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Studies On The Prevalence And Control Of Parasitic Helminths In "Natural" Laying Hens, Brittany R. Weir 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Studies On The Prevalence And Control Of Parasitic Helminths In "Natural" Laying Hens, Brittany R. Weir

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

One societal trend that has been gaining much traction and popularity since the 21st century began is “organic” and/or “natural” food products. In 1999, the global market accounted for $15.2 billion dollars worth of organic food and drink, compared to the market in 2014 where we consumed $80 billion dollars worth (Willer et. al, 2016). With “natural” production of food animals however, “natural” parasite transmission may be a consequence. To that end, this experiment examines the prevalence of helminths in 110 “natural” laying hens from three regional farms and the efficacies of fenbendazole, piperazine, and levamisole on ...


The Combined Deficiency Of Immunoproteasome Subunits Affects Both The Magnitude And Quality Of Pathogen- And Genetic Vaccination-Induced Cd8+ T Cell Responses To The Human Protozoan Parasite Trypanosoma Cruzi, Jonatan Ersching, Jose Ronnie Vasconcelos, Camila P. Ferreira, Braulia C. Caetano, Alexandre Vieira Machado, Oscar Bruna-Romero, Monique A. Baron, Ludmila R.P. Ferreira, Edecio Cunha-Neto, Kenneth L. Rock, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Mauricio Martins Rodrigues 2016 Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo

The Combined Deficiency Of Immunoproteasome Subunits Affects Both The Magnitude And Quality Of Pathogen- And Genetic Vaccination-Induced Cd8+ T Cell Responses To The Human Protozoan Parasite Trypanosoma Cruzi, Jonatan Ersching, Jose Ronnie Vasconcelos, Camila P. Ferreira, Braulia C. Caetano, Alexandre Vieira Machado, Oscar Bruna-Romero, Monique A. Baron, Ludmila R.P. Ferreira, Edecio Cunha-Neto, Kenneth L. Rock, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Mauricio Martins Rodrigues

Open Access Articles

The beta1i, beta2i and beta5i immunoproteasome subunits have an important role in defining the repertoire of MHC class I-restricted epitopes. However, the impact of combined deficiency of the three immunoproteasome subunits in the development of protective immunity to intracellular pathogens has not been investigated. Here, we demonstrate that immunoproteasomes play a key role in host resistance and genetic vaccination-induced protection against the human pathogen Trypanosoma cruzi (the causative agent of Chagas disease), immunity to which is dependent on CD8+ T cells and IFN-gamma (the classical immunoproteasome inducer). We observed that infection with T. cruzi triggers the transcription of immunoproteasome genes ...


Expansion Of The Knockdown Resistance Frequency Map For Human Head Lice (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) In The United States Using Quantitative Sequencing, Kyle J. Gellatly, Sarah Krim, Daniel J. Palenchar, Katie Shepherd, Kyong Sup Yoon, Christopher J. Rhodes, Si Hyeock Lee, J. Marshall Clark 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Expansion Of The Knockdown Resistance Frequency Map For Human Head Lice (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) In The United States Using Quantitative Sequencing, Kyle J. Gellatly, Sarah Krim, Daniel J. Palenchar, Katie Shepherd, Kyong Sup Yoon, Christopher J. Rhodes, Si Hyeock Lee, J. Marshall Clark

Open Access Articles

Pediculosis is a prevalent parasitic infestation of humans, which is increasing due, in part, to the selection of lice resistant to either the pyrethrins or pyrethroid insecticides by the knockdown resistance (kdr) mechanism. To determine the extent and magnitude of thekdr-type mutations responsible for this resistance, lice were collected from 138 collection sites in 48 U.S. states from 22 July 2013 to 11 May 2015 and analyzed by quantitative sequencing. Previously published data were used for comparisons of the changes in the frequency of thekdr-type mutations over time. Mean percent resistance allele frequency (mean % RAF) values across the three ...


Spatial Distribution And Cluster Analysis Of Retail Drug Shop Characteristics And Antimalarial Behaviors As Reported By Private Medicine Retailers In Western Kenya: Informing Future Interventions, Andria Rusk, Linda Highfield, J. Michael Wilkerson, Melissa Harrell, Andrew Obala, Benjamin Amick 2016 Duke Global Health Institute

Spatial Distribution And Cluster Analysis Of Retail Drug Shop Characteristics And Antimalarial Behaviors As Reported By Private Medicine Retailers In Western Kenya: Informing Future Interventions, Andria Rusk, Linda Highfield, J. Michael Wilkerson, Melissa Harrell, Andrew Obala, Benjamin Amick

Collected Faculty and Staff Scholarship

Background

Efforts to improve malaria case management in sub-Saharan Africa have shifted focus to private antimalarial retailers to increase access to appropriate treatment. Demands to decrease intervention cost while increasing efficacy requires interventions tailored to geographic regions with demonstrated need. Cluster analysis presents an opportunity to meet this demand, but has not been applied to the retail sector or antimalarial retailer behaviors. This research conducted cluster analysis on medicine retailer behaviors in Kenya, to improve malaria case management and inform future interventions.

Methods

Ninety-seven surveys were collected from medicine retailers working in the Webuye Health and Demographic Surveillance Site. Survey ...


A Deep Sequencing Tool For Partitioning Clearance Rates Following Antimalarial Treatment In Polyclonal Infections, Nicole Mideo, Jeffrey A. Bailey, Nicholas J. Hathaway, Billy Ngasala, David L. Saunders, Chanthap Lon, Oksana Kharabora, Andrew Jamnik, Sujata Balasubramanian, Anders Bjorkman, Andreas Martensson, Steven R. Meshnick, Andrew F. Read, Jonathan J. Juliano 2016 University of Toronto

A Deep Sequencing Tool For Partitioning Clearance Rates Following Antimalarial Treatment In Polyclonal Infections, Nicole Mideo, Jeffrey A. Bailey, Nicholas J. Hathaway, Billy Ngasala, David L. Saunders, Chanthap Lon, Oksana Kharabora, Andrew Jamnik, Sujata Balasubramanian, Anders Bjorkman, Andreas Martensson, Steven R. Meshnick, Andrew F. Read, Jonathan J. Juliano

Program in Bioinformatics and Integrative Biology Publications and Presentations

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Current tools struggle to detect drug-resistant malaria parasites when infections contain multiple parasite clones, which is the norm in high transmission settings in Africa. Our aim was to develop and apply an approach for detecting resistance that overcomes the challenges of polyclonal infections without requiring a genetic marker for resistance.

METHODOLOGY: Clinical samples from patients treated with artemisinin combination therapy were collected from Tanzania and Cambodia. By deeply sequencing a hypervariable locus, we quantified the relative abundance of parasite subpopulations (defined by haplotypes of that locus) within infections and revealed evolutionary dynamics during treatment. Slow clearance is ...


Role Of Interleukin-3 In An Experimental Model Of Mouse Cerebral Malaria Caused By Plasmodium Berghei Anka, Brendon R. Perry 2016 James Madison University

Role Of Interleukin-3 In An Experimental Model Of Mouse Cerebral Malaria Caused By Plasmodium Berghei Anka, Brendon R. Perry

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

Malaria is a life-threatening mosquito-borne disease caused by parasites of the genus Plasmodium, with about 200 million new cases reported each year. In rodent models of malaria, a variety of immune proteins called cytokines have been noted to either promote or suppress protective immunity. While the cytokine interleukin-3 (IL-3) clearly promotes host defense against some intestinal nematode parasites, few studies have reported a similar function for IL-3 in the pathophysiology of malaria. In this study, we investigated the role of IL-3 in a mouse model of cerebral malaria caused by Plasmodium berghei ANKA. We infected wild-type (WT) and IL-3 deficient ...


Evaluation Of Interleukin-3 In Blood-Stage Immunity Against Murine Malaria Plasmodium Yoelii, Haley E. Davis 2016 James Madison University

Evaluation Of Interleukin-3 In Blood-Stage Immunity Against Murine Malaria Plasmodium Yoelii, Haley E. Davis

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

Malaria is a mosquito-borne infection caused by the parasitic protozoan Plasmodium. This disease infects over 200-300 million people and causes nearly 400,000 deaths every year. Our laboratory previously examined malarial infection caused by Plasmodium berghei NK65, a lethal rodent strain that induces symptoms similar to those observed in humans. The results of this previous study indicated that the hematopoietic growth factor and immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin-3 (IL-3) suppressed protective immunity against infection with P. berghei NK65. However, the extent to which IL-3 contributes to host defense against blood-stage malaria infection caused by other Plasmodium species remains to be determined. In ...


Rnai-Mediated Gene Knockdown By Microinjection In The Model Entomopathogenic Nematode Heterorhabditis Bacteriophora., Ramesh Ratnappan, Jonathan Vadnal, Melissa Keaney, Ioannis Eleftherianos, Damien O'Halloran, John M. Hawdon 2016 George Washington University

Rnai-Mediated Gene Knockdown By Microinjection In The Model Entomopathogenic Nematode Heterorhabditis Bacteriophora., Ramesh Ratnappan, Jonathan Vadnal, Melissa Keaney, Ioannis Eleftherianos, Damien O'Halloran, John M. Hawdon

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Parasitic nematodes threaten the health of humans and livestock and cause a major financial and socioeconomic burden to modern society. Given the widespread distribution of diseases caused by parasitic nematodes there is an urgent need to develop tools that will elucidate the genetic complexity of host-parasite interactions. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora is a parasitic nematode that allows simultaneous monitoring of nematode infection processes and host immune function, and offers potential as a tractable model for parasitic nematode infections. However, molecular tools to investigate these processes are required prior to its widespread acceptance as a robust model organism. In this paper we ...


Study Of Potential Risk Of Dengue Disease Outbreak In Sri Lanka Using Gis And Statistical Modelling, Sumith Pathirana, Masato Kawabata, Rohitha Goonatilake 2015 Southern Cross University

Study Of Potential Risk Of Dengue Disease Outbreak In Sri Lanka Using Gis And Statistical Modelling, Sumith Pathirana, Masato Kawabata, Rohitha Goonatilake

Adjunct Associate Professor Sumith Pathirana

The increasing incidence of dengue fever has become a priority health issue for Sri Lanka. Recent dengue outbreaks in Sri Lanka show two trends: yearly increase of total number of dengue incidence and increasing dengue outbreaks outside the endemic urbanised areas in the south and the west. Identification of factors responsible for dengue outbreaks and the mapping of potential risk areas in Sri Lanka are long overdue. This study examines the association between weekly rainfall patterns and dengue outbreaks in the western province between 2000 and 2004. Methods: The study develops a model to quantitatively assess the relationship between rainfall ...


Dynamical Features Of The Plasmodium Falciparum Ribosome During Translation, Ming Sun, Wen Li, Karin Blomqvist, Sanchaita Das, Yaser Hashem, Jeffrey D. Dvorin, Joachim Frank 2015 Columbia University

Dynamical Features Of The Plasmodium Falciparum Ribosome During Translation, Ming Sun, Wen Li, Karin Blomqvist, Sanchaita Das, Yaser Hashem, Jeffrey D. Dvorin, Joachim Frank

Open Access Articles

Plasmodium falciparum, the mosquito-transmitted Apicomplexan parasite, causes the most severe form of human malaria. In the asexual blood-stage, the parasite resides within erythrocytes where it proliferates, multiplies and finally spreads to new erythrocytes. Development of drugs targeting the ribosome, the site of protein synthesis, requires specific knowledge of its structure and work cycle, and, critically, the ways they differ from those in the human host. Here, we present five cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) reconstructions of ribosomes purified from P. falciparum blood-stage schizonts at sub-nanometer resolution. Atomic models were built from these density maps by flexible fitting. Significantly, our study has taken ...


Viability Of Developmental Stages Of Schistosoma Mansoni Quantified With Xcelligence Worm Real-Time Motility Assay (Xworm)., Gabriel Rinaldi, Alex Loukas, Paul J. Brindley, Jeff T. Irelan, Michael J. Smout 2015 George Washington University

Viability Of Developmental Stages Of Schistosoma Mansoni Quantified With Xcelligence Worm Real-Time Motility Assay (Xworm)., Gabriel Rinaldi, Alex Loukas, Paul J. Brindley, Jeff T. Irelan, Michael J. Smout

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Infection with helminth parasites causes morbidity and mortality in billions of people and livestock worldwide. Where anthelmintic drugs are available, drug resistance is a major problem in livestock parasites, and a looming threat to public health. Monitoring the efficacy of these medicines and screening for new drugs has been hindered by the lack of objective, high-throughput approaches. Several cell monitoring technologies have been adapted for parasitic worms, including video-, fluorescence-, metabolism enzyme- and impedance-based tools that minimize the screening bottleneck. Using the xCELLigence impedance-based system we previously developed a motility-viability assay that is applicable for a range of helminth parasites ...


Dna-Containing Immunocomplexes Promote Inflammasome Assembly And Release Of Pyrogenic Cytokines By Cd14+ Cd16+ Cd64high Cd32low Inflammatory Monocytes From Malaria Patients, Isabella C. Hirako, Carolina Gallego-Marin, Marco A. Ataide Oswalso Cruz Founda, Warrison A. Andrade, Humberto Gravina, Bruno C. Rocha, Rosane B. de Oliveira, Dhelio B. Pereira, Joseph Vinetz, Betty Diamond, Sanjay Ram, Douglas T. Golenbock, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli 2015 Oswaldo Cruz Foundation

Dna-Containing Immunocomplexes Promote Inflammasome Assembly And Release Of Pyrogenic Cytokines By Cd14+ Cd16+ Cd64high Cd32low Inflammatory Monocytes From Malaria Patients, Isabella C. Hirako, Carolina Gallego-Marin, Marco A. Ataide Oswalso Cruz Founda, Warrison A. Andrade, Humberto Gravina, Bruno C. Rocha, Rosane B. De Oliveira, Dhelio B. Pereira, Joseph Vinetz, Betty Diamond, Sanjay Ram, Douglas T. Golenbock, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli

Open Access Articles

High levels of circulating immunocomplexes (ICs) are found in patients with either infectious or sterile inflammation. We report that patients with either Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax malaria have increased levels of circulating anti-DNA antibodies and ICs containing parasite DNA. Upon stimulation with malaria-induced ICs, monocytes express an NF-kappaB transcriptional signature. The main source of IC-induced proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-alpha] and interleukin-1beta [IL-1beta])in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from acute malaria patients was found to be a CD14(+) CD16 (FcgammaRIIIA)(+) CD64 (FcgammaRI)(high) CD32 (FcgammaRIIB)(low) monocyte subset. Monocytes from convalescent patients were predominantly of ...


Carcinogenic Liver Fluke Secretes Extracellular Vesicles That Promote Cholangiocytes To Adopt A Tumorigenic Phenotype, Sujittra Chaidayet, Javier Sotillo, Michael Smout, Cinzia Cantacessi, Malcolm Jones, Paul J. Brindley, Jeffrey M. Bethony, +9 additional authors 2015 George Washington University

Carcinogenic Liver Fluke Secretes Extracellular Vesicles That Promote Cholangiocytes To Adopt A Tumorigenic Phenotype, Sujittra Chaidayet, Javier Sotillo, Michael Smout, Cinzia Cantacessi, Malcolm Jones, Paul J. Brindley, Jeffrey M. Bethony, +9 Additional Authors

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Background. Throughout Asia there is an unprecedented link between cholangiocarcinoma and infection with the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini. Multiple processes including chronic inflammation and secretion of parasite proteins into the biliary epithelium drive infection towards cancer. Until now, the mechanism and effects of parasite protein entry into cholangiocytes was unknown.

Methods. Various microscopy techniques were used to identify O. viverrini extracellular vesicles (EVs) and their internalization by human cholangiocytes. Using mass spectrometry we characterised the EV proteome and associated changes in cholangiocytes after EV uptake, and detected EV proteins in bile of infected hamsters and humans. Cholangiocyte proliferation and IL-6 ...


Carcinogenic Parasite Secretes Growth Factor That Accelerates Wound Healing And Potentially Promotes Neoplasia., Michael J. Smout, Javier Sotillo, Thewarach Laha, Atiroch Papatpremsiri, Gabriel Rinaldi, Rafael N. Pimenta, Paul J. Brindley, +11 more 2015 James Cook University, Cairns, QLD, Australia

Carcinogenic Parasite Secretes Growth Factor That Accelerates Wound Healing And Potentially Promotes Neoplasia., Michael J. Smout, Javier Sotillo, Thewarach Laha, Atiroch Papatpremsiri, Gabriel Rinaldi, Rafael N. Pimenta, Paul J. Brindley, +11 More

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Infection with the human liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini induces cancer of the bile ducts, cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Injury from feeding activities of this parasite within the human biliary tree causes extensive lesions, wounds that undergo protracted cycles of healing, and re-injury over years of chronic infection. We show that O. viverrini secreted proteins accelerated wound resolution in human cholangiocytes, an outcome that was compromised following silencing of expression of the fluke-derived gene encoding the granulin-like growth factor, Ov-GRN-1. Recombinant Ov-GRN-1 induced angiogenesis and accelerated mouse wound healing. Ov-GRN-1 was internalized by human cholangiocytes and induced gene and protein expression changes associated ...


Advances In The Diagnosis Of Human Opisthorchiasis: Development Of Opisthorchis Viverrini Antigen Detection In Urine, Chanika Worasith, Christine Kamamia, Anna Yakovleva, Kunyarat Duenngai, Chompunoot Wangboon, Jeffrey M. Bethony, +8 additional authors 2015 George Washington University

Advances In The Diagnosis Of Human Opisthorchiasis: Development Of Opisthorchis Viverrini Antigen Detection In Urine, Chanika Worasith, Christine Kamamia, Anna Yakovleva, Kunyarat Duenngai, Chompunoot Wangboon, Jeffrey M. Bethony, +8 Additional Authors

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Background

Many strategies to control opisthorchiasis have been employed in Thailand, but not in the other neighbouring countries. Specific control methods include mass drug administration (MDA) and health education to reduce raw fish consumption. These control efforts have greatly shifted the epidemiology of Opisthorchis viverrini (OV) infection over the last decade from presenting as densely concentrated "heavy" infections in single villages to widespread "light" OV infections distributed over wide geographical areas. Currently, the "gold standard" detection method for OV infection is formalin ethyl-acetate concentration technique (FECT), which has limited diagnostic sensitivity and diagnostic specificity for light OV infections, with OV ...


Release Of Small Rna-Containing Exosome-Like Vesicles From The Human Filarial Parasite Brugia Malayi, Mostafa Zamanian, Lisa M. Fraser, Prince N. Agbedanu, Hiruni Harischandra, Andrew R. Moorhead, Tim A. Day, Lyric Bartholomay, Michael J. Kimber 2015 Iowa State University

Release Of Small Rna-Containing Exosome-Like Vesicles From The Human Filarial Parasite Brugia Malayi, Mostafa Zamanian, Lisa M. Fraser, Prince N. Agbedanu, Hiruni Harischandra, Andrew R. Moorhead, Tim A. Day, Lyric Bartholomay, Michael J. Kimber

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a socio-economically devastating mosquito-borne Neglected Tropical Disease caused by parasitic filarial nematodes. The interaction between the parasite and host, both mosquito and human, during infection, development and persistence is dynamic and delicately balanced. Manipulation of this interface to the detriment of the parasite is a promising potential avenue to develop disease therapies but is prevented by our very limited understanding of the host-parasite relationship. Exosomes are bioactive small vesicles (30–120 nm) secreted by a wide range of cell types and involved in a wide range of physiological processes. Here, we report the identification and partial ...


The Right Tool For The Job: Detection Of Soil-Transmitted Helminths In Areas Co-Endemic For Other Helminths, Maria V. Periago, Renata C. Diniz, Simone A. Pinto, Anna Yakovleva, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira, David J. Diemert, Jeffrey M. Bethony 2015 George Washington University

The Right Tool For The Job: Detection Of Soil-Transmitted Helminths In Areas Co-Endemic For Other Helminths, Maria V. Periago, Renata C. Diniz, Simone A. Pinto, Anna Yakovleva, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira, David J. Diemert, Jeffrey M. Bethony

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Due to the recent increased use of the McMaster (MM) fecal egg counting method for assessing benzimidazole drug efficacy for treating soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections, the aim of the current study was to determine the operational value of including the MM method alongside the Kato-Katz (KK) fecal thick smear to increase the diagnostic sensitivity when STHs are co-endemic with trematode helminths (e.g., Schistosoma mansoni).

Methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted in school-aged children aged 4-18 years in the northeastern region of the State of Minas Gerais (Brazil), where Necator americanus, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and S. mansoni are co-endemic ...


Lack Of Artemisinin Resistance In Plasmodium Falciparum In Uganda Based On Parasitological And Molecular Assays, Roland A. Cooper, Melissa D. Conrad, Quentin D. Watson, Stephanie J. Huezo, Harriet Ninsiima, Patrick Tumwebaze, Samuel L. Nsobya, Philip J. Rosenthal 2015 Department of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Dominican University of California

Lack Of Artemisinin Resistance In Plasmodium Falciparum In Uganda Based On Parasitological And Molecular Assays, Roland A. Cooper, Melissa D. Conrad, Quentin D. Watson, Stephanie J. Huezo, Harriet Ninsiima, Patrick Tumwebaze, Samuel L. Nsobya, Philip J. Rosenthal

Collected Faculty and Staff Scholarship

We evaluated markers of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum isolated in Kampala in 2014. By standard in vitro assays, all isolates were highly sensitive to dihydroartemisinin (DHA). By the ring-stage survival assay, after a 6-h DHA pulse, parasitemia was undetectable in 40 of 43 cultures at 72 h. Two of 53 isolates had nonsynonymous K13-propeller gene polymorphisms but did not have the mutations associated with resistance in Asia. Thus, we did not see evidence for artemisinin resistance in Uganda.


Inhaled Nitric Oxide As An Adjunctive Treatment For Cerebral Malaria In Children: A Phase Ii Randomized Open-Label Clinical Trial, Juliet Mwanga-Amumpaire, Ryan W. Carroll, Elisabeth Baudin, Elisabeth Kemigisha, Dorah Nampijjah, Kenneth Mworozi, Data Santorino, Dan Nyehangane, Daniel I. Nathan, Pierre De Beaudrap, Jean-Francois Etard, Martin Feelish, Bernadette O. Fernandez, Annie Berssenbrugge, David Bangsberg, Kenneth D. Bloch, Yap Boum II, Warren M. Zapol 2015 Mbarara University of Science and Technology

Inhaled Nitric Oxide As An Adjunctive Treatment For Cerebral Malaria In Children: A Phase Ii Randomized Open-Label Clinical Trial, Juliet Mwanga-Amumpaire, Ryan W. Carroll, Elisabeth Baudin, Elisabeth Kemigisha, Dorah Nampijjah, Kenneth Mworozi, Data Santorino, Dan Nyehangane, Daniel I. Nathan, Pierre De Beaudrap, Jean-Francois Etard, Martin Feelish, Bernadette O. Fernandez, Annie Berssenbrugge, David Bangsberg, Kenneth D. Bloch, Yap Boum Ii, Warren M. Zapol

OHSU-PSU Joint School of Public Health Faculty Publications and Presentations

Background. Children with cerebral malaria (CM) have high rates of mortality and neurologic sequelae. Nitric oxide (NO) metabolite levels in plasma and urine are reduced in CM.

Methods. This randomized trial assessed the efficacy of inhaled NO versus nitrogen (N2) as an adjunctive treatment for CM patients receiving intravenous artesunate.We hypothesized that patients treated with NO would have a greater increase of the malaria biomarker, plasma angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) after 48 hours of treatment.

Results. Ninety-two children with CM were randomized to receive either inhaled 80 part per million NO or N2 for 48 or more hours. Plasma Ang-1 ...


Neurocysticercosis, Abigail Hill 2015 Otterbein University

Neurocysticercosis, Abigail Hill

Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) Student Scholarship

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is one of the most common parasitic infections of the central nervous system in humans and is the most serious clinical manifestation of cysticercosis. NCC is caused by the ingestion of the larval form of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium. NCC is endemic in low income developing countries where pigs are commonly raised, including the countries of Central America, South America, and parts of Africa and Asia. (Naddaf, Seeger, & Stafstrom, 2014). The parasite Taenia solium encysts in the brain and can express a broad range of symptoms including seizures, headache, hydrocephalus, encephalitis, stroke and mental health and cognitive ...


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