Preventive Zinc Supplementation In Developing Countries: Impact On Mortality And Morbidity Due To Diarrhea, Pneumonia And Malaria, Mohammad Yawar Yakoob, Evropi Theodoratou, Afshan Jabeen, Aamer Imdad, Thomas P. Eisele, Joy Ferguson, Arnoupe Jhass, Igor Rudan, Harry Campbell, Robert E. Black, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta
Woman and Child Health
Background:Zinc deficiency is commonly prevalent in children in developing countries and plays a role in decreased immunity and increased risk of infection. Preventive zinc supplementation in healthy children can reduce mortality due to common causes like diarrhea, pneumonia and malaria. The main objective was to determine all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality and morbidity in children under five in developing countries for preventive zinc supplementation. Data sources/review methods: A literature search was carried out on PubMed, the Cochrane Library and the WHO regional databases to identify RCTs on zinc supplementation for greater than 3 months in children less than ...
Efficacy And Safety Of Quinine Loading Dose In Patients With Severe Falciparum Malaria At A Tertiary Care Hospital In Pakistan, M. Tariq, Taimur Saleem, Hamid Ullah, Vikram Mehraj, Abdul Jawwad Samdani, Syeda Hena Kazmi, Syed Imran Ayaz, Mehmood Riaz, Muhammad Junaid Patel, Mohammed Asim Beg
Section of Internal Medicine
OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical outcomes of a loading dose regimen of quinine with a uniform dose regimen in patients with severe falciparum malaria.
METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 315 patients admitted with severe falciparum malaria and treated with quinine at a tertiary care teaching hospital of Karachi, Pakistan during 1999-2006 was conducted. Group A with 103 patients (32.7%) was given an initial loading dose of quinine while group B with 212 patients (67.3%) did not receive the loading dose. The two groups were compared in terms of reduction of parasite load, resolution of fever, recovery of ...
Development Of An In Vivo Rnai Protocol To Investigate Gene Function In The Filarial Nematode, Brugia Malayi, 2010 Iowa State University
Development Of An In Vivo Rnai Protocol To Investigate Gene Function In The Filarial Nematode, Brugia Malayi, Chuanzhe Song, Jack M. Gallup, Timothy A. Day, Lyric C. Bartholomay, Michael J. Kimber
Our ability to control diseases caused by parasitic nematodes is constrained by a limited portfolio of effective drugs and a paucity of robust tools to investigate parasitic nematode biology. RNA interference (RNAi) is a reverse-genetics tool with great potential to identify novel drug targets and interrogate parasite gene function, but present RNAi protocols for parasitic nematodes, which remove the parasite from the host and execute RNAi in vitro, are unreliable and inconsistent. We have established an alternative in vivo RNAi protocol targeting the filarial nematode Brugia malayi as it develops in an intermediate host, the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Injection of ...
Fmrfamide-Like Peptides (Flps) Enhance Voltage-Gated Calcium Currents To Elicit Muscle Contraction In The Human Parasite Schistosoma Mansoni, Ekaterina Novozhilova, Michael J. Kimber, Hai Qian, Paul Mcveigh, Alan P. Robertson, Mostafa Zamanian, Aaron G. Maule, Timothy A. Day
Biomedical Sciences Publications
Schistosomes are amongst the most important and neglected pathogens in the world, and schistosomiasis control relies almost exclusively on a single drug. The neuromuscular system of schistosomes is fertile ground for therapeutic intervention, yet the details of physiological events involved in neuromuscular function remain largely unknown. Short amidated neuropeptides, FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs), are distributed abundantly throughout the nervous system of every flatworm examined and they produce potent myoexcitation. Our goal here was to determine the mechanism by which FLPs elicit contractions of schistosome muscle fibers. Contraction studies showed that the FLP Tyr-Ile-Arg-Phe-amide (YIRFamide) contracts the muscle fibers through a mechanism ...
Knowledge, Attitudes And Practices Regarding Dengue Fever Among Adults Of High And Low Socioeconomic Groups, Madiha Syed, Taimur Saleem, Umme-Rubab Syeda, Manal Habib, Rehan Zahid, Atif Bashir, Madiha Rabbani, Madiha Khalid, Asif Iqbal, Ehsen Zawwar Rao, Shujja-Ur-Rehman, Sarah Saleem
Community Health Sciences
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the knowledge, attitudes and practices of selected adult population in Pakistan regarding Dengue Fever.METHODS: A cross sectional survey was conducted among selected communities with different socio-economic backgrounds in Karachi, Pakistan. A sample size of 440 adults (aged 18 years and above) were interviewed using a pre-tested questionnaire regarding their knowledge, attitude and practices about dengue fever. A composite scoring system, based on the answers given in the questionnaire, was used to establish the level of awareness in the population. The division of the higher and lower socio-economic groups was based on their income and locality; both ...
Interview With Ernest Alan Meyer, D.Sc., 2010 Oregon Health & Science University
Interview With Ernest Alan Meyer, D.Sc., Ernest Alan Meyer D.Sc. (Interviewee), Lesley Hallick Ph.D. (Interviewer)
Oral History Collection
Ernest Alan Meyer, D.Sc., begins by briefly describing his childhood, born in San Jose, California and raised in San Francisco. He then talks about what it was like as a teenager during World War II and his decision to join the Air Force at 18 where he served as a cryptographer. Meyer then discusses his education, earning a B.A. degree at the University of California in 1949, an M.S. degree from Purdue University in 1953, and an Sc.D. degree at the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health in 1958. He details his decision to ...
Intravenous Artesunate For Severe Malaria, 2010 Western University of Health Sciences
Intravenous Artesunate For Severe Malaria, Karl M. Hess, Jeffery A. Goad, Paul M. Arguin
Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research
OBJECTIVE: To review the pharmacodynamics and pharmacotherapeutic use of intravenous artesunate for the treatment of severe malaria.
DATA SOURCES: Literature was retrieved through PubMed (1999 March 2010), MEDLINE (1996 March 2010), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), using the search terms artemisinin, artesunate, malaria, and severe malaria. In addition, reference citations from publications identified were reviewed.
STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: All articles in English that were identified from the data sources were reviewed. Focus was placed on post-marketing trials examining the safety and efficacy of artesunate in comparison with other regimens.
DATA SYNTHESIS: The treatment of ...