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Examination Of The Snsag Surface Antigen Gene Family In Sarcocystis Neurona, Ablesh Gautam 2014 University of Kentucky

Examination Of The Snsag Surface Antigen Gene Family In Sarcocystis Neurona, Ablesh Gautam

Theses and Dissertations--Veterinary Science

Sarcocystis neurona is a protozoan parasite that causes the serious neurologic disease equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). The life cycle of S. neurona progresses through multiple developmental stages that differ morphologically and molecularly. The S. neurona merozoite surface is covered by multiple related proteins, which are orthologous to the surface antigen (SAG) gene family of Toxoplasma gondii. The SAG surface antigens in T. gondii and another related parasite Neospora caninum are life cycle stage-specific and seem necessary for parasite transmission and persistence of infection. The present research was conducted to explore the gene family of SnSAGs in S. neurona. Specifically, the ...


Case Study: Sick On A South American Sugarcane Plantation, Kevin M. Bonney 2014 CUNY Kingsborough Community College

Case Study: Sick On A South American Sugarcane Plantation, Kevin M. Bonney

Publications and Research

A case study is presented that was designed to be used in high school and college level courses to familiarize students with chagas disease, its transmission, and effects in Central and South America. Noted objectives of the lesson include evaluating disease symptoms, examining socioeconomic factors related to the epidemiology, and creating visual aids with public health information. Questions are provided for discussing the a case of chagas disease at a Brazilian sugarcane plantation.


Suppression Of Aquaporin, A Mediator Of Water Channel Control In The Carcinogenic Liver Fluke, Opisthorchis Viverrini, Sirikanda Thanasuwan, Supawadee Piratae, Paul J. Brindley, Alex Loukas, Sasithorn Kaewkes, Thewarach Laha 2014 Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand

Suppression Of Aquaporin, A Mediator Of Water Channel Control In The Carcinogenic Liver Fluke, Opisthorchis Viverrini, Sirikanda Thanasuwan, Supawadee Piratae, Paul J. Brindley, Alex Loukas, Sasithorn Kaewkes, Thewarach Laha

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Background

Opisthorchiasis and Opisthorchis viverrini-associated bile duct cancer represent major public health threats in Thailand and Laos. The tegument of this food borne fluke plays pivotal roles in parasite metabolism, homeostasis and osmoregulation. Excretory/secretory products also pass from the fluke to the biliary environment, products that likely underlie pathogenesis of liver fluke infection. Aquaporins (AQPs), belong to the major intrinsic protein superfamily of integral plasma membrane channel proteins that selectively transport water across cell membranes. AQPs play key roles as water and ion transport channels through the tegument of helminth parasites.

Methods

Here, two forms of AQP mRNAs from ...


Malaria: The Story Of Struggle, Suffering, And Eradication, Stevey Willey 2014 Bowling Green State University

Malaria: The Story Of Struggle, Suffering, And Eradication, Stevey Willey

Honors Projects

Every year over two million men, women, and children around the world are affected by malaria, a disease that can easily be prevented with awareness, education, and support. In April 2014 I held a malaria event in which guests had the opportunity to witness the effects malaria has on people, not just physically, but emotionally and economically as well. The death rate has moved from one person every 30 seconds to one every 60 seconds since 2010. The improvement in the rate of deaths has resulted from the increase in awareness of this disease. It is my goal with this ...


Air Sac Nematode Monopetalonema Alcedinis In A Belted Kingfisher (Megaceryle Alcyon) In Maryland, Usa, Ellen Bronson, Kathleen Kelly, Eric P. Hoberg 2014 Maryland Zoo in Baltimore

Air Sac Nematode Monopetalonema Alcedinis In A Belted Kingfisher (Megaceryle Alcyon) In Maryland, Usa, Ellen Bronson, Kathleen Kelly, Eric P. Hoberg

Faculty Publications from the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology

Sporadic and geographically widespread reports of parasites affecting the Belted Kingfisher (Megaceryle alcyon) have been published but few have described details of the pathology. A female, adult kingfisher was found dead in a heavily wooded area of a zoo in Maryland, USA. At necropsy, numerous sexually dimorphic, 4.4–40.5-cm adult Monopetalonema alcedinis nematodes were found tightly wound within the coelomic cavity between organs and completely filling the caudal thoracic and abdominal air sacs. Abundant, 30–60-mm diameter, larvated, thick-walled ova were found in the bronchi and parabronchi, within the mesentery, and in the serosa of multiple coelomic organs ...


Helminth.Net: Expansions To Nematode.Net And An Introduction To Trematode.Net, John Martin, Bruce A. Rosa, Philip Ozersky, Kymberlie Hallsworth-Pepin, Xu Zhang, Veena Bhonagiri-Palsikar, Rahul Tyagi, Qi Wang, Young-Jun Choi, Xin Gao, Samantha N. McNulty, Paul J. Brindley, Makedonka Mitreva 2014 George Washington University

Helminth.Net: Expansions To Nematode.Net And An Introduction To Trematode.Net, John Martin, Bruce A. Rosa, Philip Ozersky, Kymberlie Hallsworth-Pepin, Xu Zhang, Veena Bhonagiri-Palsikar, Rahul Tyagi, Qi Wang, Young-Jun Choi, Xin Gao, Samantha N. Mcnulty, Paul J. Brindley, Makedonka Mitreva

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Helminth.net (http://www.helminth.net) is the new moniker for a collection of databases: Nematode.net and Trematode.net. Within this collection we provide services and resources for parasitic roundworms (nematodes) and flatworms (trematodes), collectively known as helminths. For over a decade we have provided resources for studying nematodes via our veteran site Nematode.net (http://nematode.net). In this article, (i) we provide an update on the expansions of Nematode.net that hosts omics data from 84 species and provides advanced search tools to the broad scientific community so that data can be mined in a useful and ...


The Toxoplasma Gondii Cyst Wall Protein Cst1 Is Critical For Cyst Wall Integrity And Promotes Bradyzoite Persistence, Tadakimi Tomita, David J. Bzik, Yan Fen Ma, Barbara A. Fox 2013 Albert Einstein College of Medicine

The Toxoplasma Gondii Cyst Wall Protein Cst1 Is Critical For Cyst Wall Integrity And Promotes Bradyzoite Persistence, Tadakimi Tomita, David J. Bzik, Yan Fen Ma, Barbara A. Fox

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Toxoplasma gondii infects up to one third of the world's population. A key to the success of T. gondii as a parasite is its ability to persist for the life of its host as bradyzoites within tissue cysts. The glycosylated cyst wall is the key structural feature that facilitates persistence and oral transmission of this parasite. Because most of the antibodies and reagents that recognize the cyst wall recognize carbohydrates, identification of the components of the cyst wall has been technically challenging. We have identified CST1 (TGME49_064660) as a 250 kDa SRS (SAG1 related sequence) domain protein with a ...


Transcriptional Analysis Of Murine Macrophages Infected With Different Toxoplasma Strains Identifies Novel Regulation Of Host Signaling Pathways, Mariane B. Melo, Quynh P. Nguyen, Cynthia Cordeiro, Musa A. Hassan, Ninghan Yang, Renee McKell, Emily E. Rosowski, Lindsay Julien, Vincent Butty, Marie-Laure Darde, Daniel Ajzenberg, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Lucy H. Young, Jeroen P. J. Saeij 2013 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Transcriptional Analysis Of Murine Macrophages Infected With Different Toxoplasma Strains Identifies Novel Regulation Of Host Signaling Pathways, Mariane B. Melo, Quynh P. Nguyen, Cynthia Cordeiro, Musa A. Hassan, Ninghan Yang, Renee Mckell, Emily E. Rosowski, Lindsay Julien, Vincent Butty, Marie-Laure Darde, Daniel Ajzenberg, Katherine A. Fitzgerald, Lucy H. Young, Jeroen P. J. Saeij

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Most isolates of Toxoplasma from Europe and North America fall into one of three genetically distinct clonal lineages, the type I, II and III lineages. However, in South America these strains are rarely isolated and instead a great variety of other strains are found. T. gondii strains differ widely in a number of phenotypes in mice, such as virulence, persistence, oral infectivity, migratory capacity, induction of cytokine expression and modulation of host gene expression. The outcome of toxoplasmosis in patients is also variable and we hypothesize that, besides host and environmental factors, the genotype of the parasite strain plays a ...


On Head Lice And Social Interaction In Archaic Andean Coastal Populations, Bernardo Arriaza, Vivien Standen, Karl Reinhard, Aduto Araújo, Jörg Heukelbach, Katharina Dittmar 2013 Universidad de Tarapacá, Arica, Chile

On Head Lice And Social Interaction In Archaic Andean Coastal Populations, Bernardo Arriaza, Vivien Standen, Karl Reinhard, Aduto Araújo, Jörg Heukelbach, Katharina Dittmar

Karl Reinhard Papers/Publications

Archaic mummies from northern Chile were examined for the presence of Pediculus humanus capitis. The excellent preservation of mummies and louse nits/eggs permitted a study of the degree of head lice infestation. We studied 63 Chinchorro mummies (ca. 5000–3000 years B.P.) from the Arica-Camarones coast. An area of 2 cm × 2 cm on each mummy’s head was systematically inspected for louse nits/eggs. Hairs with nits/eggs and lice were collected and analyzed using optic and scanning electronic microscopy. About 79% (50/63) of the mummies resulted positive for pediculosis, with an average of 2.1 ...


Transgenic Mosquitoes Expressing A Phospholipase A(2) Gene Have A Fitness Advantage When Fed Plasmodium Falciparum-Infected Blood, Ryan C. Smith, Christopher Kizito, Jason L. Rasgon, Marcelo Jacobs-Lorena 2013 Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Transgenic Mosquitoes Expressing A Phospholipase A(2) Gene Have A Fitness Advantage When Fed Plasmodium Falciparum-Infected Blood, Ryan C. Smith, Christopher Kizito, Jason L. Rasgon, Marcelo Jacobs-Lorena

Ryan C. Smith

Genetically modified mosquitoes have been proposed as an alternative strategy to reduce the heavy burden of malaria. In recent years, several proof-of-principle experiments have been performed that validate the idea that mosquitoes can be genetically modified to become refractory to malaria parasite development. We have created two transgenic lines of Anophelesstephensi, a natural vector of Plasmodium falciparum, which constitutively secrete a catalytically inactive phospholipase A2 (mPLA2) into the midgut lumen to interfere with Plasmodium ookinete invasion. Our experiments show that both transgenic lines expressing mPLA2 significantly impair the development of rodent malaria parasites, but only one line impairs the development ...


Schistosomiasis (Bilharzia) In Madagascar: A Case Study Of A Neglected Tropical Disease, Sarah Grace Sawyer 2013 SIT Study Abroad

Schistosomiasis (Bilharzia) In Madagascar: A Case Study Of A Neglected Tropical Disease, Sarah Grace Sawyer

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Over 50% of Madagascar’s population is infected with intestinal or urinary schistosomiasis (Rollinson et al., 2012). The disease slowly debilitates infected persons, who are frequently children, resulting in lower productivity and reduced learning in school-age children. The disease involves a vicious cycle perpetuated by a number of environmental, psychological, and social factors. A multifaceted approach, involving mass treatment, biological control, environmental control, education, and disease surveillance, can lead to schistosomiasis control and elimination in Madagascar. This would yield many socio-economic benefits such as increased productivity, increased school attendance rates, and generally better welfare. Schistosomiasis is the most burdensome and ...


Parasitism Of The Zweeloo Woman: Dicrocoeliasis Evidenced In A Roman Period Bog Mummy, Nicole Searcey, Karl Reinhard, Eduard Egarter-Vigl, Frank Maixner, Dario Piombino-Mascali, Albert R. Zink, Wijnand van der Sanden, Scott Gardner, Raffaella Bianucci 2013 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Parasitism Of The Zweeloo Woman: Dicrocoeliasis Evidenced In A Roman Period Bog Mummy, Nicole Searcey, Karl Reinhard, Eduard Egarter-Vigl, Frank Maixner, Dario Piombino-Mascali, Albert R. Zink, Wijnand Van Der Sanden, Scott Gardner, Raffaella Bianucci

Papers in Natural Resources

We undertook the analysis of Zweeloo Woman, a bog mummy from the Netherlands, to assess her parasitic state. Evidence of infection came from two areas: (1) liver paraffin sections and (2) microfossils washed from an intestinal section. Although the liver had shrunken considerably, objects consistent with operculated trematode eggs were found. After evaluating the range of trematode species that produce eggs in liver tissue, we arrived at the diagnosis of Dicrocoelium dendriticum. Although only 0.1 ml of sediment was recovered from an intestinal section, eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura were also identified. No eggs of D. dendriticum ...


An Insight Into The Microbial Diversity And Expression Of Cysteine Protease Inhibitors (Cystatin) In Rickettsia Parkeri Infected Amblyomma Maculatum, Khem Raj B.C. 2013 University of Southern Mississippi

An Insight Into The Microbial Diversity And Expression Of Cysteine Protease Inhibitors (Cystatin) In Rickettsia Parkeri Infected Amblyomma Maculatum, Khem Raj B.C.

Master's Theses

Amblyomma maculatum (Gulf Coast tick) is an emerging tick species of public health significance in United States. It is a competent vector of Rickettsia parkeri, an etiological agent of a human rickettsiosis. In this study, we investigated the spotted fever group of rickettsial diversity in A. maculatum based on rickettsial ompA gene PCR. Our results showed A. maculatum harbors R. parkeri, R. amblyommii, and R. endosymbiont of A. maculatum. While only R. parkeri was detected in female salivary glands which suggest its ability to traffic from midgut to salivary glands via hemocoel. The presence of R. parkeri was further confirmed ...


Spatially Explicit Modeling Of Schistosomiasis Risk In Eastern China Based On A Synthesis Of Epidemiological, Environmental, And Intermediate Host Genetic Data, Matthias Schrader, Torsten Hauffe, Zhijie Zhang, George M. Davis, Fred Jopp, Justin V. Remais, Thomas Wilke 2013 Justus Liebig University, Giessen, Germany

Spatially Explicit Modeling Of Schistosomiasis Risk In Eastern China Based On A Synthesis Of Epidemiological, Environmental, And Intermediate Host Genetic Data, Matthias Schrader, Torsten Hauffe, Zhijie Zhang, George M. Davis, Fred Jopp, Justin V. Remais, Thomas Wilke

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Schistosomiasis japonica is a major parasitic disease threatening millions of people in China. Though overall prevalence was greatly reduced during the second half of the past century, continued persistence in some areas and cases of re-emergence in others remain major concerns. As many regions in China are approaching disease elimination, obtaining quantitative data on Schistosoma japonicum parasites is increasingly difficult. This study examines the distribution of schistosomiasis in eastern China, taking advantage of the fact that the single intermediate host serves as a major transmission bottleneck. Epidemiological, population-genetic and high-resolution ecological data are combined to construct a predictive model capable ...


The Genome Of Anopheles Darlingi, The Main Neotropical Malaria Vector, Osvaldo Marinotti, Adam R. Wespiser, Daniel R. Caffrey, Douglas T. Golenbock, Neal S. Silverman 2013 University of California Irvine

The Genome Of Anopheles Darlingi, The Main Neotropical Malaria Vector, Osvaldo Marinotti, Adam R. Wespiser, Daniel R. Caffrey, Douglas T. Golenbock, Neal S. Silverman

Infectious Diseases and Immunology Publications and Presentations

Anopheles darlingi is the principal neotropical malaria vector, responsible for more than a million cases of malaria per year on the American continent. Anopheles darlingi diverged from the African and Asian malaria vectors approximately 100 million years ago (mya) and successfully adapted to the New World environment. Here we present an annotated reference A. darlingi genome, sequenced from a wild population of males and females collected in the Brazilian Amazon. A total of 10 481 predicted protein-coding genes were annotated, 72% of which have their closest counterpart in Anopheles gambiae and 21% have highest similarity with other mosquito species. In ...


Involvement Of A Putative Intercellular Signal-Recognizing G Protein-Coupled Receptor In The Engulfment Of Salmonella By The Protozoan Tetrahymena, P. N. Agbedanu, M. T. Brewer, T. A. Day, M. J. Kimber, K. L. Anderson, S. K. Rasmussen, M. A. Rasmussen, S. A. Carlson 2013 Iowa State University

Involvement Of A Putative Intercellular Signal-Recognizing G Protein-Coupled Receptor In The Engulfment Of Salmonella By The Protozoan Tetrahymena, P. N. Agbedanu, M. T. Brewer, T. A. Day, M. J. Kimber, K. L. Anderson, S. K. Rasmussen, M. A. Rasmussen, S. A. Carlson

Biomedical Sciences Publications

In an effort to investigate the molecular basis of protozoa engulfment-mediated hypervirulence of Salmonella in cattle, we evaluated protozoan G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) as transducers of Salmonella engulfment by the model protozoanTetrahymena. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that non-pathogenic protozoa (including Tetrahymena) engulf Salmonella and then exacerbate its virulence in cattle, but the mechanistic details of the phenomenon are not fully understood. GPCRs were investigated since these receptors facilitate phagocytosis of particulates byTetrahymena, and a GPCR apparently modulates bacterial engulfment for the pathogenic protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. A database search identified three putative Tetrahymena GPCRs, based on sequence homologies and ...


A Comparison Of Who Guidelines Issued In 1997 And 2009 For Dengue Fever - Single Centre Experience., Munawar Khursheed, Uzma R. Khan, Kiran Ejaz, Jabeen Fayyaz, Irum Qamar, J. Razzak 2013 Aga Khan University

A Comparison Of Who Guidelines Issued In 1997 And 2009 For Dengue Fever - Single Centre Experience., Munawar Khursheed, Uzma R. Khan, Kiran Ejaz, Jabeen Fayyaz, Irum Qamar, J. Razzak

Department of Emergency Medicine

Objective: To compare the original (1997) and revised (2009) versions of World Health Organization guidelines for dengue patients
Methods: Adult patients with a positive dengue Immunoglobulin M serology, and a diagnosis of dengue were included in the study at Aga Khan University Hospital during a three-year period from January 2005 to December 2007. Data related to these dengue patients was collected from their medical records. Guidelines were then applied by the research assistant and correlation among these guidelines was computed. SPSS 19 was used for statistical analysis.
Results: A total of 612 patients were found with a diagnosis of dengue ...


Why Are There Delays In Seeking Treatment For Childhood Diarrhoea In India?, Nisha Malhotra 2013 University of British Columbia

Why Are There Delays In Seeking Treatment For Childhood Diarrhoea In India?, Nisha Malhotra

Nisha Malhotra

Abstract Aim To examine the barriers and facilitating factors for seeking treatment for childhood diarrhoea and to determine the main causes for delay in seeking treatment.

Methods Data from Indian Demographic and Health survey 2005–06 (NFHS-III) was used. Mothers were asked if their children (<5-years) had suffered from diarrhoea during the two weeks preceding the survey. Data were collected on the time of seeking treatment after start of the illness, and days waited to seek treatment after the diarrhoea started. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to find the determinants of seeking treatment at the health facility and the factors responsible for the “delay” in seeking advice/treatment.

Results Out of a sample of 41,287 children, 3890 (9.4%) reportedly had diarrhoea. Sixty percent of children with diarrhoea were taken to a health facility. Mother's education till higher secondary and above (OR 1.65; 95% CI, 1.08 – 2.54), richest (OR 1.76; 95% CI, 1.24 – 2.48) wealth ...


Microproteinuria During Opisthorchis Viverrini Infection: A Biomarker For Advanced Renal And Hepatobiliary Pathologies From Chronic Opisthorchiasis, Prasert Saichua, Paiboon Sithithaworn, Amar R. Jariwala, David J. Diemert, Jiraporn Sithithaworn, Banchob Sripa, Thewarach Laha, Eimorn Mairiang, Chawalit Pairojkul, Maria V. Periago, Narong Khuntikeo, Jason Mulvenna, Jeffrey M. Bethony 2013 Khon Kaen University School of Medicine, Khon Kaen, Thailand

Microproteinuria During Opisthorchis Viverrini Infection: A Biomarker For Advanced Renal And Hepatobiliary Pathologies From Chronic Opisthorchiasis, Prasert Saichua, Paiboon Sithithaworn, Amar R. Jariwala, David J. Diemert, Jiraporn Sithithaworn, Banchob Sripa, Thewarach Laha, Eimorn Mairiang, Chawalit Pairojkul, Maria V. Periago, Narong Khuntikeo, Jason Mulvenna, Jeffrey M. Bethony

Microbiology, Immunology, and Tropical Medicine Faculty Publications

Approximately 680 million people are at risk of infection with Opisthorchis viverrini (OV) andClonorchis sinensis, with an estimated 10 million infected with OV in Southeast Asia alone. While opisthorchiasis is associated with hepatobiliary pathologies, such as advanced periductal fibrosis (APF) and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), animal models of OV infection show that immune-complex glomerulonephritis is an important renal pathology that develops simultaneously with hepatobiliary pathologies. A cardinal sign of immune-complex glomerulonephritis is the urinary excretion of immunoglobulin G (IgG) (microproteinuria). In community-based studies in OV endemic areas along the Chi River in northeastern Thailand, we observed that over half of the ...


Expanding Access To Malaria Diagnosis Through Retail Shops In Western Kenya: What Do Shop Workers Think?, Andria Rusk, Catherine Goodman, Violet Naanyu, Beatrice Koech, Andrew Obala, Wendy Prudhomme O'Meara 2013 Duke Global Health Institute

Expanding Access To Malaria Diagnosis Through Retail Shops In Western Kenya: What Do Shop Workers Think?, Andria Rusk, Catherine Goodman, Violet Naanyu, Beatrice Koech, Andrew Obala, Wendy Prudhomme O'Meara

Collected Faculty and Staff Scholarship

Background. The common symptoms of malaria reduce the specificity of clinical diagnosis. Presumptive treatment is conventional but can lead to overdiagnosis of malaria, delay of appropriate treatment, overprescription of antimalarials, and drug resistance. Routine use of diagnostic tests can address many of these concerns. Though treatment is often procured from retailers, there is low availability of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (MRDTs), a simple, inexpensive, and accurate diagnostic solution. We know little about the challenges to expanding access to diagnostics through these outlets. Methods. To understand the perceptions of the benefits and challenges to selling rapid diagnostic tests for malaria ...


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