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Guinea : Malaria, Madeleine Jacobson 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Guinea : Malaria, Madeleine Jacobson

Global Public Health

This brief analyzes malaria in Guinea and its impacts on individuals and the society. It consists of a geographic and demographic presentation of Guinea which includes information about its location, climate, natural resources, ethnic groups, politics and social internal and external challenges where human trafficking, lack of healthcare and refugees are discussed. The brief analyzes malaria´s transmission, diagnosis, preventions and a suggestion for an intervention.

Malaria is a vector-borne disease, which means that living organisms that can transmit infectious diseases between humans or from animals to humans, spread malaria. 70 percent of all malaria deaths occur in age years ...


Comoros: Malaria, Elizabeth Rennolds 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Comoros: Malaria, Elizabeth Rennolds

Global Public Health

After human settlement and migration took place throughout the world, a disease known as malaria broke out within many countries. Malaria is a disease that comes from a fever where a parasite takes over one’s red blood cells with mosquitoes being the ones that transmit this disease. The symptoms of this disease are as follows: fever (typical cycles of fever, chills, sweating), joint pain, headaches, vomiting, convulsions, and coma. Malaria is a big issue in the Comoros, an island which can be seen in the Indian Ocean between the eastern coast of Africa and Madagascar, because of the many ...


Example Chapter Section For Concepts In Animal Parasitology: Manuscript Of The Aspidogastrea By Klaus Rohde, Klaus Rohde 2018 University of New England

Example Chapter Section For Concepts In Animal Parasitology: Manuscript Of The Aspidogastrea By Klaus Rohde, Klaus Rohde

Concepts in Animal Parasitology Textbook

This is an example chapter section for Concepts in Animal Parasitology. It is a manuscript of the section titled The Aspidogastrea, written by by Klaus Rohde. This is an example of a section written without using the optional template for Part Two and Part Three of the textbook. The associated images are included in a supplemental file.


Transplantation Of Schistosome Sporocysts Between Host Snails: A Video Guide., Gabriel Mouahid, Anne Rognon, Ronaldo de Carvalho Augusto, Patrick Driguez, Kathy Geyer, Shannon Karinshak, Nelia Luviano, Victoria Mann, Thomas Quack, Kate Rawlinson, George Wendt, Christoph Grunau, Hélène Moné 2018 George Washington University

Transplantation Of Schistosome Sporocysts Between Host Snails: A Video Guide., Gabriel Mouahid, Anne Rognon, Ronaldo De Carvalho Augusto, Patrick Driguez, Kathy Geyer, Shannon Karinshak, Nelia Luviano, Victoria Mann, Thomas Quack, Kate Rawlinson, George Wendt, Christoph Grunau, Hélène Moné

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Schistosomiasis is an important parasitic disease, touching roughly 200 million people worldwide. The causative agents are different Schistosoma species. Schistosomes have a complex life cycle, with a freshwater snail as intermediate host. After infection, sporocysts develop inside the snail host and give rise to human dwelling larvae. We present here a detailed step-by-step video instruction in English, French, Spanish and Portuguese that shows how these sporocysts can be manipulated and transferred from one snail to another. This procedure provides a technical basis for different types of ex vivo modifications, such as those used in functional genomics studies.


Chikungunya: India, Allison Harvey 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Chikungunya: India, Allison Harvey

Global Issues in Public Health

A communicable disease is an infectious disease, transmissible by direct contact with an affected individual or the individual’s discharges, or by indirect means. The more direct contact people have, the more disease spreads explaining why larger populations have more outbreaks of communicable diseases. India, in particular, has one of the biggest population sizes and makes them susceptible to those diseases. Many can be fatal. However, other diseases, such as chikungunya, are also dangerous viruses that put specific populations at risk for health problems if infected. With chikungunya symptoms such as fever or rashes may develop. Some symptoms such as ...


Malaria: Sub-Saharan Africa, Caroline Morris 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Malaria: Sub-Saharan Africa, Caroline Morris

Global Issues in Public Health

Sub-Saharan Africa is the large area situated south of the Saharan desert. It is considered one of the poorest regions in the world; the territory faces many challenges in respect to public health. One of the most important issues that sub-Saharan Africa faces is malaria. It is spread through the female Anopheles mosquito. Environmental factors of sub-Saharan Africa heavily influence the rates of incidence in the region due to high populations of mosquitoes. Social determinants of health affect risk in the sub-Saharan populations. Little access to healthcare, built environment, and education all impact incidence of malaria in the region. Children ...


Controlled Human Hookworm Infection: Accelerating Human Hookworm Vaccine Development, David Diemert, Doreen Campbell, Jill Brelsford, Caitlyn Leasure, Guangzhao Li, Naji Younes, +several additional authors 2018 George Washington University

Controlled Human Hookworm Infection: Accelerating Human Hookworm Vaccine Development, David Diemert, Doreen Campbell, Jill Brelsford, Caitlyn Leasure, Guangzhao Li, Naji Younes, +Several Additional Authors

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Background

Controlled human hookworm infection (CHHI) is a central component of a proposed hookworm vaccination-challenge model (HVCM) to test the efficacy of candidate vaccines. Critical to CHHI is the manufacture of Necator americanus infective larvae (NaL3) according to current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) and the determination of an inoculum of NaL3 that is safe and reliably induces patent infection. Methods

cGMP-grade NaL3 were produced for a phase 1 trial in 20 healthy, hookworm-naïve adults in the United States, who received either 25 or 50 NaL3. Participants were monitored for 12–18 weeks postinfection for safety, tolerability ...


Myanmar: Malaria, Michelle Grevengoed 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Myanmar: Malaria, Michelle Grevengoed

Global Public Health

Myanmar is an underdeveloped country that struggles with the problem of lack of medical access and expensive healthcare. The endemic of Malaria has been going on for several years in this country and many efforts have been made to try and decrease the Public Health issue. However, Myanmar still has the highest number of Malaria-related deaths. The Myanmar government is continuously working at improving the healthcare system to help with the Malaria endemic. However, the poor country still continues to struggle with this issue. The parasite, P. falciparum, has been an ongoing issue since it is resistant to the anti-malarial ...


The Malaria Testing And Treatment Landscape In Kenya: Results From A Nationally Representative Survey Among The Public And Private Sector In 2016., Kathryn A. O'Connell, Vamsi Vasireddy, Megan Littrell, Andria Rusk, ACTwatch Group, Anne Musuva, Waqo Ejersa, Rebecca Kiptui, Dorothy Memusi, Edward Abwao 2017 ACTwatch Group

The Malaria Testing And Treatment Landscape In Kenya: Results From A Nationally Representative Survey Among The Public And Private Sector In 2016., Kathryn A. O'Connell, Vamsi Vasireddy, Megan Littrell, Andria Rusk, Actwatch Group, Anne Musuva, Waqo Ejersa, Rebecca Kiptui, Dorothy Memusi, Edward Abwao

Collected Faculty and Staff Scholarship

BACKGROUND: Since 2004, Kenya's national malaria treatment guidelines have stipulated artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria, and since 2014, confirmatory diagnosis of malaria in all cases before treatment has been recommended. A number of strategies to support national guidelines have been implemented in the public and private sectors in recent years. A nationally-representative malaria outlet survey, implemented across four epidemiological zones, was conducted between June and August 2016 to provide practical evidence to inform strategies and policies in Kenya towards achieving national malaria control goals.

RESULTS: A total of 17,852 outlets were screened and ...


A Deep Sequencing Approach To Estimate Plasmodium Falciparum Complexity Of Infection (Coi) And Explore Apical Membrane Antigen 1 Diversity, Robin H. Miller, Nicholas J. Hathaway, Oksana Kharabora, Kashamuka Mwandagalirwa, Antoinette Tshefu, Steven R. Meshnick, Steve M. Taylor, Jonathan J. Juliano, V. Ann Stewart, Jeffrey A. Bailey 2017 Uniformed Services University

A Deep Sequencing Approach To Estimate Plasmodium Falciparum Complexity Of Infection (Coi) And Explore Apical Membrane Antigen 1 Diversity, Robin H. Miller, Nicholas J. Hathaway, Oksana Kharabora, Kashamuka Mwandagalirwa, Antoinette Tshefu, Steven R. Meshnick, Steve M. Taylor, Jonathan J. Juliano, V. Ann Stewart, Jeffrey A. Bailey

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Humans living in regions with high falciparum malaria transmission intensity harbour multi-strain infections comprised of several genetically distinct malaria haplotypes. The number of distinct malaria parasite haplotypes identified from an infected human host at a given time is referred to as the complexity of infection (COI). In this study, an amplicon-based deep sequencing method targeting the Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (pfama1) was utilized to (1) investigate the relationship between P. falciparum prevalence and COI, (2) to explore the population genetic structure of P. falciparum parasites from malaria asymptomatic individuals participating in the 2007 Demographic and Health Survey ...


When It Just Won't Go Away: Oral Artemisinin Monotherapy In Nigeria, Threatening Lives, Threatening Progress., Kathryn A. O'Connell, Vamsi Vasireddy, Megan Littrell, Andria Rusk, ACTwatch Group, Chinazo Ujuju, Jennifer Anyanti, Paul N Newton, Godwin Ntadom 2017 ACTwatch Group

When It Just Won't Go Away: Oral Artemisinin Monotherapy In Nigeria, Threatening Lives, Threatening Progress., Kathryn A. O'Connell, Vamsi Vasireddy, Megan Littrell, Andria Rusk, Actwatch Group, Chinazo Ujuju, Jennifer Anyanti, Paul N Newton, Godwin Ntadom

Collected Faculty and Staff Scholarship

BACKGROUND: Oral artemisinin monotherapy (AMT), an important contributor to multi-drug resistant malaria, has been banned in Nigeria. While oral AMT has scarcely been found for several years now in other malaria-endemic countries, availability has persisted in Nigeria's private sector. In 2015, the ACTwatch project conducted a nationally representative outlet survey. Results from the outlet survey show the extent to which oral AMT prevails in Nigeria's anti-malarial market, and provide key product information to guide strategies for removal.

RESULTS: Between August 10th and October 3rd, 2015 a total of 13,480 outlets were screened for availability of anti-malarials and ...


Recombinant Subunit Vaccines For Soil-Transmitted Helminths, Jason B. Noon, Raffi V. Aroian 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Recombinant Subunit Vaccines For Soil-Transmitted Helminths, Jason B. Noon, Raffi V. Aroian

Open Access Articles

Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) collectively infect one fourth of all human beings, and the majority of livestock in the developing world. These gastrointestinal nematodes are the most important parasites on earth with regard to their prevalence in humans and livestock. Current anthelmintic drugs are losing their efficacies due to increasing drug resistance, particularly in STHs of livestock and drug treatment is often followed by rapid reinfection due to failure of the immune system to develop a protective response. Vaccines against STHs offer what drugs cannot accomplish alone. Because such vaccines would have to be produced on such a large scale, and ...


Plasmodium Falciparum Epcr-Binding Pfemp1 Expression Increases With Malaria Disease Severity And Is Elevated In Retinopathy Negative Cerebral Malaria., Estela Shabani, Benjamin Hanisch, Robert O Opoka, Thomas Lavstsen, Chandy C John 2017 George Washington University

Plasmodium Falciparum Epcr-Binding Pfemp1 Expression Increases With Malaria Disease Severity And Is Elevated In Retinopathy Negative Cerebral Malaria., Estela Shabani, Benjamin Hanisch, Robert O Opoka, Thomas Lavstsen, Chandy C John

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

Background

Expression of group A and the A-like subset of group B Plasmodium falciparumerythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) is associated with severe malaria (SM). The diversity of var sequences combined with the challenges of distinct classification of patient pathologies has made studying the role of distinct PfEMP1 variants on malaria disease severity challenging. The application of retinopathy in the recent years has provided a further method to clinically evaluate children with cerebral malaria (CM). The question of whether children with clinical CM but no retinopathy represent a completely different disease process or a subgroup within the spectrum of CM ...


Lfa-1 Mediates Cytotoxicity And Tissue Migration Of Specific Cd8(+) T Cells After Heterologous Prime-Boost Vaccination Against Trypanosoma Cruzi Infection, Camila Pontes Ferreira, Leonardo Moro. Cariste, Fernando Dos. Santos Virgilio, Barbara Ferri Moraschi, Caroline Brandao. Monteiro, Alexandre M. Vieira Machado, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Oscar Bruna-Romero, Pedro Luiz. Menin Ruiz, Daniel Araki Ribeiro, Joseli Lannes-Vieira, Marcela de Freitas Lopes, Mauricio Martins Rodrigues, Jose Ronnie. de Vasconcelos Carvalho 2017 Federal University of São Paulo

Lfa-1 Mediates Cytotoxicity And Tissue Migration Of Specific Cd8(+) T Cells After Heterologous Prime-Boost Vaccination Against Trypanosoma Cruzi Infection, Camila Pontes Ferreira, Leonardo Moro. Cariste, Fernando Dos. Santos Virgilio, Barbara Ferri Moraschi, Caroline Brandao. Monteiro, Alexandre M. Vieira Machado, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Oscar Bruna-Romero, Pedro Luiz. Menin Ruiz, Daniel Araki Ribeiro, Joseli Lannes-Vieira, Marcela De Freitas Lopes, Mauricio Martins Rodrigues, Jose Ronnie. De Vasconcelos Carvalho

Open Access Articles

Integrins mediate the lymphocyte migration into an infected tissue, and these cells are essential for controlling the multiplication of many intracellular parasites such as Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. Here, we explore LFA-1 and VLA-4 roles in the migration of specific CD8(+) T cells generated by heterologous prime-boost immunization during experimental infection with T. cruzi. To this end, vaccinated mice were treated with monoclonal anti-LFA-1 and/or anti-VLA-4 to block these molecules. After anti-LFA-1, but not anti-VLA-4 treatment, all vaccinated mice displayed increased blood and tissue parasitemia, and quickly succumbed to infection. In addition, there was an ...


The Role Of Intermittent Preventive Treatment For Malaria In Saving Lives And Promoting Drug Resistance, Carrie Manore 2017 Illinois State University

The Role Of Intermittent Preventive Treatment For Malaria In Saving Lives And Promoting Drug Resistance, Carrie Manore

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Abstract_ Jennifer.Docx, Jennifer Collins 2017 University of Central Florida

Abstract_ Jennifer.Docx, Jennifer Collins

Jennifer Collins

No abstract provided.


Challenges In Modeling Complexity Of Neglected Tropical Diseases: A Review Of Dynamics Of Visceral Leishmaniasis In Resource Limited Settings, Swati DebRoy, Olivia F. Prosper, Austin Mishoe, Anuj Mubayi 2017 University of South Carolina - Beaufort

Challenges In Modeling Complexity Of Neglected Tropical Diseases: A Review Of Dynamics Of Visceral Leishmaniasis In Resource Limited Settings, Swati Debroy, Olivia F. Prosper, Austin Mishoe, Anuj Mubayi

Mathematics Faculty Publications

Objectives: Neglected tropical diseases (NTD), account for a large proportion of the global disease burden, and their control faces several challenges including diminishing human and financial resources for those distressed from such diseases. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the second-largest parasitic killer (after malaria) and an NTD affects poor populations and causes considerable cost to the affected individuals. Mathematical models can serve as a critical and cost-effective tool for understanding VL dynamics, however, complex array of socio-economic factors affecting its dynamics need to be identified and appropriately incorporated within a dynamical modeling framework. This study reviews literature on vector-borne diseases and collects ...


Congenital Toxoplasmosis In Austria: Prenatal Screening For Prevention Is Cost-Saving, Andrea-Romana Prusa, David C. Kasper, Larry Sawers, Evelyn Walter, Michael Hayde, Eileen Stillwaggon 2017 Medical University of Vienna

Congenital Toxoplasmosis In Austria: Prenatal Screening For Prevention Is Cost-Saving, Andrea-Romana Prusa, David C. Kasper, Larry Sawers, Evelyn Walter, Michael Hayde, Eileen Stillwaggon

Economics Faculty Publications

Background:

Primary infection of Toxoplasma gondii during pregnancy can be transmitted to the unborn child and may have serious consequences, including retinochoroiditis, hydrocephaly, cerebral calcifications, encephalitis, splenomegaly, hearing loss, blindness, and death. Austria, a country with moderate seroprevalence, instituted mandatory prenatal screening for toxoplasma infection to minimize the effects of congenital transmission. This work compares the societal costs of congenital toxoplasmosis under the Austrian national prenatal screening program with the societal costs that would have occurred in a No-Screening scenario.

Methodology/Principal Findings:

We retrospectively investigated data from the Austrian Toxoplasmosis Register for birth cohorts from 1992 to 2008, including ...


New Gorilla Adenovirus Vaccine Vectors Induce Potent Immune Responses And Protection In A Mouse Malaria Model, Keith Limbach, Ann M. Moormann, Joseph T. Bruder 2017 Naval Medical Research Center

New Gorilla Adenovirus Vaccine Vectors Induce Potent Immune Responses And Protection In A Mouse Malaria Model, Keith Limbach, Ann M. Moormann, Joseph T. Bruder

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: A DNA-human Ad5 (HuAd5) prime-boost malaria vaccine has been shown to protect volunteers against a controlled human malaria infection. The potency of this vaccine, however, appeared to be affected by the presence of pre-existing immunity against the HuAd5 vector. Since HuAd5 seroprevalence is very high in malaria-endemic areas of the world, HuAd5 may not be the most appropriate malaria vaccine vector. This report describes the evaluation of the seroprevalence, immunogenicity and efficacy of three newly identified gorilla adenoviruses, GC44, GC45 and GC46, as potential malaria vaccine vectors.

RESULTS: The seroprevalence of GC44, GC45 and GC46 is very low, and ...


Helminth Infection-Induced Malignancy., Paul J Brindley, Alex Loukas 2017 George Washington University

Helminth Infection-Induced Malignancy., Paul J Brindley, Alex Loukas

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Infectious diseases cause more than 20% of cancers in the developing world [1]. About a dozen pathogens including Epstein-Barr virus and human T cell lymphocytotropic virus 1 are among the well-known examples. In addition, infection with several trematodes, which are eukaryotes, can cause malignancy. The International Agency for Research on Cancer categorizes infection with the fish-borne trematodes Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis and the blood fluke Schistosoma haematobium as Group 1 biological carcinogens [2]. In addition to parasitism directly damaging development, health, and prosperity of infected populations, infection with these helminths leads to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) (bile duct cancer) and squamous ...


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