Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Nervous System Diseases Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

616 Full-Text Articles 1735 Authors 66888 Downloads 90 Institutions

All Articles in Nervous System Diseases

Faceted Search

616 full-text articles. Page 2 of 27.

Variable Knowledge, Use And Perceptions Of The Impact Model Among Physicians During Prognostication Meetings For Critically-Ill Traumatic Brain Injury Patients – Results From A Qualitative Study, Jesse Moskowitz, Thomas Quinn, Muhammad Khan, Lori Shutter, Robert J. Goldberg, Nananda Col, Kathleen M. Mazor, Susanne Muehlschlegel 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Variable Knowledge, Use And Perceptions Of The Impact Model Among Physicians During Prognostication Meetings For Critically-Ill Traumatic Brain Injury Patients – Results From A Qualitative Study, Jesse Moskowitz, Thomas Quinn, Muhammad Khan, Lori Shutter, Robert J. Goldberg, Nananda Col, Kathleen M. Mazor, Susanne Muehlschlegel

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Introduction: The International Patient Decision Aid Standards, a framework for the creation of high-quality decision aids, calls for the presentation of probabilities. To inform the content of a goals-of-care decision aid in critically-ill TBI (ciTBI) patients, we examined physician’s awareness, perceptions, and use of the IMPACT-model, the most widely validated ciTBI outcome model, and explored their preferences for communicating prognostic information towards families.

Methods: We conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews in 20 attending physicians (neurocritical care, neurosurgery, trauma, palliative care) at 7 U.S. academic medical centers. We used descriptive statistics and performed qualitative content analysis of ...


Clot Characterization In Acute Ischemic Stroke, Joshua Litchman, Juyu Chueh, Rose Arslanian, Srinivasan Vedantham, Sarena Carniato, David E. Rex, Mary Howk, Matthew J. Gounis, Ajit S. Puri 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Clot Characterization In Acute Ischemic Stroke, Joshua Litchman, Juyu Chueh, Rose Arslanian, Srinivasan Vedantham, Sarena Carniato, David E. Rex, Mary Howk, Matthew J. Gounis, Ajit S. Puri

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Background: In the treatment of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) with mechanical thrombectomy, revascularization depends upon integration of the thrombus into the retrieval device. The histologic and mechanical characteristics of thrombi are key determinants of effective thrombus-device interaction. Thrombi with greater calcium and fibrin content have been associated with more challenging thrombus retrievals.

Objective: To develop thrombus analogs with histologic and mechanical characteristics similar to those of challenging clinical thrombi for thrombectomy device testing.

Methods: Fifty thrombi were retrieved from twenty-nine patients with AIS. Clinical thrombi underwent histologic analysis to determine erythrocyte and fibrin content. Nine clinical thrombi underwent dynamic mechanical ...


Macroglossia In Inclusion Body Myositis, Jatinder S. Patti, Kate Daniello, Lan Qin 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Macroglossia In Inclusion Body Myositis, Jatinder S. Patti, Kate Daniello, Lan Qin

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

OBJECTIVE: Discussion of a case of Inclusion body myositis (IBM) associated with macroglossia.

INTRODUCTION: IBM is one of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Exact pathogenesis is unclear but there is an evidence of dysregulation of antigen driven immune response involving T cells. Typical onset is slowly progressive impacting quadriceps often more than hip flexors, ankle dorsiflexors and distal forearm flexor muscles. Swallowing difficulties often are present and mild facial weakness can be seen. Macroglossia has never been reported in association with IBM. In fact inflammatory myopathies of tongue are a rarity.

DESIGN: A case report of a 68 year old woman ...


Dermatomyositis As Paraneoplastic Manifestation Of Tonsillar Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Jatinder S. Patti, Kate Daniello, Lan Qin 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Dermatomyositis As Paraneoplastic Manifestation Of Tonsillar Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Jatinder S. Patti, Kate Daniello, Lan Qin

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

OBJECTIVE: Discussion of a rare case of dermatomyositis associated with tonsillar neoplasm in an African American woman.

BACKGROUND: Dermatomyositis is a syndrome of inflamatory myopathy with multiorgan manifestations which has been linked to immune dysregulation and neoplasia.

INTRODUCTION: Many studies have shown five to seven fold increased risk of developing malignancy with dermatomyositis within two years of presentation. Most common cancers reported are adenocarcinomas of lung, breast, ovaries, stomach, pancreas and bladder. Dermatomyositis as a paraneoplastic manifestation of tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma has not previously been described.

DESIGN: This is a case report of a 52 year old woman who ...


“Can’T You Just Say?” – Contrasting Communication Preferences Between Surrogate Decision-Makers And Physicians During Outcome Prognostication In Critically-Ill Traumatic Brain Injury Patients, Thomas Quinn, Jesse Moskowitz, Muhammad Khan, Lori Shutter, Robert J. Goldberg, Nananda Col, Kathleen M. Mazor, Susanne Muehlschlegel 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

“Can’T You Just Say?” – Contrasting Communication Preferences Between Surrogate Decision-Makers And Physicians During Outcome Prognostication In Critically-Ill Traumatic Brain Injury Patients, Thomas Quinn, Jesse Moskowitz, Muhammad Khan, Lori Shutter, Robert J. Goldberg, Nananda Col, Kathleen M. Mazor, Susanne Muehlschlegel

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Objective: Surrogate decision-makers (“surrogates”) and physicians of incapacitated patients have different views of prognosis and how it should be communicated, but this has not been investigated in neurocritically-ill patients. We examined communication preferences in surrogates and physician practices during the outcome prognostication for critically-ill traumatic brain injury (ciTBI) patients in neuroICUs.

Design: Qualitative study using in-person semi-structured interviews with surrogates of ciTBI patients and physicians with expertise in TBI.

Setting: Two neuroICUs at two level-1 trauma centers (surrogates); seven academic U.S. medical centers (physicians).

Subjects: Sixteen surrogates for 15 ciTBI patients and 20 attending physicians from neurocritical care, neurosurgery ...


Music: A Key For Unlocking Locked-In Syndrome And Improving The Quality Of Life For Those With Neurodegenerative Diseases, Heidi Hanekamp 2017 University of Wyoming

Music: A Key For Unlocking Locked-In Syndrome And Improving The Quality Of Life For Those With Neurodegenerative Diseases, Heidi Hanekamp

Honors Theses AY 16/17

Neurodegenerative diseases involve the gradual loss of neuronal functioning over time; such diseases include Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Huntington’s disease. The cause of these disorders is often idiopathic and treatment options are limited. Certain progressions of these diseases may lead to Locked-in-Syndrome, where an individual is aware of their environment but unable to communicate due to paralysis. The impact from these disorders often leads to further comorbidities and an overall lower quality of life. This paper addresses scientific literature on the effects of music on the brain and how music ...


A Mathematical Model Of Remyelination In Multiple Sclerosis, Matthew J. McGuinness 2017 College of William and Mary

A Mathematical Model Of Remyelination In Multiple Sclerosis, Matthew J. Mcguinness

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This project presents a mathematical model of the biochemical pathways involved in remyelination during multiple sclerosis. The model examines several major factors involved in remyelination and their expression over a course of time. This model also highlights processes which are targets for pharmaceutical treatment improving remyelination. The treatments examined include current treatments, drugs being examined for clinical trial, and theoretical treatments. Construction of the model is rooted in Biochemical Systems Theory (BST), which has been successfully applied in the past to examine the biochemistry of neurodegenerative disease. The model uses MATLAB as a means of coding the biochemical pathways into ...


Trunk And Respiratory Motor Control In Typically Developing Children And Its Implications In Children With Chronic Spinal Cord Injury., Goutam Singh 2017 University of Louisville

Trunk And Respiratory Motor Control In Typically Developing Children And Its Implications In Children With Chronic Spinal Cord Injury., Goutam Singh

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Independent sitting is a major milestone and is also a prerequisite for optimal performance of activities of daily living (ADLs). Development of sitting posture control is a dynamic process involving control of degrees of freedom of head and trunk. Traditionally, trunk has been modeled as a single unit (segment). However, recent studies have suggested that it is made up multiple spinal units, controlled by a combination of trunk muscles. During typical development, posture control of trunk is different for different trunk segments. This motor development of trunk control is a complex process due to constant interaction between the nervous system ...


Allele-Selective Suppression Of Mutant Huntingtin In Primary Human Blood Cells, James R. C. Miller, Edith L. Pfister, Wanzhao Liu, Ralph Andre, Ulrike Trager, Lori A. Kennington, Kimberly Lo, Sipke Dijkstra, Douglas Macdonald, Gary R. Ostroff, Neil Aronin, Sarah J. Tabrizi 2017 University College London

Allele-Selective Suppression Of Mutant Huntingtin In Primary Human Blood Cells, James R. C. Miller, Edith L. Pfister, Wanzhao Liu, Ralph Andre, Ulrike Trager, Lori A. Kennington, Kimberly Lo, Sipke Dijkstra, Douglas Macdonald, Gary R. Ostroff, Neil Aronin, Sarah J. Tabrizi

Open Access Articles

Post-transcriptional gene silencing is a promising therapy for the monogenic, autosomal dominant, Huntington's disease (HD). However, wild-type huntingtin (HTT) has important cellular functions, so the ideal strategy would selectively lower mutant HTT while sparing wild-type. HD patients were genotyped for heterozygosity at three SNP sites, before phasing each SNP allele to wild-type or mutant HTT. Primary ex vivo myeloid cells were isolated from heterozygous patients and transfected with SNP-targeted siRNA, using glucan particles taken up by phagocytosis. Highly selective mRNA knockdown was achieved when targeting each allele of rs362331 in exon 50 of the HTT transcript; this selectivity was ...


Accessing Healthfulness Through Intrapersonal Communication: The Correlations Between Health Locus Of Control And Health Outcomes Behaviors, And Perceptions, Laura S. Gavin-Breier 2017 Olivet Nazarene University

Accessing Healthfulness Through Intrapersonal Communication: The Correlations Between Health Locus Of Control And Health Outcomes Behaviors, And Perceptions, Laura S. Gavin-Breier

Scholar Week 2016 - present

No abstract provided.


Fully Automated Assessment Of The Severity Of Parkinson's Disease From Speech, Alireza Bayestehtashk, Meysam Asgari, Izhak Shafran, James McNames 2017 Oregon Health & Science University

Fully Automated Assessment Of The Severity Of Parkinson's Disease From Speech, Alireza Bayestehtashk, Meysam Asgari, Izhak Shafran, James Mcnames

James McNames

For several decades now, there has been sporadic interest in automatically characterizing the speech impairment due to Parkinson's disease (PD). Most early studies were confined to quantifying a few speech features that were easy to compute. More recent studies have adopted a machine learning approach where a large number of potential features are extracted and the models are learned automatically from the data. In the same vein, here we characterize the disease using a relatively large cohort of 168 subjects, collected from multiple (three) clinics. We elicited speech using three tasks – the sustained phonation task, the diadochokinetic task and ...


Cerebral Lactate Metabolism And Memory: Implications For Alzheimer's Disease, Richard Andrew Harris 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Cerebral Lactate Metabolism And Memory: Implications For Alzheimer's Disease, Richard Andrew Harris

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by amyloid plaques that are comprised of aggregated amyloid-beta peptides. These toxic proteins promote mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal cell death. A shift in metabolism away from oxidative phosphorylation and toward aerobic glycolysis, with the concomitant production of lactate, affords neurons a survival advantage against amyloid-beta toxicity. Recent evidence now suggests that aerobic glycolysis in the brain plays a critical role in supporting synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. However, the role of aerobic glycolysis and lactate metabolism in AD-mediated cognitive decline is unknown. My objective was to test the hypotheses that aerobic ...


Repetitive Finger Movement In Parkinson's Patients, Lindsay Ebeling, Amos Kotz, Abby Crimmins, Abby Crimmins 2017 Iowa State University

Repetitive Finger Movement In Parkinson's Patients, Lindsay Ebeling, Amos Kotz, Abby Crimmins, Abby Crimmins

Symposium on Undergraduate Research and Creative Expression

People with parkinson's disease demonstrate impairments in repetitive movement. Previous research has revealed that impairments in repetitive finger movement emerge at rates above 2 Hz. There remains a need to understand this impairment in a large population of people with parkinson's and how this impairment changes with disease progression. Participants completed a repetitive finger movement task in time with a tone paced from 1-3 Hz. Position of the index finger was collected. Results showed that in a large population of people with parkinson's disease, the impairment was present in 60% of the participants and remained present one ...


The Influence Of Parkinson's Disease Symptoms On Repetitive Toe Tapping At High And Low Frequencies., Alexandra Jeppesen, Callan Barrick, Alexa Badding, Thomas Berta 2017 Iowa State University

The Influence Of Parkinson's Disease Symptoms On Repetitive Toe Tapping At High And Low Frequencies., Alexandra Jeppesen, Callan Barrick, Alexa Badding, Thomas Berta

Symposium on Undergraduate Research and Creative Expression

People with Parkinson's Disease have impairments in repetitive movement. However, no one has quantified repetitive toe-tapping performance at different rates in persons with PD. Position of the toe and EMG of the tibialias anterior and gastrocnemius were collected while participants tapped at 70 beats per minute and 140 beats per minute. Results revealed that participants had greater impairment at the higher rate. The results of this data will inform future studies on the impact of impairments in repetitive movements on larger motor tasks such as gait.


The Effects Of Acoustic Environment On The Gait Of Healthy Young Adults, Stephanie Masek, Andrew Deiter 2017 Iowa State University

The Effects Of Acoustic Environment On The Gait Of Healthy Young Adults, Stephanie Masek, Andrew Deiter

Symposium on Undergraduate Research and Creative Expression

This study examined how an individual's gait was affected by their acoustic environment. Participants were instructed to walk at a normal pace while listening to either a steady beat or a song of their choice, or in silence. A computer program called Pitch Switch was used to match the tempo of both the metronome and music to the participant's preferred walking speed, so that the pace of walking was always set by the participant. A number of physical parameters were measured with a Gait Rite system in all three acoustical conditions. These measurements included stride length and step ...


The Use Of Rhyme, Rhythm, And Melody As A Form Of Repetition Priming To Aid In Encoding, Storage, And Retrieval Of Semantic Memories In Alzheimer’S Patients, Faiz Plastikwala 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University

The Use Of Rhyme, Rhythm, And Melody As A Form Of Repetition Priming To Aid In Encoding, Storage, And Retrieval Of Semantic Memories In Alzheimer’S Patients, Faiz Plastikwala

Virginias Collegiate Honors Council Conference

Treating Alzheimer’s disease, especially through non-pharmaceutical means, has become increasingly important over the past few decades. I examined the use of melody, rhyme, and rhythm as encoding mechanisms to aid in the retrieval of long term semantic information by juxtaposing previous experiments in the field. Melody, rhyme, and rhythm provide an organizational structure to facilitate the encoding of information. Specifically, chunking, the grouping of smaller units into larger ‘chunks’, helps facilitate long term encoding in patients, and is the byproduct of the organizational structure of a text. A major drawback of using these devices is the loss in the ...


Medical Resource Utilization Of Outpatient Care For Children With Neurofibromatosis Type 1, Rabia Idrees, Michael Fisher, Rachel Hachen, Brian Callaghan, Robert A. Avery 2017 George Washington University

Medical Resource Utilization Of Outpatient Care For Children With Neurofibromatosis Type 1, Rabia Idrees, Michael Fisher, Rachel Hachen, Brian Callaghan, Robert A. Avery

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Background:

Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant syndrome with manifestations affecting the central nervous system, musculoskeletal system, peripheral nervous system, and cognitive/behavioral functions. Many of these manifestations persist throughout life and require medical/surgical interventions.

The resource utilization and economic burden of caring for children with NF1 is unknown. Prior research has inherent selection bias and does not accurately reflect the incidence/resource utilization of morbidities. In order to identify which disease manifestations are in the most need of improved clinical algorithms and novel therapeutics, the frequency/type of resources utilized (i.e., diagnostic imaging and specialty ...


Differential Mrna Expression In Ectopic Germinal Centers Of Myasthenia Gravis Thymus, Manjistha Sengupta, Bi-Dar Wang, Norman H. Lee, Gary Cutter, Linda L. Kusner, Henry J. Kaminski 2017 George Washington University

Differential Mrna Expression In Ectopic Germinal Centers Of Myasthenia Gravis Thymus, Manjistha Sengupta, Bi-Dar Wang, Norman H. Lee, Gary Cutter, Linda L. Kusner, Henry J. Kaminski

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune neuromuscular disorder resulting in weakness of voluntary muscles. It is caused by antibodies directed against proteins present at the post-synaptic surface of neuromuscular junction (NMJ). A characteristic pathology of patients with early onset MG is thymic hyperplasia with ectopic germinal centers (GC). However, mechanisms that trigger and maintain thymic hyperplasia are poorly characterized.

In order to determine the central mechanisms involved in the pathology, thymus samples from MG patients were assessed by histology and grouped based on appearance of GC compared to samples without them. We assessed the differential mRNA expression profiles between the ...


Genetic Influences Of Prok2 Associated Genes Affecting Alzheimer’S Disease Outcomes, Valentina Pita Grisanti 2017 Iowa State University

Genetic Influences Of Prok2 Associated Genes Affecting Alzheimer’S Disease Outcomes, Valentina Pita Grisanti

Honors Projects and Posters

Background: Prokineticin (PROK2) is a secreted protein expressed in the small intestine. It has also been associated with protecting brain cells by stimulates neurons to produce more mitochondria. Methods: Exploratory analysis was conducted in PLINK to extract SNP’s in Chromosome 3 (location of PROK2) that are related to bioenergetics and metabolism from the ADNI data, which contains longitudinal data including demographic, cognitive, neuroimaging, and biochemical data. Afterwards, the minor allele information was obtained for each of the SNPs. Then, linear mixed modeling in SPSS 23 was done to test associations between these genes associated with PROK2 and Alzheimer’s ...


Use Of Porous Elastomer Foams To Support Long Term Three Dimensional Neuronal Cultures, Richard M. Cukelj, Elda Hegmann, Ernest Freeman, Jennifer McDonough, Robert Clements 2017 Kent State University - Kent Campus

Use Of Porous Elastomer Foams To Support Long Term Three Dimensional Neuronal Cultures, Richard M. Cukelj, Elda Hegmann, Ernest Freeman, Jennifer Mcdonough, Robert Clements

Undergraduate Research Symposium

In order to effectively study the interactions that occur between neurons found in the brain, spatially and after an extended period of time, it is necessary to have reliable, repeatable studies. This is difficult to accomplish through conventional two-dimensional cell culture techniques, but three dimensional (3D) elastomer foams satisfy these criteria. Here we present a platform to study complex neuronal networks for extended periods in vitro. Elastomer foams were constructed with pore sizes ranging from 150μm to 400μm with 40μm secondary pores which allowed human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) to adhere and interact with the foam and be sustained for long ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress