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Parasitic Diseases Commons

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Guatemala : Chagas Disease, Audrey Datzman 2017 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Guatemala : Chagas Disease, Audrey Datzman

Global Public Health

Chagas disease is a parasitic and vector-borne endemic prevalent across Latin American countries, particularly Guatemala. The parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, is spread through triatomine insect vectors often found in low-income housing. Already claiming twelve-thousand deaths in 2016, Guatemala faces a major challenge in attempting to eliminate the triatomine vectors of Chagas disease. Various interventions have been undertaken in the country, including insecticide-based control and community-based vector surveillance.


Sudan : Malaria, Olivia Jilek 2017 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Sudan : Malaria, Olivia Jilek

Global Public Health

Sudan faces a great number of public health issues, however one of the most prevalent diseases within the country is Malaria. An estimated nine million cases were reported in 2002, with the total number of deaths at 44,000, in a country that has a population of 37,345,935. The research done on Malaria in Sudan looks at the basic epidemiology of the region, how to identify the disease, and major risks factors present. Other major challenges that Sudan faces are included, as well as suggestions for preventing further illness from the disease.


Anatomical Distribution Of Clinostomum Metacercariae In The Tissues Of Pond-Raised Channel Catfish (Ictaluris Puctatus), J. Singleton, James J. Daly Sr., K. Wagner 2017 University of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princes Anne, MD

Anatomical Distribution Of Clinostomum Metacercariae In The Tissues Of Pond-Raised Channel Catfish (Ictaluris Puctatus), J. Singleton, James J. Daly Sr., K. Wagner

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

No abstract provided.


Associations Among Habitat Characteristics And Meningeal Worm Prevalence In Eastern South Dakota, Usa, Christopher N. Jacques, Jonathan A. Jenks, Robert W. Klaver, Shelli A. Dubay 2017 South Dakota State University

Associations Among Habitat Characteristics And Meningeal Worm Prevalence In Eastern South Dakota, Usa, Christopher N. Jacques, Jonathan A. Jenks, Robert W. Klaver, Shelli A. Dubay

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Few studies have evaluated how wetland and forest characteristics influence the prevalence of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) infection of deer throughout the grassland biome of central North America. We used previously collected, county-level prevalence data to evaluate associations between habitat characteristics and probability of meningeal worm infection in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) across eastern South Dakota, US. The highest-ranked binomial regression model for detecting probability of meningeal worm infection was spring temperature + summer precipitation + percent wetland; weight of evidence (wi=0.71) favored this model over alternative models, though predictive capability was low (Receiver operating characteristic=0.62). Probability of ...


Geographically-Weighted Regression Of Knowledge And Behaviour Determinants To Anti-Malarial Recommending And Dispensing Practice Among Medicine Retailers In Western Kenya: Capacitating Targeted Interventions, Andria Rusk, Linda Highfield, J. Michael Wilkerson, Melissa Harrell, Andrew Obala, Benjamin Amick 2016 Department of Public Health and Health Sciences, Dominican University of California

Geographically-Weighted Regression Of Knowledge And Behaviour Determinants To Anti-Malarial Recommending And Dispensing Practice Among Medicine Retailers In Western Kenya: Capacitating Targeted Interventions, Andria Rusk, Linda Highfield, J. Michael Wilkerson, Melissa Harrell, Andrew Obala, Benjamin Amick

Collected Faculty and Staff Scholarship

Background

Most patients with malaria seek treatment first in retail drug shops. Myriad studies have examined retailer behaviours and characteristics to understand the determinants to these behaviours. Geospatial methods are helpful in discovering if geographic location plays a role in the relationship between determinants and outcomes. This study aimed to discover if spatial autocorrelation exists in the relationship between determinants and retailer behaviours, and to provide specific geographic locations and target behaviours for tailoring future interventions.

Methods

Retailer behaviours and characteristics captured from a survey deployed to medicine retailers in the Webuye Demographic and Health Surveillance Site were analysed using ...


Splenic Differentiation And Emergence Of Ccr5+Cxcl9+Cxcl10+ Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells In The Brain During Cerebral Malaria, Isabella C. Hirako, Marco Antonio Ataide, Lucas Faustino, Patricia A. Assis, Elizabeth W. Sorensen, Hisashi Ueta, Natalia M. Araujo, Gustavo B. Menezes, Andrew D. Luster, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli 2016 Oswaldo Cruz Foundation

Splenic Differentiation And Emergence Of Ccr5+Cxcl9+Cxcl10+ Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells In The Brain During Cerebral Malaria, Isabella C. Hirako, Marco Antonio Ataide, Lucas Faustino, Patricia A. Assis, Elizabeth W. Sorensen, Hisashi Ueta, Natalia M. Araujo, Gustavo B. Menezes, Andrew D. Luster, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli

Open Access Articles

Dendritic cells have an important role in immune surveillance. After being exposed to microbial components, they migrate to secondary lymphoid organs and activate T lymphocytes. Here we show that during mouse malaria, splenic inflammatory monocytes differentiate into monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MO-DCs), which are CD11b+F4/80+CD11c+MHCIIhighDC-SIGNhighLy6c+ and express high levels of CCR5, CXCL9 and CXCL10 (CCR5+CXCL9/10+ MO-DCs). We propose that malaria-induced splenic MO-DCs take a reverse migratory route. After differentiation in the spleen, CCR5+CXCL9/10+ MO-DCs traffic to the brain in a CCR2-independent, CCR5-dependent manner, where they amplify the influx of CD8+ T lymphocytes, leading ...


A Chimeric Protein-Based Malaria Vaccine Candidate Induces Robust T Cell Responses Against Plasmodium Vivax Msp119, Jairo Andres Fonseca, Monica Cabrera-Mora, Balwan Singh, Joseli Oliveira-Ferreira, Josue Da Costa Lima-Junior, J. Mauricio Calvo-Calle, Jose Manuel Lozano, Alberto Moreno 2016 Emory University

A Chimeric Protein-Based Malaria Vaccine Candidate Induces Robust T Cell Responses Against Plasmodium Vivax Msp119, Jairo Andres Fonseca, Monica Cabrera-Mora, Balwan Singh, Joseli Oliveira-Ferreira, Josue Da Costa Lima-Junior, J. Mauricio Calvo-Calle, Jose Manuel Lozano, Alberto Moreno

Open Access Articles

The most widespread Plasmodium species, Plasmodium vivax, poses a significant public health threat. An effective vaccine is needed to reduce global malaria burden. Of the erythrocytic stage vaccine candidates, the 19 kDa fragment of the P. vivax Merozoite Surface Protein 1 (PvMSP119) is one of the most promising. Our group has previously defined several promiscuous T helper epitopes within the PvMSP1 protein, with features that allow them to bind multiple MHC class II alleles. We describe here a P. vivax recombinant modular chimera based on MSP1 (PvRMC-MSP1) that includes defined T cell epitopes genetically fused to PvMSP119. This vaccine candidate ...


The Nih-Niaid Schistosomiasis Resource Center At The Biomedical Research Institute: Molecular Redux., James J Cody, Wannaporn Ittiprasert, André N Miller, Lucie Henein, Margaret M Mentink-Kane, Michael H. Hsieh 2016 George Washington University

The Nih-Niaid Schistosomiasis Resource Center At The Biomedical Research Institute: Molecular Redux., James J Cody, Wannaporn Ittiprasert, André N Miller, Lucie Henein, Margaret M Mentink-Kane, Michael H. Hsieh

Urology Faculty Publications

Schistosomiasis remains a health burden in many parts of the world. The complex life cycle of Schistosoma parasites and the economic and societal conditions present in endemic areas make the prospect of eradication unlikely in the foreseeable future. Continued and vigorous research efforts must therefore be directed at this disease, particularly since only a single World Health Organization (WHO)-approved drug is available for treatment. The National Institutes of Health (NIH)-National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Schistosomiasis Resource Center (SRC) at the Biomedical Research Institute provides investigators with the critical raw materials needed to carry out this ...


Hiv-1 Integrates Widely Throughout The Genome Of The Human Blood Fluke Schistosoma Mansoni., Sutas Suttiprapa, Gabriel Rinaldi, Isheng J Tsai, Victoria H. Mann, Larisa Dubrovsky, Hong-Bin Yan, Nancy Holroyd, Thomas Huckvale, Caroline Durrant, Anna V Protasio, Tatiana Pushkarsky, Sergey Iordanskiy, Matthew Berriman, Michael I. Bukrinsky, Paul J. Brindley 2016 George Washington University

Hiv-1 Integrates Widely Throughout The Genome Of The Human Blood Fluke Schistosoma Mansoni., Sutas Suttiprapa, Gabriel Rinaldi, Isheng J Tsai, Victoria H. Mann, Larisa Dubrovsky, Hong-Bin Yan, Nancy Holroyd, Thomas Huckvale, Caroline Durrant, Anna V Protasio, Tatiana Pushkarsky, Sergey Iordanskiy, Matthew Berriman, Michael I. Bukrinsky, Paul J. Brindley

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Schistosomiasis is the most important helminthic disease of humanity in terms of morbidity and mortality. Facile manipulation of schistosomes using lentiviruses would enable advances in functional genomics in these and related neglected tropical diseases pathogens including tapeworms, and including their non-dividing cells. Such approaches have hitherto been unavailable. Blood stream forms of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent of the hepatointestinal schistosomiasis, were infected with the human HIV-1 isolate NL4-3 pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein. The appearance of strong stop and positive strand cDNAs indicated that virions fused to schistosome cells, the nucleocapsid internalized and the ...


Multi-Sector Analysis Of The Progress And Challenges Of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Eradication In Rural Udaipur, Jessica Ellis 2016 SIT Study Abroad

Multi-Sector Analysis Of The Progress And Challenges Of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Eradication In Rural Udaipur, Jessica Ellis

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

India is home to 240 million children currently at risk of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis, which is spread via unclean water, soil, and food, and causes acute pain and malnutrition. While acknowledging the research debates over WASH and mass drug administration, this study seeks to identify the systemic multidisciplinary issues affecting STH elimination efforts in rural Udaipur. Twenty-three interviews were conducted in villages, government departments, NGOs, and medical sectors to identify the challenges within each approach to deworming, and their experiences with multi-sectoral collaboration. The most recurring issues across disciplines were need for invested local leadership, increase in health literacy of adults ...


Longevity Of Genotype-Specific Immune Responses To Plasmodium Falciparum Merozoite Surface Protein 1 In Kenyan Children From Regions Of Different Malaria Transmission Intensity, Natalie M. Bowman, Jonathan J. Juliano, Cynthia J. Snider, Oksana Kharabora, Steven R. Meshnick, John Vulule, Chandy C. John, Ann M. Moormann 2016 University of North Carolina

Longevity Of Genotype-Specific Immune Responses To Plasmodium Falciparum Merozoite Surface Protein 1 In Kenyan Children From Regions Of Different Malaria Transmission Intensity, Natalie M. Bowman, Jonathan J. Juliano, Cynthia J. Snider, Oksana Kharabora, Steven R. Meshnick, John Vulule, Chandy C. John, Ann M. Moormann

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Naturally acquired immunity to Plasmodium falciparum presents a changing landscape as malaria control programs and vaccine initiatives are implemented. Determining which immunologic indicators remain surrogates of past infection, as opposed to mediators of protection, led us to compare stability of immune responses across regions with divergent malaria transmission intensities. A repeat cross-sectional study of Kenyan children from a malaria-holoendemic area and an epidemic-prone area was used to examine longitudinal antibody and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) responses to the 3D7 and FVO variants of merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1). Antibodies to MSP1 were common in both study populations and did not significantly wane ...


Microfluidic Platform For Electrophysiological Recordings From Host-Stage Hookworm And Ascaris Suum Larvae: A New Tool For Anthelmintic Research, Janis Weeks, William Roberts, Kristin Robinson, Melissa Keaney, Jon Vermiere, Joseph Urban, Shawn Lockery, John M. Hawdon 2016 George Washington University

Microfluidic Platform For Electrophysiological Recordings From Host-Stage Hookworm And Ascaris Suum Larvae: A New Tool For Anthelmintic Research, Janis Weeks, William Roberts, Kristin Robinson, Melissa Keaney, Jon Vermiere, Joseph Urban, Shawn Lockery, John M. Hawdon

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

The screening of candidate compounds and natural products for anthelmintic activity is important for discovering new drugs against human and animal parasites. We previously validated in Caenorhabditis elegans a microfluidic device (‘chip’) that records non-invasively the tiny electrophysiological signals generated by rhythmic contraction (pumping) of the worm's pharynx. These electropharyngeograms (EPGs) are recorded simultaneously from multiple worms per chip, providing a medium-throughput readout of muscular and neural activity that is especially useful for compounds targeting neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels. Microfluidic technologies have transformedC. elegans research and the goal of the current study was to validate hookworm and ...


The Global Economic And Health Burden Of Human Hookworm Infection., Sarah M Bartsch, Peter J. Hotez, Lindsey Asti, Kristina M Zapf, Maria Elena Bottazzi, David J. Diemert, Bruce Y Lee 2016 George Washington University

The Global Economic And Health Burden Of Human Hookworm Infection., Sarah M Bartsch, Peter J. Hotez, Lindsey Asti, Kristina M Zapf, Maria Elena Bottazzi, David J. Diemert, Bruce Y Lee

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Even though human hookworm infection is highly endemic in many countries throughout the world, its global economic and health impact is not well known. Without a better understanding of hookworm's economic burden worldwide, it is difficult for decision makers such as funders, policy makers, disease control officials, and intervention manufacturers to determine how much time, energy, and resources to invest in hookworm control.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: We developed a computational simulation model to estimate the economic and health burden of hookworm infection in every country, WHO region, and globally, in 2016 from the societal perspective. Globally, hookworm infection ...


Human Monoclonal Antibodies To Plasmodium Falciparum Circumsporozoite Protein For Transient Passive Protection Of Malaria Travelers To Endemic Areas, Stuart Nelson, Douglas Golenbock, Ann M. Moormann, Colby A. Souders, Lisa Cavacini 2016 University of Massachusettts Medical School

Human Monoclonal Antibodies To Plasmodium Falciparum Circumsporozoite Protein For Transient Passive Protection Of Malaria Travelers To Endemic Areas, Stuart Nelson, Douglas Golenbock, Ann M. Moormann, Colby A. Souders, Lisa Cavacini

Ann M. Moormann

Plasmodium falciparum, is a protozoa that causes over 214 million cases of Malaria worldwide and the World Health Organization reported an estimated 438,000 deaths attributed to malaria in 2015. Current prevention strategies have reduced malaria cases but they are either costly, have poor efficacy or resistance has begun to develop. There is a global need for an effective pre-exposure prophylaxis treatment. The leading Malaria vaccine candidate is RTS,S which contains a monovalent Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP). The goal of this vaccine is to induce anti-CSP antibodies that would block sporozoite invasion of hepatocytes and thereby hinder parasite ...


The Immunomodulatory Role Of Adjuvants In Vaccines Formulated With The Recombinant Antigens Ov-103 And Ov-Ral-2 Against Onchocerca Volvulus In Mice., Jessica A. Hess Ligas, Bin Zhan, April R. Torigian, John B. Patton, Nikolai Petrovsky, Tingting Zhan, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Peter J. Hotez, Thomas R. Klei, Sara Lustigman, David Abraham 2016 Thomas Jefferson University

The Immunomodulatory Role Of Adjuvants In Vaccines Formulated With The Recombinant Antigens Ov-103 And Ov-Ral-2 Against Onchocerca Volvulus In Mice., Jessica A. Hess Ligas, Bin Zhan, April R. Torigian, John B. Patton, Nikolai Petrovsky, Tingting Zhan, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Peter J. Hotez, Thomas R. Klei, Sara Lustigman, David Abraham

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

BACKGROUND: In some regions in Africa, elimination of onchocerciasis may be possible with mass drug administration, although there is concern based on several factors that onchocerciasis cannot be eliminated solely through this approach. A vaccine against Onchocerca volvulus would provide a critical tool for the ultimate elimination of this infection. Previous studies have demonstrated that immunization of mice with Ov-103 and Ov-RAL-2, when formulated with alum, induced protective immunity. It was hypothesized that the levels of protective immunity induced with the two recombinant antigens formulated with alum would be improved by formulation with other adjuvants known to enhance different types ...


Global Assessment Of Schistosomiasis Control Over The Past Century Shows Targeting The Snail Intermediate Host Works Best., Susanne H Sokolow, Chelsea L Wood, Isabel J Jones, Scott J Swartz, Melina Lopez, Michael H. Hsieh, Kevin D Lafferty, Armand M Kuris, Chloe Rickards, Giulio A De Leo 2016 George Washington University

Global Assessment Of Schistosomiasis Control Over The Past Century Shows Targeting The Snail Intermediate Host Works Best., Susanne H Sokolow, Chelsea L Wood, Isabel J Jones, Scott J Swartz, Melina Lopez, Michael H. Hsieh, Kevin D Lafferty, Armand M Kuris, Chloe Rickards, Giulio A De Leo

Urology Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Despite control efforts, human schistosomiasis remains prevalent throughout Africa, Asia, and South America. The global schistosomiasis burden has changed little since the new anthelmintic drug, praziquantel, promised widespread control.

METHODOLOGY: We evaluated large-scale schistosomiasis control attempts over the past century and across the globe by identifying factors that predict control program success: snail control (e.g., molluscicides or biological control), mass drug administrations (MDA) with praziquantel, or a combined strategy using both. For data, we compiled historical information on control tactics and their quantitative outcomes for all 83 countries and territories in which: (i) schistosomiasis was allegedly endemic during ...


Biliary Microbiota, Gallstone Disease And Infection With Opisthorchis Felineus., Irina V. Saltykova, Vjacheslav A Petrov, Maria D Logacheva, Polina G Ivanova, Nikolay V Merzlikin, Alexey E Sazonov, Ludmila M Ogorodova, Paul J. Brindley 2016 George Washington University

Biliary Microbiota, Gallstone Disease And Infection With Opisthorchis Felineus., Irina V. Saltykova, Vjacheslav A Petrov, Maria D Logacheva, Polina G Ivanova, Nikolay V Merzlikin, Alexey E Sazonov, Ludmila M Ogorodova, Paul J. Brindley

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in the microbiome of the hepatobiliary system. This study investigated the influence of infection with the fish-borne liver fluke, Opisthorchis felineus on the biliary microbiome of residents of the Tomsk region of western Siberia.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Samples of bile were provided by 56 study participants, half of who were infected with O. felineus, and all of who were diagnosed with gallstone disease. The microbiota of the bile was investigated using high throughput, Illumina-based sequencing targeting the prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene. About 2,797, discrete phylotypes of prokaryotes were detected. At the level of phylum ...


Lack Of Artemisinin Resistance In Plasmodium Falciparum In Uganda Based On Parasitological And Molecular Assays, Roland A. Cooper, Melissa D. Conrad, Quentin D. Watson, Stephanie J. Huezo, Harriet Ninsiima, Patrick Tumwebaze, Samuel L. Nsobya, Philip J. Rosenthal 2016 Department of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Dominican University of California

Lack Of Artemisinin Resistance In Plasmodium Falciparum In Uganda Based On Parasitological And Molecular Assays, Roland A. Cooper, Melissa D. Conrad, Quentin D. Watson, Stephanie J. Huezo, Harriet Ninsiima, Patrick Tumwebaze, Samuel L. Nsobya, Philip J. Rosenthal

Roland A. Cooper

We evaluated markers of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum isolated in Kampala in 2014. By standard in vitro assays, all isolates were highly sensitive to dihydroartemisinin (DHA). By the ring-stage survival assay, after a 6-h DHA pulse, parasitemia was undetectable in 40 of 43 cultures at 72 h. Two of 53 isolates had nonsynonymous K13-propeller gene polymorphisms but did not have the mutations associated with resistance in Asia. Thus, we did not see evidence for artemisinin resistance in Uganda.


Using Predator Carrying Capacity For A Pathogenic Vector-Dynamic Differential Model, Rosahn P. Bhattarai 2016 Georgia State University

Using Predator Carrying Capacity For A Pathogenic Vector-Dynamic Differential Model, Rosahn P. Bhattarai

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Crystal Protein Cry5b As A Novel And Powerful Anthelmintic, David Koch, Zeynep Mirza, Yan Hu, Thanh-thanh Nguyen, Gary R. Ostroff, Raffi V. Aroian 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Crystal Protein Cry5b As A Novel And Powerful Anthelmintic, David Koch, Zeynep Mirza, Yan Hu, Thanh-Thanh Nguyen, Gary R. Ostroff, Raffi V. Aroian

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), most notably, hookworms, whipworms, and Ascaris, are nematodes that infect more than 1.5 billion of the poorest people and are amongst the leading causes of morbidity worldwide. Only two classes of de-worming drugs (anthelmintics) are available for treatment, and only one is commonly used in mass drug administrations. New anthelmintics are urgently needed to overcome emerging resistance and to produce higher cure rates. Crystal (Cry) proteins, in particular Cry5B, made by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are promising new candidates. Cry5B has excellent anthelmintic properties against many free-living and parasitic nematodes, including in vivo efficacy against multiple STH ...


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