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Male Determining Gene Nix May Bring An End To Transmission Of Diseases Through Mosquitoes, Mohammed Mahdi 2019 University of Southern Maine

Male Determining Gene Nix May Bring An End To Transmission Of Diseases Through Mosquitoes, Mohammed Mahdi

Thinking Matters Symposium

Female mosquitoes take blood from humans to gain protein needed to produce eggs, and in the process they can transmit viruses, such as Zika, Dengue, and chikungunya, or parasites, such as malaria. Male mosquitoes do not transmit diseases. This literature review will examine what is known about how sex is determined in mosquitoes and how this can be used to manipulate the females that spread diseases to humans. Using CRISPR Cas9, the lab of Zhijian Tu removed the Nix gene from mosquito embryos; all of these were feminized. Ectopic overexpression of Nix gene product in mosquito embryos caused even genetically ...


Headaches In Athletes, Michael Swartzon 2019 Doctors Hospital; Center for Orthopedics & Sports Medicine

Headaches In Athletes, Michael Swartzon

Michael Swartzon

No abstract provided.


Systematic Literature Review Of Quetiapine For The Treatment Of Psychosis In Patients With Parkinsonism, Jack J. Chen, Henry Hua, Lilian Massihi, Ivan Portillo, Azita Alipour, William Ondo, Khashayar Dashtipour 2019 American University of Health Sciences

Systematic Literature Review Of Quetiapine For The Treatment Of Psychosis In Patients With Parkinsonism, Jack J. Chen, Henry Hua, Lilian Massihi, Ivan Portillo, Azita Alipour, William Ondo, Khashayar Dashtipour

Library Articles and Research

Objective:

The purpose of this article was to determine the efficacy and tolerability of quetiapine compared with placebo or other interventions for psychosis in parkinsonism.

Methods:

Participants with a diagnosis of parkinsonism participated in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the efficacy and tolerability of quetiapine for psychotic symptoms within a defined follow-up period. The authors conducted searches on PubMed, Cochrane Controlled Register of Trials, and EMBASE for articles published from January 1991 to October 2017. Study methodology and patient- and treatment-level data were independently extracted and summarized by using descriptive statistics. Studies underwent quality assessment for risk of bias.

Results ...


Investigating The Role Of Free Radicals In Huntington's Disease Using Drosophila Melanogaster, Jennifer Libov 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Investigating The Role Of Free Radicals In Huntington's Disease Using Drosophila Melanogaster, Jennifer Libov

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

During normal cell metabolism, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced as a byproduct of oxidative phosphorylation. ROS are utilized in the cell as a signaling molecule and can be maintained at healthy levels by cellular antioxidants. However, when the cell experiences oxidative stress due to environmental or genetic conditions, levels of ROS can exceed healthy levels and inhibit necessary life functions by damaging biomolecules and cellular structures. This loss of function can lead to physiological decline and neurodegeneration, such as in diseases like Alzheimer’s, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and, potentially, Huntington’s disease. The following experiments use the model ...


Huntingtin Associates With The Actin Cytoskeleton And Alpha-Actinin Isoforms To Influence Stimulus Dependent Morphology Changes, Adelaide Tousley, Maria Iuliano, Elizabeth Weisman, Ellen Sapp, Heather Richardson, Petr Vodicka, Jonathan Alexander, Neil Aronin, Marian DiFiglia, Kimberly B. Kegel-Gleason 2019 Massachusetts General Hospital

Huntingtin Associates With The Actin Cytoskeleton And Alpha-Actinin Isoforms To Influence Stimulus Dependent Morphology Changes, Adelaide Tousley, Maria Iuliano, Elizabeth Weisman, Ellen Sapp, Heather Richardson, Petr Vodicka, Jonathan Alexander, Neil Aronin, Marian Difiglia, Kimberly B. Kegel-Gleason

Open Access Articles

One response of cells to growth factor stimulus involves changes in morphology driven by the actin cytoskeleton and actin associated proteins which regulate functions such as cell adhesion, motility and in neurons, synaptic plasticity. Previous studies suggest that Huntingtin may be involved in regulating morphology however, there has been limited evidence linking endogenous Huntingtin localization or function with cytoplasmic actin in cells. We found that depletion of Huntingtin in human fibroblasts reduced adhesion and altered morphology and these phenotypes were made worse with growth factor stimulation, whereas the presence of the Huntington's Disease mutation inhibited growth factor induced changes ...


Innovation And Competition In Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products, Enrique Seoane-Vazquez, Vaishali Shukla, Rosa Rodriguez-Monguio 2019 Chapman University

Innovation And Competition In Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products, Enrique Seoane-Vazquez, Vaishali Shukla, Rosa Rodriguez-Monguio

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

"Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs), including gene therapy, cell therapy, and tissue engineering products, represent a paradigm shift in health care as they have great potential for preventing and treating many diseases (Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 2013). By way of example, only 367 (8.0%) of the 4,603 rare diseases and conditions listed by the NIH Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center had at least one FDA-approved drug therapy in early 2018. An estimated 3,038 (66.0%) of those rare diseases and conditions are congenital and genetic diseases that could potentially be treated by gene therapy. There ...


Early Dexamethasone Administration In Adults With Suspected Meningitis Lowers Morbidity And Mortality, Dana Siegel 2019 Wayne State University

Early Dexamethasone Administration In Adults With Suspected Meningitis Lowers Morbidity And Mortality, Dana Siegel

Clinical Research in Practice: The Journal of Team Hippocrates

A critical appraisal and clinical application of de Gans J, van de Beek D, Investigators EDiABMS. Dexamethasone in adults with bacterial meningitis. New Eng J Med. 2002;347(20):1549-1556. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa021334.


Green Tea Extract, Epigallocatechin Gallate, Protect Against Methamphetamine-Induced Striatal Neurotoxicity In Mice, Allen L. Pan 2019 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Green Tea Extract, Epigallocatechin Gallate, Protect Against Methamphetamine-Induced Striatal Neurotoxicity In Mice, Allen L. Pan

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Methamphetamine (METH) is a strong psychostimulant and its exposure can lead to serious neurological complications. METH-induced neuronal injury is the result of a complex interplay of different factors including dopamine (DA) overflow, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Although the mechanisms of METH-induced neurotoxicity have been extensively studied, there is still no effective therapeutic treatment. Therefore, it is essential to study potential drug candidates that can treat METH-induced neurotoxicity. Green tea extract, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), has emerged as a neuroprotective agent that can protect against several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Recently, our lab has shown that ...


Randomized Trial Of L-Serine In Patients With Hereditary Sensory And Autonomic Neuropathy Type 1, Vera Fridman, Saranya Suriyanarayanan, Peter Novak, William David, Eric A. Macklin, Diane McKenna-Yasek, Kailey Walsh, Razina Aziz-Bose, Anne Louise Oaklander, Robert H. Brown Jr., Thorsten Hornemann, Florian Eichler 2019 Harvard Medical School

Randomized Trial Of L-Serine In Patients With Hereditary Sensory And Autonomic Neuropathy Type 1, Vera Fridman, Saranya Suriyanarayanan, Peter Novak, William David, Eric A. Macklin, Diane Mckenna-Yasek, Kailey Walsh, Razina Aziz-Bose, Anne Louise Oaklander, Robert H. Brown Jr., Thorsten Hornemann, Florian Eichler

Open Access Articles

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of l-serine in humans with hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy type I (HSAN1).

METHODS: In this randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial with open-label extension, patients aged 18-70 years with symptomatic HSAN1 were randomized to l-serine (400 mg/kg/day) or placebo for 1 year. All participants received l-serine during the second year. The primary outcome measure was the Charcot-Marie-Tooth Neuropathy Score version 2 (CMTNS). Secondary outcomes included plasma sphingolipid levels, epidermal nerve fiber density, electrophysiologic measurements, patient-reported measures, and adverse events.

RESULTS: Between August 2013 and April 2014, we enrolled and randomized 18 participants, 16 ...


Neuroform Atlas Stent System For The Treatment Of Intracranial Aneurysm: Primary Results Of The Atlas Humanitarian Device Exemption Cohort, Brian T. Jankowitz, Ricardo Hanel, Ashutosh P. Jadhav, David N. Loy, Donald Frei, Adnan H. Siddiqui, Ajit S. Puri, Ahmad Khaldi, Aquilla S. Turk, Adel M. Malek, Eric Sauvageau, Steven W. Hetts, Osama O. Zaidat 2019 UPMC Presbyterian Hospital

Neuroform Atlas Stent System For The Treatment Of Intracranial Aneurysm: Primary Results Of The Atlas Humanitarian Device Exemption Cohort, Brian T. Jankowitz, Ricardo Hanel, Ashutosh P. Jadhav, David N. Loy, Donald Frei, Adnan H. Siddiqui, Ajit S. Puri, Ahmad Khaldi, Aquilla S. Turk, Adel M. Malek, Eric Sauvageau, Steven W. Hetts, Osama O. Zaidat

Radiology Publications and Presentations

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Stent-assisted coil embolization is a well-established treatment of intracranial wide-necked aneurysms. The Neuroform Atlas Stent System is a new generation microstent designed to enhance coil support, conformability, deliverability, and improve deployment accuracy. We present the 1-year efficacy and angiographic results of the Humanitarian Device Exemption (HDE) cohort from the Atlas Investigational Device Exemption (IDE) clinical trial.

METHOD: The Atlas IDE trial is a prospective, multicenter, single-arm, open-label study of unruptured wide-necked intracranial aneurysms treated with the Neuroform Atlas stent and approved coils. The primary efficacy endpoint was the rate of 12-month complete aneurysm angiographic occlusion (Raymond class ...


Outcomes After Coverage Of Lenticulostriate Vessels By Flow Diverters: A Multicenter Experience, Kathryn M. Wagner, Visish M. Srinivasan, Aditya Srivatsan, Michael G. Ghali Z, Ajith J. Thomas, Alejandro Enriquez-Marulanda, Abdulrahman Y. Alturki, Christopher S. Ogilvy, Maxim Mokin, Anna L. Kuhn, Ajit Puri, Ramesh Grandhi, Stephen Chen, Jeremiah Johnson, Peter Kan 2019 Baylor University

Outcomes After Coverage Of Lenticulostriate Vessels By Flow Diverters: A Multicenter Experience, Kathryn M. Wagner, Visish M. Srinivasan, Aditya Srivatsan, Michael G. Ghali Z, Ajith J. Thomas, Alejandro Enriquez-Marulanda, Abdulrahman Y. Alturki, Christopher S. Ogilvy, Maxim Mokin, Anna L. Kuhn, Ajit Puri, Ramesh Grandhi, Stephen Chen, Jeremiah Johnson, Peter Kan

Radiology Publications and Presentations

OBJECTIVE: With the increasing use of flow diversion as treatment for intracranial aneurysms, there is a concomitant increased vigilance in monitoring complications. The low porosity of flow diverters is concerning when the origins of vessels are covered, whether large circle of Willis branches or critical perforators. In this study, the authors report their experience with flow diverter coverage of the lenticulostriate vessels and evaluate their safety and outcomes.

METHODS: The authors retrospectively reviewed 5 institutional databases of all flow diversion cases from August 2012 to June 2018. Information regarding patient presentation, aneurysm location, treatment, and outcomes were recorded. Patients who ...


Understanding The Contributions Of Alzheimer’S Disease & Cardiovascular Risks To Cerebral Small Vessel Disease Manifest As White Matter Hyperintensities On Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Mri), Omar M. Al-Janabi 2019 University of Kentucky

Understanding The Contributions Of Alzheimer’S Disease & Cardiovascular Risks To Cerebral Small Vessel Disease Manifest As White Matter Hyperintensities On Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Mri), Omar M. Al-Janabi

Theses and Dissertations--Clinical and Translational Science

Introduction: Alzheimer’s Diseases (AD) & cerebral small vessel disease associated with cardiovascular risk factors (cSVD) frequently coexist, differentially affecting both imaging and clinical features associated with aging and dementia. We hypothesized that Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can be used in novel ways to identify relative contributions of AD & cardiovascular risks to cSVD and brain atrophy, generating new biomarkers & insights into mixed disease states associated with cognitive decline and dementia.

Methods: Three experiments were conducted to address the overarching hypothesis. First, we visually rated the clinical MRI of 325 participants from a community-based cross-sectional sample to elucidate the relative association of age, AD (visualized as hippocampal atrophy) and cSVD (visualized as white matter hyperintensities; WMH) with global brain atrophy in experiment 1. In experiment 2, we analyzed cross-sectional MRI scans from 62 participants from the University of Kentucky Alzheimer’s Disease Center (UKADC) with available clinical data on cardiovascular risk and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) beta-amyloid levels as a marker of AD. Voxel wise regression was used to examine the association of white matter hyperintensities with AD and/or cardiovascular risk (hypertension). Experiment 3, examined longitudinal MRI changes in WMH volumes in 377 participants from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative 2 (ADNI 2). Subjects were categorized into three groups ...


Toll-Like 2 And 4 Receptor Antagonism Reverses Neuropathic Pain And Associated Spinal Inflammation In Male And Female Dark Agouti Rats In A Model Of Multiple Sclerosis, Anouk Elisabeth Wilhelmina Schrama 2019 University of Colorado, Boulder

Toll-Like 2 And 4 Receptor Antagonism Reverses Neuropathic Pain And Associated Spinal Inflammation In Male And Female Dark Agouti Rats In A Model Of Multiple Sclerosis, Anouk Elisabeth Wilhelmina Schrama

Undergraduate Honors Theses

More than 92% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) report frequent and disabling neuropathic pain. In MS, neuropathic pain develops after demyelination, neuroinflammation, and damage to axons in the central nervous system. Although several treatments for MS-related neuropathic pain exist, many patients’ symptoms are refractory to current treatments. Recent research has provided evidence that toll like receptors 2 and 4 (TLR2/TLR4) are implicated in propagating the inflammatory response, raising the potential of TLR2/TLR4 importance in inflammatory conditions such as MS. Moreover, previous research in our lab has shown that TLR2/TLR4 antagonists are effective at reversing neuropathic pain ...


Diffusion Tensor Imaging: In Vivo White Matter Structural And Connectivity Evaluation Of Glioma Pathophysiology For Future Clinical Application, Shawn D'souza 2019 University of Colorado, Boulder

Diffusion Tensor Imaging: In Vivo White Matter Structural And Connectivity Evaluation Of Glioma Pathophysiology For Future Clinical Application, Shawn D'Souza

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Gliomas account for 26.5% of all primary central nervous system tumors. Histopathological observation has been the gold standard for diagnosing and studying gliomas, however, this method has several limitations. Recent studies have used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to extract white matter fibers and the diffusion coefficients derived from the magnetic resonance processing to provide non-invasive insights into the extent of tumor invasion, axonal integrity, and pathophysiological differentiation of glioma from metastasis. This work extends the capabilities of DTI by examining whether a tract-based analysis can improve non-invasive localization of tumor impact on white matter integrity. This study also examines ...


Analysis Of Autism Spectrum Disorder Like Behavior In Female Rats Using A Model Of Maternal Stress And Terbutaline, Taylor Crist 2019 University of Colorado, Boulder

Analysis Of Autism Spectrum Disorder Like Behavior In Female Rats Using A Model Of Maternal Stress And Terbutaline, Taylor Crist

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Autism Spectrum Disorders in humans are diagnosed 3.1 times more in males than in females (Loomes et al., 2017) in addition to a 30% bidirectional comorbidity with epilepsy (Lewis et al., 2018). This model of stress terbutaline and potential treatment, M. vaccae,hope to establish a method by which to study this comorbity. This model has proved successful at producing ASD like behavior and seizures in male rats in recent years (Bercum et al., 2015).

Female Sprague Dawley rats underwent a stress protocol of maternal and developmental stress with Terbutaline injections. Half of the treatment animals were given injections ...


Trisomy Silencing By Xist Normalizes Down Syndrome Cell Pathogenesis Demonstrated For Hematopoietic Defects In Vitro, Jen-Chieh Chiang, Jun Jiang, Peter E. Newburger, Jeanne B. Lawrence 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Trisomy Silencing By Xist Normalizes Down Syndrome Cell Pathogenesis Demonstrated For Hematopoietic Defects In Vitro, Jen-Chieh Chiang, Jun Jiang, Peter E. Newburger, Jeanne B. Lawrence

Open Access Articles

We previously demonstrated that an integrated XIST transgene can broadly repress one chromosome 21 in Down syndrome (DS) pluripotent cells. Here we address whether trisomy-silencing can normalize cell function and development sufficiently to correct cell pathogenesis, tested in an in vitro model of human fetal hematopoiesis, for which DS cellular phenotypes are best known. XIST induction in four transgenic clones reproducibly corrected over-production of megakaryocytes and erythrocytes, key to DS myeloproliferative disorder and leukemia. A contrasting increase in neural stem and iPS cells shows cell-type specificity, supporting this approach successfully rebalances the hematopoietic developmental program. Given this, we next used ...


Reluctance Of Adolescents With Cerebral Palsy To Participate In An Online Intervention On Self-Management: Lessons Learned From A Randomized Control Trial, Cynthia T. Thompson 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Reluctance Of Adolescents With Cerebral Palsy To Participate In An Online Intervention On Self-Management: Lessons Learned From A Randomized Control Trial, Cynthia T. Thompson

Graduate School of Nursing Dissertations

Purpose: Assess the effectiveness of an online intervention to encourage self-management in adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP).

Specific Aims: (a) assess effectiveness of an online intervention to promote readiness for self-management in adolescents with CP, (b) describe health literacy and associations with readiness to assume self-management, and (c) evaluate adolescents’ exposure to the online intervention.

Hypotheses: (a) intervention subjects would demonstrate improvement in self-management, and (b) subjects with higher health literacy would demonstrate higher self-management capabilities.

Framework: Transtheoretical Model of Health Behavior Change

Design: Randomized control trial, performed in a multidisciplinary CP clinic at a university based children’s hospital ...


Behavioral Insights Into Nociceptor Function: A Systematic Approach To Understanding Postsurgical And Neuropathic Pain Mechanisms In Rats, Max Odem 2018 The Univesity of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Behavioral Insights Into Nociceptor Function: A Systematic Approach To Understanding Postsurgical And Neuropathic Pain Mechanisms In Rats, Max Odem

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Postsurgical and neuropathic pain are each clinically common, and often associated with ongoing pain. Ongoing pain has been linked to ongoing activity (OA) in human C-fiber nociceptors. Preclinical studies using rodent neuropathic models have concentrated on allodynia driven by OA generated in non-nociceptive Aβ fibers, but little attention has been paid to postsurgical pain in sham controls or to C-fiber nociceptor OA promoting ongoing pain.

Operant assays that reveal negative motivational and cognitive aspects of voluntary pain-related behavior may be particularly sensitive to pain-related alterations. In the mechanical conflict (MC) test, rodents can freely choose to escape from a brightly ...


Early Identification Of Depression In Patients With Pediatric Epilepsy, Erin Fecske, Paul Glasier, Lines Vargas Collado, Elizabeth Rende 2018 Children's Mercy Hospital

Early Identification Of Depression In Patients With Pediatric Epilepsy, Erin Fecske, Paul Glasier, Lines Vargas Collado, Elizabeth Rende

Posters

Describes the use of the Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory-Epilepsy-Youth (NDDI-E-Y) in adolescent patients in a comprehensive epilepsy center to identify patients who need referral for mental health care.


Protein Aggregates And Polyglutamine Tracts In Neurodegenerative Disease, John Mack 2018 Liberty University

Protein Aggregates And Polyglutamine Tracts In Neurodegenerative Disease, John Mack

Senior Honors Theses

The incidence of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Huntington's Disease and other Polyglutamine Diseases is projected to dramatically increase throughout the developed world, and yet the pathology of these diseases remains poorly understood. One pathway that these neurodegenerative diseases share is the accumulation of pathologic proteins which are not only harmful in their soluble form but may go on to form toxic aggregates. In many cases, a consensus has yet to be reached concerning the mechanism for protein aggregation. Therefore, the exploration of the roles of these proteins and their possible mechanisms, along with ...


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