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Intense Physical Activity Is Associated With Cognitive Performance In The Elderly, Belinda M. Brown, John Peiffer, Hamid R. Sohrabi, Alinda Mondal, Veer B. A. Gupta, Stephanie R. Rainey-Smith, Kevin Taddei, Samantha C. Burnham, Kathryn A. Ellis, Cassandra Szoeke, Colin L. Masters, David Ames, Christopher C. Rowe, Ralph N. Martins 2012 Australian Catholic University

Intense Physical Activity Is Associated With Cognitive Performance In The Elderly, Belinda M. Brown, John Peiffer, Hamid R. Sohrabi, Alinda Mondal, Veer B. A. Gupta, Stephanie R. Rainey-Smith, Kevin Taddei, Samantha C. Burnham, Kathryn A. Ellis, Cassandra Szoeke, Colin L. Masters, David Ames, Christopher C. Rowe, Ralph N. Martins

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Numerous studies have reported positive impacts of physical activity on cognitive function. However, the majority of these studies have utilised physical activity questionnaires or surveys, thus results may have been influenced by reporting biases. Through the objective measurement of routine levels of physical activity via actigraphy, we report a significant association between intensity, but not volume, of physical activity and cognitive functioning. A cohort of 217 participants (aged 60–89 years) wore an actigraphy unit for 7 consecutive days and underwent comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. The cohort was stratified into tertiles based on physical activity intensity. Compared with individuals in the ...


Notch Regulation Of Adam12 Expression In Glioblastoma Multiforme, Ala'a S. Alsyaideh 2012 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Notch Regulation Of Adam12 Expression In Glioblastoma Multiforme, Ala'a S. Alsyaideh

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

Glioblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor, accounting for 17% of all primary brain tumors in the United States. Despite the available surgical, radiation, and chemical therapeutic options, the invasive and infiltrative nature of the tumor render current treatment options minimally effective. Recent reports have identified multiple regulators of glioblastoma progression and invasiveness. It has been demonstrated that ADAM12, A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase encoded by ADAM12 gene, is over-expressed in glioblastoma and directly correlated with tumor proliferation. Additionally, dysregulation of the Notch signaling pathway has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many gliomas. Lastly, an evolving role of microRNAs ...


Bi-Lateral Changes To Hippocampal Cholesterol Levels During Epileptogenesis And In Chronic Epilepsy Following Focal-Onset Status Epilepticus In Mice, Steve Meaney, Maura Heverin, Tobias Engel, Eva Jimenez-Mateosa, Reza Al-Aaudia, David Henshall 2012 Dublin Institute of Technology

Bi-Lateral Changes To Hippocampal Cholesterol Levels During Epileptogenesis And In Chronic Epilepsy Following Focal-Onset Status Epilepticus In Mice, Steve Meaney, Maura Heverin, Tobias Engel, Eva Jimenez-Mateosa, Reza Al-Aaudia, David Henshall

Articles

Brain cholesterol homeostasis has been shown to be disrupted in neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases. Investigations in animal models of seizure-induced brain injury suggest that brain cholesterol levels are altered by prolonged seizures (status epilepticus) and are a feature of the pathophysiology of temporal lobe epilepsy. The present study measured hippocampal sterol levels in a model of unilateral hippocampal injury triggered by focal-onset status epilepticus, and in chronically epileptic mice. Status epilepticus was induced by intra-amygdala microinjection of kainic acid and ipsilateral and contralateral hippocampus analyzed. No significant changes were found for ipsilateral or contralateral ...


Investigating The Impact Of Cd147 And Its Expression On Neurodegenaration And Alzheimer's Disease (Ad), Limbikani J. Kanyenda 2012 Edith Cowan University

Investigating The Impact Of Cd147 And Its Expression On Neurodegenaration And Alzheimer's Disease (Ad), Limbikani J. Kanyenda

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

CD147, also known as basigin, extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, neurothelin, tumour cell-derived collagenase stimulatory factor, M6, HT7, OX47 or gp42, is a transmembrane glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin super-family. It is expressed in many neuronal and non-neuronal tissues with high expression in the hippocampus, pre-frontal cortex, thyroid, heart, early erythroid, amygdala and placenta. This protein is involved in various cellular and biological functions such as lymphocyte migration and maturation, tissue repair, cancer progression, T and B lymphocyte activation and induction of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase. The CD147 protein interacts with with cyclophilin A, cyclophilin B, sterol carrier protein, caveolin-1 and integrins, and ...


Triterpenoid Modulation Of Il-17 And Nrf-2 Expression Ameliorates Neuroinflammation And Promotes Remyelination In Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis, Tej K. Pareek, Abdelmadjid Belkadi, Sashi Kesavapany, Anita Zaremba, Sook L. Loh, Lianhua Bai, Mark L. Cohen, Colin Meyer, Karen T. Liby, Robert H. Miller, Michael B. Sporn, John J. Letterio 2011 Case Western Reserve University

Triterpenoid Modulation Of Il-17 And Nrf-2 Expression Ameliorates Neuroinflammation And Promotes Remyelination In Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis, Tej K. Pareek, Abdelmadjid Belkadi, Sashi Kesavapany, Anita Zaremba, Sook L. Loh, Lianhua Bai, Mark L. Cohen, Colin Meyer, Karen T. Liby, Robert H. Miller, Michael B. Sporn, John J. Letterio

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Inflammatory cytokines and endogenous anti-oxidants are variables affecting disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). Here we demonstrate the dual capacity of triterpenoids to simultaneously repress production of IL-17 and other pro-inflammatory mediators while exerting neuroprotective effects directly through Nrf2-dependent induction of anti-oxidant genes. Derivatives of the natural triterpene oleanolic acid, namely CDDO-trifluoroethyl-amide (CDDO-TFEA), completely suppressed disease in a murine model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), by inhibiting Th1 and Th17 mRNA and cytokine production. Encephalitogenic T cells recovered from treated mice were hypo-responsive to myelin antigen and failed to adoptively transfer the disease. Microarray analyses showed significant suppression of ...


Role Of The Gcn5 Histone Acetyltransferase In Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 7 And In Immature Neurons, Yi Chun Chen 2011 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Role Of The Gcn5 Histone Acetyltransferase In Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 7 And In Immature Neurons, Yi Chun Chen

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Spinocerebellar Ataxia type 7 (SCA7) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by expansion of a CAG repeat encoding a polyglutamine tract in ATXN7, a component of the SAGA histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complex. Previous studies provided conflicting evidence regarding the effects of polyQ-ATXN7 on the activity of Gcn5, the HAT catalytic subunit of SAGA. Here I showed that reducing Gcn5 expression accelerates both cerebellar and retinal degeneration in a mouse model of SCA7. Deletion of Gcn5 in Purkinje cells in mice expressing wild type Atxn7, however, causes only mild ataxia and does not lead to the early lethality observed in SCA7 mice ...


Multiple Sclerosis Is Not A Disease Of The Immune System, Angelique Corthals 2011 CUNY John Jay College

Multiple Sclerosis Is Not A Disease Of The Immune System, Angelique Corthals

Publications and Research

Multiple sclerosis is a complex neurodegenerative disease, thought to arise through autoimmunity against antigens of the central nervous system. The autoimmunity hypothesis fails to explain why genetic and environmental risk factors linked to the disease in one population tend to be unimportant in other populations. Despite great advances in documenting the cell and molecular mechanisms underlying MS pathophysiology, the autoimmunity framework has also been unable to develop a comprehensive explanation of the etiology of the disease. I propose a new framework for understanding MS as a dysfunction of the metabolism of lipids. Specifically, the homeostasis of lipid metabolism collapses during ...


Exploring The Role Of The Solvent In The Denaturation Of A Protein: A Molecular Dynamics Study Of The Dna Binding Domain Of The 434 Repressor, Celia Schiffer, Volker Dötsch, Kurt Wuthrich, Wilfred van Gunsteren 2011 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Exploring The Role Of The Solvent In The Denaturation Of A Protein: A Molecular Dynamics Study Of The Dna Binding Domain Of The 434 Repressor, Celia Schiffer, Volker Dötsch, Kurt Wuthrich, Wilfred Van Gunsteren

Celia A. Schiffer

Molecular dynamics simulations of the DNA binding domain of 434 repressor are presented which aim at unraveling the role of solvent in protein denaturation. Four altered solvent models, each mimicking various possible aspects of the addition of a denaturant to the aqueous solvent, were used in the simulations to analyze their effects on the stability of the protein. The solvent was altered by selectively changing the Coulombic interaction between water and protein atoms and between different water molecules. The use of a modified solvent model has the advantage of mimicking the presence of denaturant without having denaturant molecules present in ...


Understanding Sleep Patterns In The Brazilian Community In Lowell, Ma: Perspectives From Community Health Workers And Healthcare Consumers, Geoffry Phillips McEnany, Eduardo Siqueira, Elisa Garibaldi, Linda Foley 2011 University of Massachusetts - Lowell

Understanding Sleep Patterns In The Brazilian Community In Lowell, Ma: Perspectives From Community Health Workers And Healthcare Consumers, Geoffry Phillips Mcenany, Eduardo Siqueira, Elisa Garibaldi, Linda Foley

Community Engagement and Research Symposia

Introduction

The purpose of this study was to collect pilot data on the sleep and medical/psychiatric health of immigrants from the Brazilian community in Lowell, Massachusetts. Studies on Brazilian immigrants are rare in the United States.

The first objective was to seek information related to sleep, sleep dysregulation and medical/psychiatric health from consumers of healthcare services within the Brazilian immigrant community in Lowell. The second objective was to solicit information from Brazilian community lay health workers (Promotoras) regarding their impressions of factors related to sleep dysregulation with members of the Brazilian immigrant community in Lowell. Both groups participated ...


Developing An Operational Definition Of Intellectual Disability For The Purpose Of National Health Surveillance, Alexandra Bonardi, Emily Lauer 2011 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Developing An Operational Definition Of Intellectual Disability For The Purpose Of National Health Surveillance, Alexandra Bonardi, Emily Lauer

Commonwealth Medicine Publications

This report summarizes recommendations that were developed to establish a more consistent approach to operationalizing the case definition for the purpose of public health surveillance among adults with intellectual disability in the United States. The approach included consideration of well established conceptual definitions, such as in the International Classification of Disability, Health, and Function (ICF), and the most recent version of the definition established by the American Association on Intellectual Disability (AAIDD). Additionally, the definitions used in current national and state level major data collection efforts, as well as those used in targeted research studies were considered, with a recognition ...


A Brain-Derived Mecp2 Complex Supports A Role For Mecp2 In Rna Processing, Steven W. Long, Jenny Y. Y. Ooi, Peter M. Yau, Peter L. Jones 2011 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

A Brain-Derived Mecp2 Complex Supports A Role For Mecp2 In Rna Processing, Steven W. Long, Jenny Y. Y. Ooi, Peter M. Yau, Peter L. Jones

Peter Jones Lab Publications

Mutations in MECP2 (methyl-CpG-binding protein 2) are linked to the severe postnatal neurodevelopmental disorder RTT (Rett syndrome). MeCP2 was originally characterized as a transcriptional repressor that preferentially bound methylated DNA; however, recent results indicate MeCP2 is a multifunctional protein. MeCP2 binding is now associated with certain expressed genes and involved in nuclear organization as well, indicating that its gene regulatory function is context-dependent. In addition, MeCP2 is proposed to regulate mRNA splicing and a mouse model for RTT shows aberrant mRNA splicing. To further understand MeCP2 and potential roles in RTT pathogenesis, we have employed a biochemical approach to identify ...


The Role Of Sonic Hedgehog In The Hypothalamus, Solsire E. Zevallos 2011 University of Pennsylvania

The Role Of Sonic Hedgehog In The Hypothalamus, Solsire E. Zevallos

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

ABSTRACT

THE REQUIREMENT OF SONIC HEDGEHOG IN THE HYPOTHALAMUS

Solsire E. Zevallos

Douglas J. Epstein

Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is a morphogen secreted during early development that is required for the formation of the ventral neural tube, including the ventral forebrain. The prechordal source of Shh underlying the forebrain is required early to bifurcate the cerebral hemispheres and eye vesicles as well as to specify a rostroventral forebrain region, the hypothalamus. We hypothesized that Shh expressed later in the hypothalamus may be required for other known functions of Shh, such as patterning within a region, cell proliferation, cell specification, and axon ...


Upregulation Of Reactive Oxygen Species During The Retrovirus Life Cycle And Their Roles In A Mutant Of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus, Ts1-Mediated Neurodegeneration, SOO JIN KIM 2011 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Upregulation Of Reactive Oxygen Species During The Retrovirus Life Cycle And Their Roles In A Mutant Of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus, Ts1-Mediated Neurodegeneration, Soo Jin Kim

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Viral invasion of the central nervous system (CNS) and development of neurological symptoms is a characteristic of many retroviruses. The mechanism by which retrovirus infection causes neurological dysfunction has yet to be fully elucidated. Given the complexity of the retrovirus-mediated neuropathogenesis, studies using small animal models are extremely valuable. Our laboratory has used a mutant moloney murine leukemia retrovirus, ts1-mediated neurodegneration. We hypothesize that astrocytes play an important role in ts1-induced neurodegeneration since they are retroviral reservoirs and supporting cells for neurons. It has been shown that ts1 is able to infect astrocytes in vivo and in ...


Temporal Uncoupling Of The Dna Methylome And Transcriptional Repression During Embryogenesis, Ozren Bogdanovic, Steven W. Long, Simon J. van Heeringen, Arie B. Brinkman, Jose Luis Gomez-Skarmeta, Hendrik G. Stunnenberg, Peter L. Jones, Gert Jan C. Veenstra 2011 Radboud University Nijmegen

Temporal Uncoupling Of The Dna Methylome And Transcriptional Repression During Embryogenesis, Ozren Bogdanovic, Steven W. Long, Simon J. Van Heeringen, Arie B. Brinkman, Jose Luis Gomez-Skarmeta, Hendrik G. Stunnenberg, Peter L. Jones, Gert Jan C. Veenstra

Peter Jones Lab Publications

DNA methylation is a tightly regulated epigenetic mark associated with transcriptional repression. Next-generation sequencing of purified methylated DNA obtained from early Xenopus tropicalis embryos demonstrates that this genome is heavily methylated during blastula and gastrula stages. Although DNA methylation is largely absent from transcriptional start sites marked with histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3), we find both promoters and gene bodies of active genes robustly methylated. In contrast, DNA methylation is absent in large H3K27me3 domains, indicating that these two repression pathways have different roles. Comparison with chromatin state maps of human ES cells reveals strong conservation of epigenetic makeup ...


Mechanics Of Living, Squishy Materials, Alan Crosby 2011 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Mechanics Of Living, Squishy Materials, Alan Crosby

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Living materials respond to stresses, or forces, surrounding them. If we aim to promote the growth of healthy tissue, such as in the field of tissue engineering, or limit the growth of unwanted tissue, e.g. cancerous tumors, we must understand the stresses that these tissues experience as they grow and live. How do we measure the elastic modulus of a living material? We will discuss a novel measurement technique that we developed, called cavitation rheology, which can quantitatively measure the mechanical environment of soft tissues from sub-cellular to multi-cellular length scales at arbitrary locations. We are particularly interested in ...


Assessment Of Olfactory Processing In Parkinson’S Disease Patients, Mary Linton Peters, Jacob Kleinman, Wei Huang, Keith A. Cauley, Paula D. Ravin, Peter Novak, Ali Bourisly, Jean A. King, Julie G. Pilitsis 2011 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Assessment Of Olfactory Processing In Parkinson’S Disease Patients, Mary Linton Peters, Jacob Kleinman, Wei Huang, Keith A. Cauley, Paula D. Ravin, Peter Novak, Ali Bourisly, Jean A. King, Julie G. Pilitsis

Senior Scholars Program

Background: Hyposmia is an early symptom of Parkinson’s Disease (PD) that often predates motor symptoms by years. Hyposmia has been shown to have a more consistent link to idiopathic PD than to other movement disorders. Olfaction has the potential to be used as a biomarker for PD, either through clinical evaluation or imaging.

Objectives: This study uses functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess differences in olfaction pathways between anosmic early PD patients and age and gender-matched controls.

Methods: 12 PD patients and 12 age- and gender-matched control subjects were recruited from the subject panel of a previous UMMS ...


Characterization Of Amino Acid Residues Integral To Neuronal Binding Of Amyloid Beta Protein In Alzheimer’S Disease, Nicole C. Olson 2011 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Characterization Of Amino Acid Residues Integral To Neuronal Binding Of Amyloid Beta Protein In Alzheimer’S Disease, Nicole C. Olson

Chemistry and Biochemistry

Purpose: Alzheimer’s Disease is a neurodegenerative disease resulting from over-production and neuronal accumulation of amyloid-beta proteins (Aβ40/Aβ42). The glycine residue at position 33 and histidine residues at positions 13 and 14 are involved with binding and internalization of these proteins, actions potentially inhibited by substituting or sterically hindering these residues with an antibody specific to positions 2-11 (IgG-4.1). Rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells differentiated with nerve growth factor were used as a neuronal model to determine whether substitution and/or antibody block amyloid-beta’s neuronal interactions.

Methods: PC12 cells were incubated with fluorescein-labeled-amyloid-beta-40 (F-Aβ40) or substituted F-Aβ40 derivatives ...


Can We Stop The Stroke Epidemic In Pakistan?, Ismail A. Khatri, Mohammad Wasay 2011 Shifa International Hospital

Can We Stop The Stroke Epidemic In Pakistan?, Ismail A. Khatri, Mohammad Wasay

Department of Medicine

No abstract provided.


Establishment Of Clonal Myogenic Cell Lines From Severely Affected Dystrophic Muscles - Cdk4 Maintains The Myogenic Population, Guido Stadler, Jennifer Cj Chen, Kathryn Wagner, Jerome D. Robin, Jerry W. Shay, Charles P. Emerson, Jr., Woodring E. Wright 2011 UT Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas

Establishment Of Clonal Myogenic Cell Lines From Severely Affected Dystrophic Muscles - Cdk4 Maintains The Myogenic Population, Guido Stadler, Jennifer Cj Chen, Kathryn Wagner, Jerome D. Robin, Jerry W. Shay, Charles P. Emerson, Jr., Woodring E. Wright

Wellstone Center for FSHD Publications

BACKGROUND: A hallmark of muscular dystrophies is the replacement of muscle by connective tissue. Muscle biopsies from patients severely affected with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) may contain few myogenic cells. Because the chromosomal contraction at 4q35 linked to FSHD is thought to cause a defect within myogenic cells, it is important to study this particular cell type, rather than the fibroblasts and adipocytes of the endomysial fibrosis, to understand the mechanism leading to myopathy.

RESULTS: We present a protocol to establish clonal myogenic cell lines from even severely dystrophic muscle that has been replaced mostly by fat, using overexpression of ...


Does Inorganic Mercury Play A Role In Alzheimer's Disease? A Systematic Review And An Integrated Molecular Mechanism, Joachim Mutter, Annika Curth, Johannes Naumann, Richard Deth, Harald Walach 2011 Department of Environmental and Integrative Medicine - Constance Germany

Does Inorganic Mercury Play A Role In Alzheimer's Disease? A Systematic Review And An Integrated Molecular Mechanism, Joachim Mutter, Annika Curth, Johannes Naumann, Richard Deth, Harald Walach

Richard Deth

Mercury is one of the most toxic substances known to humans. It has been introduced into the human environment and has also been widely used in medicine. Since circumstantial evidence exists that the pathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) might be in part caused or exacerbated by inorganic mercury, we conducted a systematic review using a comprehensive search strategy. Studies were screened according to a predefined protocol. Two reviewers extracted relevant data independent of each other. One thousand and forty one references were scrutinized, and 106 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Most studies were case control or comparative cohort studies ...


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