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An Immunomics Approach To Schistosome Antigen Discovery: Antibody Signatures Of Naturally Resistant And Chronically Infected Individuals From Endemic Areas, Soraya Gaze, Patrick Driguez, Mark S. Pearson, Tiago Mendes, Denise L. Doolan, Jeffrey M. Bethony, +14 additional authors 2014 James Cook University, Cairns, QLD, Australia

An Immunomics Approach To Schistosome Antigen Discovery: Antibody Signatures Of Naturally Resistant And Chronically Infected Individuals From Endemic Areas, Soraya Gaze, Patrick Driguez, Mark S. Pearson, Tiago Mendes, Denise L. Doolan, Jeffrey M. Bethony, +14 Additional Authors

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease that is responsible for almost 300,000 deaths annually. Mass drug administration (MDA) is used worldwide for the control of schistosomiasis, but chemotherapy fails to prevent reinfection with schistosomes, so MDA alone is not sufficient to eliminate the disease, and a prophylactic vaccine is required. Herein, we take advantage of recent advances in systems biology and longitudinal studies in schistosomiasis endemic areas in Brazil to pilot an immunomics approach to the discovery of schistosomiasis vaccine antigens. We selected mostly surface-derived proteins, produced them using an in vitro rapid translation system and then printed them ...


Chagas Disease In The 21st Century: A Public Health Success Or An Emerging Threat?, Kevin M. Bonney 2014 CUNY Kingsborough Community College

Chagas Disease In The 21st Century: A Public Health Success Or An Emerging Threat?, Kevin M. Bonney

Publications and Research

Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is a major public health burden in Latin America and a potentially serious emerging threat to a number of countries throughout the world. Although public health programs have significantly reduced the prevalence of Chagas disease in Latin America in recent decades, the number of infections in the United States and non-endemic countries in Europe and the Western Pacific Region continues to rise. Moreover, there is still no vaccine or highly effective cure available for the approximately 10 million people currently infected with T. cruzi, a third of which will develop potentially ...


Genome Of The Human Hookworm Necator Americanus, Yat T. Tang, Xin Gao, Bruce A. Rosa, Sahar Abubucker, Kymberlie Hallsworth-Pepin, Peter J. Hotez, Jeffrey M. Bethony, +23 additional authors 2014 George Washington University

Genome Of The Human Hookworm Necator Americanus, Yat T. Tang, Xin Gao, Bruce A. Rosa, Sahar Abubucker, Kymberlie Hallsworth-Pepin, Peter J. Hotez, Jeffrey M. Bethony, +23 Additional Authors

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

The hookworm Necator americanus is the predominant soil-transmitted human parasite. Adult worms feed on blood in the small intestine, causing iron-deficiency anemia, malnutrition, growth and development stunting in children, and severe morbidity and mortality during pregnancy in women. We report sequencing and assembly of the N. americanus genome (244 Mb, 19,151 genes). Characterization of this first hookworm genome sequence identified genes orchestrating the hookworm's invasion of the human host, genes involved in blood feeding and development, and genes encoding proteins that represent new potential drug targets against hookworms. N. americanus has undergone a considerable and unique expansion of ...


Sickle Cell Trait Is Not Associated With Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma: An Ethnicity And Malaria Endemicity-Matched Case-Control Study Suggests Factors Controlling Ebv May Serve As A Predictive Biomarker For This Pediatric Cancer, David H. Mulama, Jeffrey A. Bailey, Joslyn Foley, Kiprotich Chelimo, Collins Ouma, Walter G.Z.O. Jura, Juliana A. Otieno, John M. Vulule, Ann M. Moormann 2014 Kenya Medical Research Institute

Sickle Cell Trait Is Not Associated With Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma: An Ethnicity And Malaria Endemicity-Matched Case-Control Study Suggests Factors Controlling Ebv May Serve As A Predictive Biomarker For This Pediatric Cancer, David H. Mulama, Jeffrey A. Bailey, Joslyn Foley, Kiprotich Chelimo, Collins Ouma, Walter G.Z.O. Jura, Juliana A. Otieno, John M. Vulule, Ann M. Moormann

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) is associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Plasmodium falciparum coinfections. Malaria appears to dysregulate immunity that would otherwise control EBV, thereby contributing to eBL etiology. Juxtaposed to human genetic variants associated with protection from malaria, it has been hypothesized that such variants could decrease eBL susceptibility, historically referred to as "the protective hypothesis." Past studies attempting to link sickle cell trait (HbAS), which is known to be protective against malaria, with protection from eBL were contradictory and underpowered. Therefore, using a case-control study design, we examined HbAS frequency in 306 Kenyan children diagnosed with eBL compared ...


Virulent And Avirulent Strains Of Toxoplasma Gondii Which Differ In Their Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Content Induce Similar Biological Functions In Macrophages, Sebastian Niehus, Terry K. Smith, Nahid Azzouz, Marco A. Campos, Jean-Francois Dubremetz, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Ralph T. Schwarz, Francoise Debierre -Grockiego 2014 Philipps-University

Virulent And Avirulent Strains Of Toxoplasma Gondii Which Differ In Their Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Content Induce Similar Biological Functions In Macrophages, Sebastian Niehus, Terry K. Smith, Nahid Azzouz, Marco A. Campos, Jean-Francois Dubremetz, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Ralph T. Schwarz, Francoise Debierre -Grockiego

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) from several protozoan parasites are thought to elicit a detrimental stimulation of the host innate immune system aside their main function to anchor surface proteins. Here we analyzed the GPI biosynthesis of an avirulent Toxoplasma gondii type 2 strain (PTG) by metabolic radioactive labeling. We determined the biological function of individual GPI species in the PTG strain in comparison with previously characterized GPI-anchors of a virulent strain (RH). The GPI intermediates of both strains were structurally similar, however the abundance of two of six GPI intermediates was significantly reduced in the PTG strain. The side-by-side comparison of GPI-anchor ...


Dual Engagement Of The Nlrp3 And Aim2 Inflammasomes By Plasmodium-Derived Hemozoin And Dna During Malaria, Parisa Kalantari, Rosane B. DeOliveira, Jennie Chan, Yolanda Corbett, Vijay A. K. Rathinam, Andrea Stutz, Eicke Latz, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Douglas T. Golenbock, Katherine A. Fitzgerald 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Dual Engagement Of The Nlrp3 And Aim2 Inflammasomes By Plasmodium-Derived Hemozoin And Dna During Malaria, Parisa Kalantari, Rosane B. Deoliveira, Jennie Chan, Yolanda Corbett, Vijay A. K. Rathinam, Andrea Stutz, Eicke Latz, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Douglas T. Golenbock, Katherine A. Fitzgerald

Infectious Diseases and Immunology Publications and Presentations

Hemozoin (Hz) is the crystalline detoxification product of hemoglobin in Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes. We previously proposed that Hz can carry plasmodial DNA into a subcellular compartment that is accessible to Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), inducing an inflammatory signal. Hz also activates the NLRP3 inflammasome in primed cells. We found that Hz appears to colocalize with DNA in infected erythrocytes, even before RBC rupture or phagolysosomal digestion. Using synthetic Hz coated in vitro with plasmodial genomic DNA (gDNA) or CpG oligodeoxynucleotides, we observed that DNA-complexed Hz induced TLR9 translocation, providing a priming and an activation signal for inflammasomes. After phagocytosis, Hz and ...


Malaria-Induced Nlrp12/Nlrp3-Dependent Caspase-1 Activation Mediates Inflammation And Hypersensitivity To Bacterial Superinfection, Marco A. Ataide, Warrison A. Andrade, Dario S. Zamboni, Donghai Wang, Maria do Carmo Souza, Bernardo S. Franklin, Samir Elian, Flaviano S. Martins, Dhelio Pereira, George W. Reed, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Douglas T. Golenbock, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli 2014 University of Massachusetts Medical School Worcester

Malaria-Induced Nlrp12/Nlrp3-Dependent Caspase-1 Activation Mediates Inflammation And Hypersensitivity To Bacterial Superinfection, Marco A. Ataide, Warrison A. Andrade, Dario S. Zamboni, Donghai Wang, Maria Do Carmo Souza, Bernardo S. Franklin, Samir Elian, Flaviano S. Martins, Dhelio Pereira, George W. Reed, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Douglas T. Golenbock, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli

Infectious Diseases and Immunology Publications and Presentations

Cyclic paroxysm and high fever are hallmarks of malaria and are associated with high levels of pyrogenic cytokines, including IL-1beta. In this report, we describe a signature for the expression of inflammasome-related genes and caspase-1 activation in malaria. Indeed, when we infected mice, Plasmodium infection was sufficient to promote MyD88-mediated caspase-1 activation, dependent on IFN-gamma-priming and the expression of inflammasome components ASC, P2X7R, NLRP3 and/or NLRP12. Pro-IL-1beta expression required a second stimulation with LPS and was also dependent on IFN-gamma-priming and functional TNFR1. As a consequence of Plasmodium-induced caspase-1 activation, mice produced extremely high levels of IL-1beta upon a ...


The Ecology And Conservation Of Black-Shanked Doucs (Pygathrix Nigripes) In Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam, Jonathan Aaron O'Brien 2014 University of Colorado Boulder

The Ecology And Conservation Of Black-Shanked Doucs (Pygathrix Nigripes) In Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam, Jonathan Aaron O'Brien

Anthropology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation addresses the nutritional ecology of the black-shanked douc (Pygathrix nigripes), an endangered colobine, in Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam. Because a lack of knowledge about the ecological needs and behavioral patterns of this colobine may well affect long-termed conservation planning, this study undertook a multi-year investigation of ranging behaviors and feeding choices in an effort to better understand the chemical make up of foods either selected or rejected by this species. In order to assess how selective the animals were in feeding, phenological transects were established to measure forest productivity throughout the year. These transects showed that Cat ...


Suppression Of Aquaporin, A Mediator Of Water Channel Control In The Carcinogenic Liver Fluke, Opisthorchis Viverrini, Sirikanda Thanasuwan, Supawadee Piratae, Paul J. Brindley, Alex Loukas, Sasithorn Kaewkes, Thewarach Laha 2014 Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand

Suppression Of Aquaporin, A Mediator Of Water Channel Control In The Carcinogenic Liver Fluke, Opisthorchis Viverrini, Sirikanda Thanasuwan, Supawadee Piratae, Paul J. Brindley, Alex Loukas, Sasithorn Kaewkes, Thewarach Laha

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Background

Opisthorchiasis and Opisthorchis viverrini-associated bile duct cancer represent major public health threats in Thailand and Laos. The tegument of this food borne fluke plays pivotal roles in parasite metabolism, homeostasis and osmoregulation. Excretory/secretory products also pass from the fluke to the biliary environment, products that likely underlie pathogenesis of liver fluke infection. Aquaporins (AQPs), belong to the major intrinsic protein superfamily of integral plasma membrane channel proteins that selectively transport water across cell membranes. AQPs play key roles as water and ion transport channels through the tegument of helminth parasites.

Methods

Here, two forms of AQP mRNAs from ...


Malaria: The Story Of Struggle, Suffering, And Eradication, Stevey Willey 2014 Bowling Green State University

Malaria: The Story Of Struggle, Suffering, And Eradication, Stevey Willey

Honors Projects

Every year over two million men, women, and children around the world are affected by malaria, a disease that can easily be prevented with awareness, education, and support. In April 2014 I held a malaria event in which guests had the opportunity to witness the effects malaria has on people, not just physically, but emotionally and economically as well. The death rate has moved from one person every 30 seconds to one every 60 seconds since 2010. The improvement in the rate of deaths has resulted from the increase in awareness of this disease. It is my goal with this ...


Examination Of The Snsag Surface Antigen Gene Family In Sarcocystis Neurona, Ablesh Gautam 2014 University of Kentucky

Examination Of The Snsag Surface Antigen Gene Family In Sarcocystis Neurona, Ablesh Gautam

Theses and Dissertations--Veterinary Science

Sarcocystis neurona is a protozoan parasite that causes the serious neurologic disease equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). The life cycle of S. neurona progresses through multiple developmental stages that differ morphologically and molecularly. The S. neurona merozoite surface is covered by multiple related proteins, which are orthologous to the surface antigen (SAG) gene family of Toxoplasma gondii. The SAG surface antigens in T. gondii and another related parasite Neospora caninum are life cycle stage-specific and seem necessary for parasite transmission and persistence of infection. The present research was conducted to explore the gene family of SnSAGs in S. neurona. Specifically, the ...


Case Study: Sick On A South American Sugarcane Plantation, Kevin M. Bonney 2014 CUNY Kingsborough Community College

Case Study: Sick On A South American Sugarcane Plantation, Kevin M. Bonney

Publications and Research

A case study is presented that was designed to be used in high school and college level courses to familiarize students with chagas disease, its transmission, and effects in Central and South America. Noted objectives of the lesson include evaluating disease symptoms, examining socioeconomic factors related to the epidemiology, and creating visual aids with public health information. Questions are provided for discussing the a case of chagas disease at a Brazilian sugarcane plantation.


Helminth.Net: Expansions To Nematode.Net And An Introduction To Trematode.Net, John Martin, Bruce A. Rosa, Philip Ozersky, Kymberlie Hallsworth-Pepin, Xu Zhang, Veena Bhonagiri-Palsikar, Rahul Tyagi, Qi Wang, Young-Jun Choi, Xin Gao, Samantha N. McNulty, Paul J. Brindley, Makedonka Mitreva 2014 George Washington University

Helminth.Net: Expansions To Nematode.Net And An Introduction To Trematode.Net, John Martin, Bruce A. Rosa, Philip Ozersky, Kymberlie Hallsworth-Pepin, Xu Zhang, Veena Bhonagiri-Palsikar, Rahul Tyagi, Qi Wang, Young-Jun Choi, Xin Gao, Samantha N. Mcnulty, Paul J. Brindley, Makedonka Mitreva

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Helminth.net (http://www.helminth.net) is the new moniker for a collection of databases: Nematode.net and Trematode.net. Within this collection we provide services and resources for parasitic roundworms (nematodes) and flatworms (trematodes), collectively known as helminths. For over a decade we have provided resources for studying nematodes via our veteran site Nematode.net (http://nematode.net). In this article, (i) we provide an update on the expansions of Nematode.net that hosts omics data from 84 species and provides advanced search tools to the broad scientific community so that data can be mined in a useful and ...


Air Sac Nematode Monopetalonema Alcedinis In A Belted Kingfisher (Megaceryle Alcyon) In Maryland, Usa, Ellen Bronson, Kathleen Kelly, Eric P. Hoberg 2014 Maryland Zoo in Baltimore

Air Sac Nematode Monopetalonema Alcedinis In A Belted Kingfisher (Megaceryle Alcyon) In Maryland, Usa, Ellen Bronson, Kathleen Kelly, Eric P. Hoberg

Faculty Publications from the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology

Sporadic and geographically widespread reports of parasites affecting the Belted Kingfisher (Megaceryle alcyon) have been published but few have described details of the pathology. A female, adult kingfisher was found dead in a heavily wooded area of a zoo in Maryland, USA. At necropsy, numerous sexually dimorphic, 4.4–40.5-cm adult Monopetalonema alcedinis nematodes were found tightly wound within the coelomic cavity between organs and completely filling the caudal thoracic and abdominal air sacs. Abundant, 30–60-mm diameter, larvated, thick-walled ova were found in the bronchi and parabronchi, within the mesentery, and in the serosa of multiple coelomic organs ...


The Toxoplasma Gondii Cyst Wall Protein Cst1 Is Critical For Cyst Wall Integrity And Promotes Bradyzoite Persistence, Tadakimi Tomita, David J. Bzik, Yan Fen Ma, Barbara A. Fox 2013 Albert Einstein College of Medicine

The Toxoplasma Gondii Cyst Wall Protein Cst1 Is Critical For Cyst Wall Integrity And Promotes Bradyzoite Persistence, Tadakimi Tomita, David J. Bzik, Yan Fen Ma, Barbara A. Fox

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Toxoplasma gondii infects up to one third of the world's population. A key to the success of T. gondii as a parasite is its ability to persist for the life of its host as bradyzoites within tissue cysts. The glycosylated cyst wall is the key structural feature that facilitates persistence and oral transmission of this parasite. Because most of the antibodies and reagents that recognize the cyst wall recognize carbohydrates, identification of the components of the cyst wall has been technically challenging. We have identified CST1 (TGME49_064660) as a 250 kDa SRS (SAG1 related sequence) domain protein with a ...


Transcriptional Analysis Of Murine Macrophages Infected With Different Toxoplasma Strains Identifies Novel Regulation Of Host Signaling Pathways, Mariane B. Melo, Quynh P. Nguyen, Cynthia Cordeiro, Musa A. Hassan, Ninghan Yang, Renee McKell, Emily E. Rosowski, Lindsay Julien, Vincent Butty, Marie-Laure Darde, Daniel Ajzenberg, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Lucy H. Young, Jeroen P. J. Saeij 2013 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Transcriptional Analysis Of Murine Macrophages Infected With Different Toxoplasma Strains Identifies Novel Regulation Of Host Signaling Pathways, Mariane B. Melo, Quynh P. Nguyen, Cynthia Cordeiro, Musa A. Hassan, Ninghan Yang, Renee Mckell, Emily E. Rosowski, Lindsay Julien, Vincent Butty, Marie-Laure Darde, Daniel Ajzenberg, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Lucy H. Young, Jeroen P. J. Saeij

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Most isolates of Toxoplasma from Europe and North America fall into one of three genetically distinct clonal lineages, the type I, II and III lineages. However, in South America these strains are rarely isolated and instead a great variety of other strains are found. T. gondii strains differ widely in a number of phenotypes in mice, such as virulence, persistence, oral infectivity, migratory capacity, induction of cytokine expression and modulation of host gene expression. The outcome of toxoplasmosis in patients is also variable and we hypothesize that, besides host and environmental factors, the genotype of the parasite strain plays a ...


On Head Lice And Social Interaction In Archaic Andean Coastal Populations, Bernardo Arriaza, Vivien Standen, Karl Reinhard, Aduto Araújo, Jörg Heukelbach, Katharina Dittmar 2013 Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica, Chile

On Head Lice And Social Interaction In Archaic Andean Coastal Populations, Bernardo Arriaza, Vivien Standen, Karl Reinhard, Aduto Araújo, Jörg Heukelbach, Katharina Dittmar

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Archaic mummies from northern Chile were examined for the presence of Pediculus humanus capitis. The excellent preservation of mummies and louse nits/eggs permitted a study of the degree of head lice infestation. We studied 63 Chinchorro mummies (ca. 5000–3000 years B.P.) from the Arica-Camarones coast. An area of 2 cm × 2 cm on each mummy’s head was systematically inspected for louse nits/eggs. Hairs with nits/eggs and lice were collected and analyzed using optic and scanning electronic microscopy. About 79% (50/63) of the mummies resulted positive for pediculosis, with an average of 2.1 ...


Transgenic Mosquitoes Expressing A Phospholipase A(2) Gene Have A Fitness Advantage When Fed Plasmodium Falciparum-Infected Blood, Ryan C. Smith, Christopher Kizito, Jason L. Rasgon, Marcelo Jacobs-Lorena 2013 Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Transgenic Mosquitoes Expressing A Phospholipase A(2) Gene Have A Fitness Advantage When Fed Plasmodium Falciparum-Infected Blood, Ryan C. Smith, Christopher Kizito, Jason L. Rasgon, Marcelo Jacobs-Lorena

Ryan C. Smith

Genetically modified mosquitoes have been proposed as an alternative strategy to reduce the heavy burden of malaria. In recent years, several proof-of-principle experiments have been performed that validate the idea that mosquitoes can be genetically modified to become refractory to malaria parasite development. We have created two transgenic lines of Anophelesstephensi, a natural vector of Plasmodium falciparum, which constitutively secrete a catalytically inactive phospholipase A2 (mPLA2) into the midgut lumen to interfere with Plasmodium ookinete invasion. Our experiments show that both transgenic lines expressing mPLA2 significantly impair the development of rodent malaria parasites, but only one line impairs the development ...


Schistosomiasis (Bilharzia) In Madagascar: A Case Study Of A Neglected Tropical Disease, Sarah Grace Sawyer 2013 SIT Study Abroad

Schistosomiasis (Bilharzia) In Madagascar: A Case Study Of A Neglected Tropical Disease, Sarah Grace Sawyer

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Over 50% of Madagascar’s population is infected with intestinal or urinary schistosomiasis (Rollinson et al., 2012). The disease slowly debilitates infected persons, who are frequently children, resulting in lower productivity and reduced learning in school-age children. The disease involves a vicious cycle perpetuated by a number of environmental, psychological, and social factors. A multifaceted approach, involving mass treatment, biological control, environmental control, education, and disease surveillance, can lead to schistosomiasis control and elimination in Madagascar. This would yield many socio-economic benefits such as increased productivity, increased school attendance rates, and generally better welfare. Schistosomiasis is the most burdensome and ...


Parasitism Of The Zweeloo Woman: Dicrocoeliasis Evidenced In A Roman Period Bog Mummy, Nicole Searcey, Karl Reinhard, Eduard Egarter-Vigl, Frank Maixner, Dario Piombino-Mascali, Albert R. Zink, Wijnand van der Sanden, Scott Gardner, Raffaella Bianucci 2013 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Parasitism Of The Zweeloo Woman: Dicrocoeliasis Evidenced In A Roman Period Bog Mummy, Nicole Searcey, Karl Reinhard, Eduard Egarter-Vigl, Frank Maixner, Dario Piombino-Mascali, Albert R. Zink, Wijnand Van Der Sanden, Scott Gardner, Raffaella Bianucci

Papers in Natural Resources

We undertook the analysis of Zweeloo Woman, a bog mummy from the Netherlands, to assess her parasitic state. Evidence of infection came from two areas: (1) liver paraffin sections and (2) microfossils washed from an intestinal section. Although the liver had shrunken considerably, objects consistent with operculated trematode eggs were found. After evaluating the range of trematode species that produce eggs in liver tissue, we arrived at the diagnosis of Dicrocoelium dendriticum. Although only 0.1 ml of sediment was recovered from an intestinal section, eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura were also identified. No eggs of D. dendriticum ...


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