has led control programs carried out in mobile clinics at local villages by providing screening, treatment, and education. Recently there has been a push for ...


A Novel Population Of Natural Killer Cells Plays A Critical Role In The Depletion Of Splenic B2 B Cells During Experimental African Trypanosomiasis, Deborah Frenkel 2015 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

A Novel Population Of Natural Killer Cells Plays A Critical Role In The Depletion Of Splenic B2 B Cells During Experimental African Trypanosomiasis, Deborah Frenkel

Doctoral Dissertations

Loss of humoral immune competence in T. brucei-infected mice is associated with the apoptotic depletion of splenic transitional, marginal zone and follicular B cells as well as a depletion of CD8+ T cells. This occurs rapidly after infection and impairs responses to vaccine antigens in addition to responses to newly arising VSG antigenic variants, leading to uncontrolled parasite growth and death of the infected mice. Infection-induced B2 B cell and CD8+ T cell loss requires the presence of a novel population of natural killer (NK) cells and is mediated by a perforin-dependent process consistent with perforin- and granzyme-mediated cytotoxicity ...


Identification Guide To Larval Stages Of Ticks Of Medical Importance In The Usa, Kymbreana Coley 2015 Georgia Southern University

Identification Guide To Larval Stages Of Ticks Of Medical Importance In The Usa, Kymbreana Coley

University Honors Program Theses

Scanning Electron Micrographs were prepared of four morphologically diagnostic regions (dorsal capitulum, ventral capitulum, scutum, leg coxae) for the larval stage of the 16 species of ixodid (hard) ticks known to parasitize humans in the USA. These species are: Amblyomma americanum, A. maculatum, A. mixtum, A. tuberculatum, Dermacentor albipictus, D. andersoni, D. occidentalis, D. variabilis, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, Ixodes angustus, I. cookei, I. pacificus, I. scapularis, I. spinipalpis, I. texanus, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Based on the morphological characters observed, a dichotomous identification key to ixodid larvae that parasitize humans in the USA was prepared. Common names, hosts and geographical distributions are ...


Influence Of Ecologic Factors On Prevalence Of Meningeal Worm (Parelaphostrongylus Tenuis) Infection In South Dakota, Usa, Christopher N. Jacques, Jonathan A. Jenks, Troy W. Grovenburg, Robert W. Klaver, Shelli A. Dubay 2015 South Dakota State University

Influence Of Ecologic Factors On Prevalence Of Meningeal Worm (Parelaphostrongylus Tenuis) Infection In South Dakota, Usa, Christopher N. Jacques, Jonathan A. Jenks, Troy W. Grovenburg, Robert W. Klaver, Shelli A. Dubay

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

The meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) is a nematode parasite that commonly infects white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; WTD) throughout the deciduous forest biome and deciduous-coniferous ecotone of eastern and central North America; the species is not known to occur west of the grassland biome of central North America. We used county-specific prevalence data to evaluate potential effects of landscape and climatologic factors on the spatial distribution of meningeal worm infection in South Dakota, US. Probability of infection increased 4-fold between eastern and western South Dakota and 1.3-fold for each 1-cm increase in summer precipitation. Sixty-three percent of WTD had only ...


Dual Engagement Of The Nlrp3 And Aim2 Inflammasomes By Plasmodium-Derived Hemozoin And Dna During Malaria, Parisa Kalantari, Rosane B. DeOliveira, Jennie Chan, Yolanda Corbett, Vijay A. K. Rathinam, Andrea Stutz, Eicke Latz, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Douglas T. Golenbock, Katherine A. Fitzgerald 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Dual Engagement Of The Nlrp3 And Aim2 Inflammasomes By Plasmodium-Derived Hemozoin And Dna During Malaria, Parisa Kalantari, Rosane B. Deoliveira, Jennie Chan, Yolanda Corbett, Vijay A. K. Rathinam, Andrea Stutz, Eicke Latz, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Douglas T. Golenbock, Katherine A. Fitzgerald

Katherine A. Fitzgerald

Hemozoin (Hz) is the crystalline detoxification product of hemoglobin in Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes. We previously proposed that Hz can carry plasmodial DNA into a subcellular compartment that is accessible to Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), inducing an inflammatory signal. Hz also activates the NLRP3 inflammasome in primed cells. We found that Hz appears to colocalize with DNA in infected erythrocytes, even before RBC rupture or phagolysosomal digestion. Using synthetic Hz coated in vitro with plasmodial genomic DNA (gDNA) or CpG oligodeoxynucleotides, we observed that DNA-complexed Hz induced TLR9 translocation, providing a priming and an activation signal for inflammasomes. After phagocytosis, Hz and ...


P53 And Cancer-Associated Sialylated Glygans Are Surrogate Markers Of Cancerization Of The Bladder Associated With Schistosoma Haematobium Infection, Julio Santos, Elisabete Fernandes, Jose Alexandre Ferreira, Luis Lima, Ana Tavares, Andreia Peixoto, Beatriz Parreira, Jose Manuel Correia da Costa, Paul J. Brindley, Carlos Lopes, Lucio L. Santos 2014 George Washington University

P53 And Cancer-Associated Sialylated Glygans Are Surrogate Markers Of Cancerization Of The Bladder Associated With Schistosoma Haematobium Infection, Julio Santos, Elisabete Fernandes, Jose Alexandre Ferreira, Luis Lima, Ana Tavares, Andreia Peixoto, Beatriz Parreira, Jose Manuel Correia Da Costa, Paul J. Brindley, Carlos Lopes, Lucio L. Santos

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Background

Bladder cancer is a significant health problem in rural areas of Africa and the Middle East where Schistosoma haematobium is prevalent, supporting an association between malignant transformation and infection by this blood fluke. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms linking these events are poorly understood. Bladder cancers in infected populations are generally diagnosed at a late stage since there is a lack of non-invasive diagnostic tools, hence enforcing the need for early carcinogenesis markers.

Methodology/Principal Findings

Forty-three formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded bladder biopsies of S. haematobium-infected patients, consisting of bladder tumours, tumour adjacent mucosa and pre-malignant/malignant urothelial lesions, were screened ...


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