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Bioavailability Of The Antimalarial Drug Artemisinin Delivered Orally As Dried Leaves Of Artemisia Annua: The Role Of Solubility And Protein., Matthew Desrosiers, Pamela Weathers 2016 Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Bioavailability Of The Antimalarial Drug Artemisinin Delivered Orally As Dried Leaves Of Artemisia Annua: The Role Of Solubility And Protein., Matthew Desrosiers, Pamela Weathers

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Malaria treatment using orally consumed dried leaves of the artemisinin producing GRAS plant Artemisia annua has recently shown promise. Previously we showed, oral consumption of A. annua dried leaves (DLA) yielded >40 times more artemisinin in the blood of mice than treatment with pure artemisinin. Using the Caco-2 cell culture model of the human intestinal epithelium, we also showed that compared to pure artemisinin, digested DLA doubled the permeability (Papp). Here, using simulated human digestion, we show that artemisinin solubility is about seven times higher in digestates of DLA than in digestates of pure artemisinin, likely contributing to its enhanced ...


Anthelminthic Screening For Parasitic Nematodes, Elfawal A. Mostafa, Dan Lawler, Dirk Albrecht, Raffi V. Aroian 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Anthelminthic Screening For Parasitic Nematodes, Elfawal A. Mostafa, Dan Lawler, Dirk Albrecht, Raffi V. Aroian

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

For many parasitic diseases, high-throughput phenotypic screening is an important tool in finding new drugs. Some of the most important parasitic diseases are caused by nematodes. However, these parasitic nematodes are not typically amenable to high throughput screening. Due to the ease of its maintenance and suitability for high throughput assay, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is instead used. To address whether C. elegans is a good model for nematode drug discovery, we compared the drug susceptibility of C. elegans relative to the human hookworm nematode parasite Ancylostoma ceylanicum at several developmental stages using a library of FDA approved drugs. I ...


A Novel Population Of Natural Killer Cells Pplays A Critical Role In The Depletion Of Splenic B2 B Cells During Experimental Africian Trypanosomiasis, Deborah Frenkel, Samuel J. Black 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

A Novel Population Of Natural Killer Cells Pplays A Critical Role In The Depletion Of Splenic B2 B Cells During Experimental Africian Trypanosomiasis, Deborah Frenkel, Samuel J. Black

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Mice infected with Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of human sleeping sickness and a contributor to nagana in cattle, rapidly lose the capacity to mount VSG-specific antibody responses, and die with uncontrolled parasitemia. We have shown (Bockstal et al., 2011, PLOS Pathogens) that the loss of humoral immune competence in the infected mice results from depletion of developing and mature splenic B cells. We now report that T. brucei-induced splenic B cell depletion is dependent upon the presence of the pore forming molecule perforin which is present in the cytotoxic granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, natural killer T cells and ...


Crystal Protein Cry5b As A Novel And Powerful Anthelmintic, David Koch, Zeynep Mirza, Yan Hu, Thanh-thanh Nguyen, Gary R. Ostroff, Raffi V. Aroian 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Crystal Protein Cry5b As A Novel And Powerful Anthelmintic, David Koch, Zeynep Mirza, Yan Hu, Thanh-Thanh Nguyen, Gary R. Ostroff, Raffi V. Aroian

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), most notably, hookworms, whipworms, and Ascaris, are nematodes that infect more than 1.5 billion of the poorest people and are amongst the leading causes of morbidity worldwide. Only two classes of de-worming drugs (anthelmintics) are available for treatment, and only one is commonly used in mass drug administrations. New anthelmintics are urgently needed to overcome emerging resistance and to produce higher cure rates. Crystal (Cry) proteins, in particular Cry5B, made by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are promising new candidates. Cry5B has excellent anthelmintic properties against many free-living and parasitic nematodes, including in vivo efficacy against multiple STH ...


Terpenes As ‘Resistance-Busting” Anthelmintic Drug, Zeynep Mirza, David Koch, Thanh-thanh Nguyen, Yan Hu, Raffi V. Aroian, Gary R. Ostroff 2016 University of Massachusettts Medical School

Terpenes As ‘Resistance-Busting” Anthelmintic Drug, Zeynep Mirza, David Koch, Thanh-Thanh Nguyen, Yan Hu, Raffi V. Aroian, Gary R. Ostroff

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

There is an urgent need for new therapies for parasitic helminthic diseases affecting 1.5-2 billion people worldwide due to the threat of wide-spread resistance development to existing treatments and due to problems of incomplete efficacies.

Terpenes are plant secondary metabolites and major essential oil constituents. Historically, the terpene thymol was successfully used to cure hookworm infections in the 1900’s. Although effective, large doses were needed and thymol treatment had significant side effects. Because free terpenes are absorbed in the stomach, less than 10% of oral terpenes entered the site where the parasites live. To overcome these problems we ...


Human Monoclonal Antibodies To Plasmodium Falciparum Circumsporozoite Protein For Transient Passive Protection Of Malaria Travelers To Endemic Areas, Stuart Nelson, Douglas Golenbock, Ann M. Moormann, Colby A. Souders, Lisa Cavacini 2016 University of Massachusettts Medical School

Human Monoclonal Antibodies To Plasmodium Falciparum Circumsporozoite Protein For Transient Passive Protection Of Malaria Travelers To Endemic Areas, Stuart Nelson, Douglas Golenbock, Ann M. Moormann, Colby A. Souders, Lisa Cavacini

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Plasmodium falciparum, is a protozoa that causes over 214 million cases of Malaria worldwide and the World Health Organization reported an estimated 438,000 deaths attributed to malaria in 2015. Current prevention strategies have reduced malaria cases but they are either costly, have poor efficacy or resistance has begun to develop. There is a global need for an effective pre-exposure prophylaxis treatment.

The leading Malaria vaccine candidate is RTS,S which contains a monovalent Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP). The goal of this vaccine is to induce anti-CSP antibodies that would block sporozoite invasion of hepatocytes and thereby hinder parasite ...


Impact Of Antimalarial Treatment And Chemoprevention On The Drug Sensitivity Of Malaria Parasites Isolated From Ugandan Children, Patrick Tumwebaze, Melisssa D. Conrad, Andrew Walakira, Norbert LeClair, Oswald Byaruhanga, Christine Nakazibwe, Benjamin Kozak, Jessica Bloome, Jaffer Okiring, Abel Kakuru, Victor Bigira, James Kapisi, Jennifer Legac, Jiri Gut, Roland A. Cooper, Moses R. Kamya, Diane V. Havlir, Grant Dorsey, Bryan Greenhouse, Samuel L. Nsobya, Philip J. Rosenthal 2016 Infectious Diseases Research Collaboration, Kampala, Uganda

Impact Of Antimalarial Treatment And Chemoprevention On The Drug Sensitivity Of Malaria Parasites Isolated From Ugandan Children, Patrick Tumwebaze, Melisssa D. Conrad, Andrew Walakira, Norbert Leclair, Oswald Byaruhanga, Christine Nakazibwe, Benjamin Kozak, Jessica Bloome, Jaffer Okiring, Abel Kakuru, Victor Bigira, James Kapisi, Jennifer Legac, Jiri Gut, Roland A. Cooper, Moses R. Kamya, Diane V. Havlir, Grant Dorsey, Bryan Greenhouse, Samuel L. Nsobya, Philip J. Rosenthal

Roland A. Cooper

Changing treatment practices may be selecting for changes in the drug sensitivity of malaria parasites. We characterized ex vivo drug sensitivity and parasite polymorphisms associated with sensitivity in 459 Plasmodium falciparum samples obtained from subjects enrolled in two clinical trials in Tororo, Uganda, from 2010 to 2013. Sensitivities to chloroquine and monodesethylamodiaquine varied widely; sensitivities to quinine, dihydroartemisinin, lumefantrine, and piperaquine were generally good. Associations between ex vivo drug sensitivity and parasite polymorphisms included decreased chloroquine and monodesethylamodiaquine sensitivity and increased lumefantrine and piperaquine sensitivity with pfcrt 76T, as well as increased lumefantrine sensitivity with pfmdr1 86Y, Y184, and 1246Y ...


Studies On The Prevalence And Control Of Parasitic Helminths In "Natural" Laying Hens, Brittany R. Weir 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Studies On The Prevalence And Control Of Parasitic Helminths In "Natural" Laying Hens, Brittany R. Weir

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

One societal trend that has been gaining much traction and popularity since the 21st century began is “organic” and/or “natural” food products. In 1999, the global market accounted for $15.2 billion dollars worth of organic food and drink, compared to the market in 2014 where we consumed $80 billion dollars worth (Willer et. al, 2016). With “natural” production of food animals however, “natural” parasite transmission may be a consequence. To that end, this experiment examines the prevalence of helminths in 110 “natural” laying hens from three regional farms and the efficacies of fenbendazole, piperazine, and levamisole on ...


The Combined Deficiency Of Immunoproteasome Subunits Affects Both The Magnitude And Quality Of Pathogen- And Genetic Vaccination-Induced Cd8+ T Cell Responses To The Human Protozoan Parasite Trypanosoma Cruzi, Jonatan Ersching, Jose Ronnie Vasconcelos, Camila P. Ferreira, Braulia C. Caetano, Alexandre Vieira Machado, Oscar Bruna-Romero, Monique A. Baron, Ludmila R.P. Ferreira, Edecio Cunha-Neto, Kenneth L. Rock, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Mauricio Martins Rodrigues 2016 Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo

The Combined Deficiency Of Immunoproteasome Subunits Affects Both The Magnitude And Quality Of Pathogen- And Genetic Vaccination-Induced Cd8+ T Cell Responses To The Human Protozoan Parasite Trypanosoma Cruzi, Jonatan Ersching, Jose Ronnie Vasconcelos, Camila P. Ferreira, Braulia C. Caetano, Alexandre Vieira Machado, Oscar Bruna-Romero, Monique A. Baron, Ludmila R.P. Ferreira, Edecio Cunha-Neto, Kenneth L. Rock, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Mauricio Martins Rodrigues

Open Access Articles

The beta1i, beta2i and beta5i immunoproteasome subunits have an important role in defining the repertoire of MHC class I-restricted epitopes. However, the impact of combined deficiency of the three immunoproteasome subunits in the development of protective immunity to intracellular pathogens has not been investigated. Here, we demonstrate that immunoproteasomes play a key role in host resistance and genetic vaccination-induced protection against the human pathogen Trypanosoma cruzi (the causative agent of Chagas disease), immunity to which is dependent on CD8+ T cells and IFN-gamma (the classical immunoproteasome inducer). We observed that infection with T. cruzi triggers the transcription of immunoproteasome genes ...


Expansion Of The Knockdown Resistance Frequency Map For Human Head Lice (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) In The United States Using Quantitative Sequencing, Kyle J. Gellatly, Sarah Krim, Daniel J. Palenchar, Katie Shepherd, Kyong Sup Yoon, Christopher J. Rhodes, Si Hyeock Lee, J. Marshall Clark 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Expansion Of The Knockdown Resistance Frequency Map For Human Head Lice (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae) In The United States Using Quantitative Sequencing, Kyle J. Gellatly, Sarah Krim, Daniel J. Palenchar, Katie Shepherd, Kyong Sup Yoon, Christopher J. Rhodes, Si Hyeock Lee, J. Marshall Clark

Open Access Articles

Pediculosis is a prevalent parasitic infestation of humans, which is increasing due, in part, to the selection of lice resistant to either the pyrethrins or pyrethroid insecticides by the knockdown resistance (kdr) mechanism. To determine the extent and magnitude of thekdr-type mutations responsible for this resistance, lice were collected from 138 collection sites in 48 U.S. states from 22 July 2013 to 11 May 2015 and analyzed by quantitative sequencing. Previously published data were used for comparisons of the changes in the frequency of thekdr-type mutations over time. Mean percent resistance allele frequency (mean % RAF) values across the three ...


Spatial Distribution And Cluster Analysis Of Retail Drug Shop Characteristics And Antimalarial Behaviors As Reported By Private Medicine Retailers In Western Kenya: Informing Future Interventions, Andria Rusk, Linda Highfield, J. Michael Wilkerson, Melissa Harrell, Andrew Obala, Benjamin Amick 2016 Duke Global Health Institute

Spatial Distribution And Cluster Analysis Of Retail Drug Shop Characteristics And Antimalarial Behaviors As Reported By Private Medicine Retailers In Western Kenya: Informing Future Interventions, Andria Rusk, Linda Highfield, J. Michael Wilkerson, Melissa Harrell, Andrew Obala, Benjamin Amick

Collected Faculty and Staff Scholarship

Background

Efforts to improve malaria case management in sub-Saharan Africa have shifted focus to private antimalarial retailers to increase access to appropriate treatment. Demands to decrease intervention cost while increasing efficacy requires interventions tailored to geographic regions with demonstrated need. Cluster analysis presents an opportunity to meet this demand, but has not been applied to the retail sector or antimalarial retailer behaviors. This research conducted cluster analysis on medicine retailer behaviors in Kenya, to improve malaria case management and inform future interventions.

Methods

Ninety-seven surveys were collected from medicine retailers working in the Webuye Health and Demographic Surveillance Site. Survey ...


A Deep Sequencing Tool For Partitioning Clearance Rates Following Antimalarial Treatment In Polyclonal Infections, Nicole Mideo, Jeffrey A. Bailey, Nicholas J. Hathaway, Billy Ngasala, David L. Saunders, Chanthap Lon, Oksana Kharabora, Andrew Jamnik, Sujata Balasubramanian, Anders Bjorkman, Andreas Martensson, Steven R. Meshnick, Andrew F. Read, Jonathan J. Juliano 2016 University of Toronto

A Deep Sequencing Tool For Partitioning Clearance Rates Following Antimalarial Treatment In Polyclonal Infections, Nicole Mideo, Jeffrey A. Bailey, Nicholas J. Hathaway, Billy Ngasala, David L. Saunders, Chanthap Lon, Oksana Kharabora, Andrew Jamnik, Sujata Balasubramanian, Anders Bjorkman, Andreas Martensson, Steven R. Meshnick, Andrew F. Read, Jonathan J. Juliano

Program in Bioinformatics and Integrative Biology Publications and Presentations

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Current tools struggle to detect drug-resistant malaria parasites when infections contain multiple parasite clones, which is the norm in high transmission settings in Africa. Our aim was to develop and apply an approach for detecting resistance that overcomes the challenges of polyclonal infections without requiring a genetic marker for resistance.

METHODOLOGY: Clinical samples from patients treated with artemisinin combination therapy were collected from Tanzania and Cambodia. By deeply sequencing a hypervariable locus, we quantified the relative abundance of parasite subpopulations (defined by haplotypes of that locus) within infections and revealed evolutionary dynamics during treatment. Slow clearance is ...


Rnai-Mediated Gene Knockdown By Microinjection In The Model Entomopathogenic Nematode Heterorhabditis Bacteriophora., Ramesh Ratnappan, Jonathan Vadnal, Melissa Keaney, Ioannis Eleftherianos, Damien O'Halloran, John M. Hawdon 2016 George Washington University

Rnai-Mediated Gene Knockdown By Microinjection In The Model Entomopathogenic Nematode Heterorhabditis Bacteriophora., Ramesh Ratnappan, Jonathan Vadnal, Melissa Keaney, Ioannis Eleftherianos, Damien O'Halloran, John M. Hawdon

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Parasitic nematodes threaten the health of humans and livestock and cause a major financial and socioeconomic burden to modern society. Given the widespread distribution of diseases caused by parasitic nematodes there is an urgent need to develop tools that will elucidate the genetic complexity of host-parasite interactions. Heterorhabditis bacteriophora is a parasitic nematode that allows simultaneous monitoring of nematode infection processes and host immune function, and offers potential as a tractable model for parasitic nematode infections. However, molecular tools to investigate these processes are required prior to its widespread acceptance as a robust model organism. In this paper we ...


Role Of Interleukin-3 In An Experimental Model Of Mouse Cerebral Malaria Caused By Plasmodium Berghei Anka, Brendon R. Perry 2016 James Madison University

Role Of Interleukin-3 In An Experimental Model Of Mouse Cerebral Malaria Caused By Plasmodium Berghei Anka, Brendon R. Perry

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

Malaria is a life-threatening mosquito-borne disease caused by parasites of the genus Plasmodium, with about 200 million new cases reported each year. In rodent models of malaria, a variety of immune proteins called cytokines have been noted to either promote or suppress protective immunity. While the cytokine interleukin-3 (IL-3) clearly promotes host defense against some intestinal nematode parasites, few studies have reported a similar function for IL-3 in the pathophysiology of malaria. In this study, we investigated the role of IL-3 in a mouse model of cerebral malaria caused by Plasmodium berghei ANKA. We infected wild-type (WT) and IL-3 deficient ...


Evaluation Of Interleukin-3 In Blood-Stage Immunity Against Murine Malaria Plasmodium Yoelii, Haley E. Davis 2016 James Madison University

Evaluation Of Interleukin-3 In Blood-Stage Immunity Against Murine Malaria Plasmodium Yoelii, Haley E. Davis

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

Malaria is a mosquito-borne infection caused by the parasitic protozoan Plasmodium. This disease infects over 200-300 million people and causes nearly 400,000 deaths every year. Our laboratory previously examined malarial infection caused by Plasmodium berghei NK65, a lethal rodent strain that induces symptoms similar to those observed in humans. The results of this previous study indicated that the hematopoietic growth factor and immunoregulatory cytokine interleukin-3 (IL-3) suppressed protective immunity against infection with P. berghei NK65. However, the extent to which IL-3 contributes to host defense against blood-stage malaria infection caused by other Plasmodium species remains to be determined. In ...


Intestinal Enterobacteriaceae That Protect Nematodes From The Effects Of Benzimidazoles, John H. Whittaker, Alan P. Robertson, Michael J. Kimber, Tim A. Day, Steve A. Carlson 2016 Iowa State University

Intestinal Enterobacteriaceae That Protect Nematodes From The Effects Of Benzimidazoles, John H. Whittaker, Alan P. Robertson, Michael J. Kimber, Tim A. Day, Steve A. Carlson

Biomedical Sciences Publications

The objective of this study was to investigate an interaction between nematodes and gut Enterobacteriaceae that use benzimidazoles as a carbon source. By addressing this objective, we identified an anthelmintic resistance-like mechanism for gastrointestinal nematodes. We isolated 30 gut bacteria (family Enterobacteriaceae) that subsist on and putatively catabolize benzimidazole-class anthelmintics. C. elegans was protected from the effects of benzimidazoles when co-incubated with these Enterobacteriaceae that also protect adult ascarids from the effects of albendazole. This bacterial phenotype represents a novel mechanism by which gastrointestinal nematodes are potentially spared from the effects of benzimidazoles, without any apparent fitness cost to the ...


Study Of Potential Risk Of Dengue Disease Outbreak In Sri Lanka Using Gis And Statistical Modelling, Sumith Pathirana, Masato Kawabata, Rohitha Goonatilake 2015 Southern Cross University

Study Of Potential Risk Of Dengue Disease Outbreak In Sri Lanka Using Gis And Statistical Modelling, Sumith Pathirana, Masato Kawabata, Rohitha Goonatilake

Adjunct Associate Professor Sumith Pathirana

The increasing incidence of dengue fever has become a priority health issue for Sri Lanka. Recent dengue outbreaks in Sri Lanka show two trends: yearly increase of total number of dengue incidence and increasing dengue outbreaks outside the endemic urbanised areas in the south and the west. Identification of factors responsible for dengue outbreaks and the mapping of potential risk areas in Sri Lanka are long overdue. This study examines the association between weekly rainfall patterns and dengue outbreaks in the western province between 2000 and 2004. Methods: The study develops a model to quantitatively assess the relationship between rainfall ...


Dynamical Features Of The Plasmodium Falciparum Ribosome During Translation, Ming Sun, Wen Li, Karin Blomqvist, Sanchaita Das, Yaser Hashem, Jeffrey D. Dvorin, Joachim Frank 2015 Columbia University

Dynamical Features Of The Plasmodium Falciparum Ribosome During Translation, Ming Sun, Wen Li, Karin Blomqvist, Sanchaita Das, Yaser Hashem, Jeffrey D. Dvorin, Joachim Frank

Open Access Articles

Plasmodium falciparum, the mosquito-transmitted Apicomplexan parasite, causes the most severe form of human malaria. In the asexual blood-stage, the parasite resides within erythrocytes where it proliferates, multiplies and finally spreads to new erythrocytes. Development of drugs targeting the ribosome, the site of protein synthesis, requires specific knowledge of its structure and work cycle, and, critically, the ways they differ from those in the human host. Here, we present five cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) reconstructions of ribosomes purified from P. falciparum blood-stage schizonts at sub-nanometer resolution. Atomic models were built from these density maps by flexible fitting. Significantly, our study has taken ...


Viability Of Developmental Stages Of Schistosoma Mansoni Quantified With Xcelligence Worm Real-Time Motility Assay (Xworm)., Gabriel Rinaldi, Alex Loukas, Paul J. Brindley, Jeff T. Irelan, Michael J. Smout 2015 George Washington University

Viability Of Developmental Stages Of Schistosoma Mansoni Quantified With Xcelligence Worm Real-Time Motility Assay (Xworm)., Gabriel Rinaldi, Alex Loukas, Paul J. Brindley, Jeff T. Irelan, Michael J. Smout

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Infection with helminth parasites causes morbidity and mortality in billions of people and livestock worldwide. Where anthelmintic drugs are available, drug resistance is a major problem in livestock parasites, and a looming threat to public health. Monitoring the efficacy of these medicines and screening for new drugs has been hindered by the lack of objective, high-throughput approaches. Several cell monitoring technologies have been adapted for parasitic worms, including video-, fluorescence-, metabolism enzyme- and impedance-based tools that minimize the screening bottleneck. Using the xCELLigence impedance-based system we previously developed a motility-viability assay that is applicable for a range of helminth parasites ...


Dna-Containing Immunocomplexes Promote Inflammasome Assembly And Release Of Pyrogenic Cytokines By Cd14+ Cd16+ Cd64high Cd32low Inflammatory Monocytes From Malaria Patients, Isabella C. Hirako, Carolina Gallego-Marin, Marco A. Ataide Oswalso Cruz Founda, Warrison A. Andrade, Humberto Gravina, Bruno C. Rocha, Rosane B. de Oliveira, Dhelio B. Pereira, Joseph Vinetz, Betty Diamond, Sanjay Ram, Douglas T. Golenbock, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli 2015 Oswaldo Cruz Foundation

Dna-Containing Immunocomplexes Promote Inflammasome Assembly And Release Of Pyrogenic Cytokines By Cd14+ Cd16+ Cd64high Cd32low Inflammatory Monocytes From Malaria Patients, Isabella C. Hirako, Carolina Gallego-Marin, Marco A. Ataide Oswalso Cruz Founda, Warrison A. Andrade, Humberto Gravina, Bruno C. Rocha, Rosane B. De Oliveira, Dhelio B. Pereira, Joseph Vinetz, Betty Diamond, Sanjay Ram, Douglas T. Golenbock, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli

Open Access Articles

High levels of circulating immunocomplexes (ICs) are found in patients with either infectious or sterile inflammation. We report that patients with either Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax malaria have increased levels of circulating anti-DNA antibodies and ICs containing parasite DNA. Upon stimulation with malaria-induced ICs, monocytes express an NF-kappaB transcriptional signature. The main source of IC-induced proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-alpha] and interleukin-1beta [IL-1beta])in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from acute malaria patients was found to be a CD14(+) CD16 (FcgammaRIIIA)(+) CD64 (FcgammaRI)(high) CD32 (FcgammaRIIB)(low) monocyte subset. Monocytes from convalescent patients were predominantly of ...


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