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Male Urogenital Diseases Commons

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The Chronic Kidney Disease Controversy: How Expanding Definitions Care Unnecessarily Labelling Many People As Diseased, Ray Moynihan, Richard Glassock, Jenny A. Doust 2013 Bond University

The Chronic Kidney Disease Controversy: How Expanding Definitions Care Unnecessarily Labelling Many People As Diseased, Ray Moynihan, Richard Glassock, Jenny A. Doust

Ray Moynihan

Extract: In 2002 the United States Kidney Foundation launched a novel framework for defining and classifying chronic kidney disease. The framework was widely embraced because it imposed order in a chaotic landscape characterised by a variety of names, including renal insufficiency, renal impairment, and renal failure. It has had an appreciable effect on clinical care worldwide through guidelines, pay for performance measures, and sparked debate on the merits of screening programmes. However, it has also generated considerable controversy. We examine the rationale for the framework, the varying responses and controversies it has provoked, and provide advice for clinicians who are ...


The Role Of Myxovirus (Influenza Virus) Resistance In A Prostate Cancer, Shanora Elizabeth Glymph 2013 Clark Atlanta University

The Role Of Myxovirus (Influenza Virus) Resistance In A Prostate Cancer, Shanora Elizabeth Glymph

ETD Collection for AUC Robert W. Woodruff Library

Myxovirus (influenza virus) resistance A (MxA) is an interferon regulated protein responsible for a specific antiviral state against viral infection. Our lab has previously shown that MxA is up-regulated by androgens in the normal prostate epithelial cells; however, there is no known role for MxA in cancer. Meta-analysis of different expression databases (e.g. NCBI GEO and Oncomine) suggested a strong inverse association between MxA expression and prostate cancer. To confirm these studies, we performed immunohistochemistry on normal prostate and prostate cancer tissues. Our results revealed that MxA expression was indeed decreased in cancerous as compared to normal prostate, indicating ...


Id4 As A Tumor Suppressor: Mechanism Of Action Of Id4 In Prostate Cancer, Ashley L. Evans 2013 Clark Atlanta University

Id4 As A Tumor Suppressor: Mechanism Of Action Of Id4 In Prostate Cancer, Ashley L. Evans

ETD Collection for AUC Robert W. Woodruff Library

Id proteins are members of basic helix-loop-helix family. However, Id proteins lack the basic binding domain, which prevents DNA binding, and thereby regulates transcription. There are four members in the Id protein family termed Idl-4. In prostate cancer the expression of Idl and Id3 is high, whereas member Id4 expression is low. Decreased expression of Id4 is due to promoter hypermethylation in prostate cancer as well as many other cancers. This observation led us to hypothesize that Id4 acts as a tumor suppressor in prostate cancer. Furthermore, evidence suggests ectopic Id4 expression in metastatic prostate cancer cell line DU145 induced ...


Quantitative Assessment Of Quality Of Life In New Zealand Prostate Cancer Survivors: The Effect Of Androgen Deprivation Therapy, Justin Keogh, C U. Krägeloh, D Shepherd, C Ryan, S Osborne, J Masters, R D. MacLeod 2013 Bond University

Quantitative Assessment Of Quality Of Life In New Zealand Prostate Cancer Survivors: The Effect Of Androgen Deprivation Therapy, Justin Keogh, C U. Krägeloh, D Shepherd, C Ryan, S Osborne, J Masters, R D. Macleod

Justin Keogh

Men with prostate cancer experience many challenges to their quality of life (QOL). While some of these challenges reflect the direct effects of the cancer, additional side-effects and symptoms are also associated with common treatments especially androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). While several studies have examined the effects of ADT on the QOL of men with prostate cancer, much of this research is between 10-20 years old and was conducted in North America or Europe. This study therefore examined the effects of ADT on QOL in prostate cancer patients (survivors) in the Southern hemisphere. The registries of two New Zealand based ...


Regulation Of Androgen Receptor Co-Regulators By Activation Of The Cxcl12/Cxcr4 Axis: A Microarray And Proteomics Approach, Sathish Kasina, Lesa Begley, Henriette Remmer, Jill A. Macoska 2013 University of Massachusetts Boston

Regulation Of Androgen Receptor Co-Regulators By Activation Of The Cxcl12/Cxcr4 Axis: A Microarray And Proteomics Approach, Sathish Kasina, Lesa Begley, Henriette Remmer, Jill A. Macoska

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Background: Activation of the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis is known to stimulate androgen-independent activation of the androgen receptor (AR) in the LNCaP prostate cancer cell line. In the present study, the CXCL12-stimulated expression profile of androgen responsive genes (ARGs) and AR:co-regulator protein:protein interactions has been identified by microarray and proteomic analysis, respectively.

Methods: To directly identify proteins that interacted with the AR in response to CXCL12 stimulation, LNCaP cells treated with CXCL12 were subjected to a total proteomics analysis after co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) with anti-AR antibody. AR- interacting proteins from co-IP were pre-fractionated by SDS-PAGE, in-gel trypsin digested, and analyzed ...


Cxcl-Type Chemokines−Induced Fibrosis In The Lower Urinary Tract, Mehrnaz Gharaee−Kermani, Jill A. Macoska 2013 University of Massachusetts Boston

Cxcl-Type Chemokines−Induced Fibrosis In The Lower Urinary Tract, Mehrnaz Gharaee−Kermani, Jill A. Macoska

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

No abstract provided.


Obesity-Induced Diabetes And Lower Urinary Tract Fibrosis Promote Urinary Voiding Dysfunction In A Mouse Model, Mehrnaz Gharaee−Kermani, Jose A. Rodriguez-Nieves, Jill A. Macoska 2013 University of Massachusetts Boston

Obesity-Induced Diabetes And Lower Urinary Tract Fibrosis Promote Urinary Voiding Dysfunction In A Mouse Model, Mehrnaz Gharaee−Kermani, Jose A. Rodriguez-Nieves, Jill A. Macoska

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Background: Progressive aging- and inflammation-associated fibrosis effectively remodels the extracellular matrix to increase prostate tissue stiffness and reduce urethral flexibility, resulting in urinary flow obstruction and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS). In the current study we sought to test whether senescence-accelerated mouse prone (SAMP)6 mice, which were reported to develop prostatic fibrosis, would also develop LUTS, and whether these symptoms would be exacerbated by diet-induced obesity and concurrent Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM).

Methods: To accomplish this, SAMP6 and AKR/J background strain mice were fed regular mouse chow, low fat diet chow, or high fat diet chow for ...


Cysteine (C)-X-C Receptor 4 Undergoes Transportin 1-Dependent Nuclear Localization And Remains Functional At The Nucleus Of Metastatic Prostate Cancer Cells, Ayesha S. Don-Salu-Hewage, Siu Yuen Chan, Kathleen M. McAndrews, Mahandranauth A. Chetram, Michelle R. Dawson, Danaya A. Bethea, Cimona V. Hinton 2013 Spelman College

Cysteine (C)-X-C Receptor 4 Undergoes Transportin 1-Dependent Nuclear Localization And Remains Functional At The Nucleus Of Metastatic Prostate Cancer Cells, Ayesha S. Don-Salu-Hewage, Siu Yuen Chan, Kathleen M. Mcandrews, Mahandranauth A. Chetram, Michelle R. Dawson, Danaya A. Bethea, Cimona V. Hinton

Spelman College Faculty Publications

The G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR), Cysteine (C)-X-C Receptor 4 (CXCR4), plays an important role in prostate cancer metastasis. CXCR4 is generally regarded as a plasma membrane receptor where it transmits signals that support transformation, progression and eventual metastasis. Due to the central role of CXCR4 in tumorigenesis, therapeutics approaches such as antagonist and monoclonal antibodies have focused on receptors that exist on the plasma membrane. An emerging concept for G-protein coupled receptors is that they may localize to and associate with the nucleus where they retain function and mediate nuclear signaling. Herein, we demonstrate that CXCR4 associated with the ...


Evaluation Of Intravenous Voriconazole In Patients With Compromised Renal Function, Craig M. Lilly, Verna Welch, Thomas Mayer, Paul Ranauro, Joanne Meisner, David R. Luke 2013 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Evaluation Of Intravenous Voriconazole In Patients With Compromised Renal Function, Craig M. Lilly, Verna Welch, Thomas Mayer, Paul Ranauro, Joanne Meisner, David R. Luke

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Incorporation of the solubilizing excipient, sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin (SBECD), in the intravenous (IV) formulation of voriconazole has resulted in the recommendation that this formulation be used with caution in patients with creatinine clearances (Clcr) < 50 mL/min. This study evaluated the safety of IV voriconazole compared with two other IV antifungals not containing SBECD in patients with compromised renal function.

METHODS: A total of 128 patients aged 11-93 years who had a baseline Clcr < 50 mL/min between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2010 were identified from a database of a university-affiliated inpatient healthcare system; of these, 55 patients received caspofungin, 54 patients received fluconazole, and 19 patients received voriconazole. Changes in serum creatinine (Scr) and Clcr levels while on therapy were compared with baseline values and between groups.

RESULTS: The groups had similar characteristics apart from the larger proportion of females that received fluconazole. Baseline Scr was higher in those receiving caspofungin, but maximal increases of Scr and decreases in Clcr were greatest for the fluconazole group. Acute kidney injury (AKI), assessed by RIFLE criteria, was more frequent in the fluconazole ...


Androgen Receptor-Target Genes In African American Prostate Cancer Disparities, Bi-Dar Wang, Qi Yang, Kristin Ceniccola, Fernando Bianco, Ramez Andrawis, Thomas W. Jarrett, Harold A. Frazier, Steven R. Patierno, Norman H. Lee 2013 George Washington University

Androgen Receptor-Target Genes In African American Prostate Cancer Disparities, Bi-Dar Wang, Qi Yang, Kristin Ceniccola, Fernando Bianco, Ramez Andrawis, Thomas W. Jarrett, Harold A. Frazier, Steven R. Patierno, Norman H. Lee

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

The incidence and mortality rates of prostate cancer (PCa) are higher in African American (AA) compared to Caucasian American (CA) men. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying PCa disparities, we employed an integrative approach combining gene expression profiling and pathway and promoter analyses to investigate differential transcriptomes and deregulated signaling pathways in AA versus CA cancers. A comparison of AA and CA PCa specimens identified 1,188 differentially expressed genes. Interestingly, these transcriptional differences were overrepresented in signaling pathways that converged on the androgen receptor (AR), suggesting that the AR may be a unifying oncogenic theme in AA PCa. Gene ...


Socioeconomic Status, Healthcare Density, And Risk Of Prostate Cancer Among African American And Caucasian Men In A Large Prospective Study, Jacqueline Major, M. Oliver, Chyke Doubeni, Albert Hollenbeck, Barry Graubard, Rashmi Sinha 2012 National Cancer Institute

Socioeconomic Status, Healthcare Density, And Risk Of Prostate Cancer Among African American And Caucasian Men In A Large Prospective Study, Jacqueline Major, M. Oliver, Chyke Doubeni, Albert Hollenbeck, Barry Graubard, Rashmi Sinha

Chyke A. Doubeni

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to separately examine the impact of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and availability of healthcare resources on prostate cancer risk among African American and Caucasian men. METHODS: In the large, prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, we analyzed baseline (1995-1996) data from adult men, aged 50-71 years. Incident prostate cancer cases (n = 22,523; 1,089 among African Americans) were identified through December 2006. Lifestyle and health risk information was ascertained by questionnaires administered at baseline. Area-level socioeconomic indicators were ascertained by linkage to the US Census and the Area Resource File. Multilevel Cox models ...


A New Murine Model For Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia Coli Infection Reveals That Actin Pedestal Formation Facilitates Mucosal Colonization And Lethal Disease: A Dissertation, Emily M. Mallick 2012 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A New Murine Model For Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia Coli Infection Reveals That Actin Pedestal Formation Facilitates Mucosal Colonization And Lethal Disease: A Dissertation, Emily M. Mallick

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) colonizes the intestine and produces the phage-encoded Shiga toxin (Stx) which is absorbed systemically and can lead to hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and renal failure. EHEC, and two related pathogens, Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and the murine pathogen, Citrobacter rodentium, are attaching and effacing (AE) pathogens that intimately adhere to enterocytes and form actin “pedestals” beneath bound bacteria. The actin pedestal, because it is a unique characteristic of AE pathogens, has been the subject of intense study for over 20 years. Investigations into the mechanism of pedestal formation have revealed that ...


Emergent Trends In The Reported Incidence Of Prostate Cancer In Nigeria, Godwin O. Ifere, Fisseha Abebe, Godwin A. Ananaba 2012 Department of Biological Sciences, Clark Atlanta University

Emergent Trends In The Reported Incidence Of Prostate Cancer In Nigeria, Godwin O. Ifere, Fisseha Abebe, Godwin A. Ananaba

Clark Atlanta University Faculty Publications

Background

To date there has not been any nationwide age-standardized incidence data reported for prostate cancer in Nigeria. We examined and integrated diverse trends in the age-specific incidence of prostate cancer into a comprehensive trend for Nigeria, and examined how best the existing data could generate a countrywide age-standardized incidence rate for the disease.

Methods

Data were obtained from studies undertaken between 1970 and 2007 in referral hospital-based cancer registries. Records from at least one tertiary hospital in each of the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria were examined retrospectively. Data were also reported for the rural population in cross-sectional prospective ...


Patterns Of Information Behavior And Prostate Cancer Knowledge Among African-American Men, Levi Ross, Tyra Dark, Heather Orom, Willie Underwood III, Charkarra Anderson-Lewis, Jarrett Johnson, Deborah O. Erwin 2011 Roswell Park Cancer Institute

Patterns Of Information Behavior And Prostate Cancer Knowledge Among African-American Men, Levi Ross, Tyra Dark, Heather Orom, Willie Underwood Iii, Charkarra Anderson-Lewis, Jarrett Johnson, Deborah O. Erwin

Faculty Publications

The purposes of this study are to explore cancer information acquisition patterns among African-American men and to evaluate relationships between information acquisition patterns and prostate cancer prevention and control knowledge. A random sample of 268 men participated in a statewide interviewer-administered, telephone survey. Men classified as non-seekers, non-medical source seekers, and medical source seekers of prostate cancer information differed on household income, level of education, and beliefs about personal risk for developing prostate cancer. Results from multiple regression analysis indicated that age, education, and information-seeking status were associated with overall levels of prostate cancer knowledge. Results from logistic regression analyses ...


Characterization Of The Sigma Factor Proteins And The Dna Binding Protein Euo Of Chlamydia, Cory L. Blackwell 2011 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Characterization Of The Sigma Factor Proteins And The Dna Binding Protein Euo Of Chlamydia, Cory L. Blackwell

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Chlamydia spp. are prokaryotic obligate intracellular pathogens with a unique, biphasic developmental cycle in which an infectious, extracellular form termed the elementary body (EB) interconverts with a metabolically active intracellular reticulate body (RB) within host cells. Subsets of genes are differentially expressed during the developmental cycle, and these genes are believed to be responsible for the transitions between the EB and RB forms. The goal of these studies was to explore two potential mechanisms that may function in regulating developmental cycle stage‑specific gene expression in chlamydiae: a cascade of sigma factor expression and the binding of the early stage ...


Management And Outcomes Of Renal Disease And Acute Myocardial Infarction, Paul Santolucito, Dennis Tighe, David McManus, Jorge Yarzebski, Darleen Lessard, Joel Gore, Robert Goldberg 2011 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Management And Outcomes Of Renal Disease And Acute Myocardial Infarction, Paul Santolucito, Dennis Tighe, David Mcmanus, Jorge Yarzebski, Darleen Lessard, Joel Gore, Robert Goldberg

Jorge L. Yarzebski

BACKGROUND: Contemporary trends in the management and outcomes of chronic kidney disease patients who develop an acute myocardial infarction have not been adequately described, particularly from the more generalizable perspective of a population-based investigation. METHODS: The study population consisted of 6219 residents of the Worcester, Massachusetts, metropolitan area who were hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction in 6 annual periods between 1995 and 2005. Patients were categorized as having preserved kidney function (n=3154), mild to moderate chronic kidney disease (n=2313), or severe chronic kidney disease (n=752) at the time of hospital admission. RESULTS: Patients with chronic kidney disease ...


Development Of Novel Biomarkers In Cancer: Detection Of Circulating Mir-141 As A Potential Prognostic Marker For Prostate Cancer, Jason Cadaoas Gonzales 2010 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Development Of Novel Biomarkers In Cancer: Detection Of Circulating Mir-141 As A Potential Prognostic Marker For Prostate Cancer, Jason Cadaoas Gonzales

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Prostate cancer (CAP) is the most common epithelial malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in American men. The identification of predictive and prognostic biomarkers in CAP patients is critical for improving clinical outcomes. Although the measurement of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and radiographic studies are clinically approved to predict response to therapy, these tests can oftentimes prove to be inadequate in certain patients. Thus, it is important to discover new biomarkers to improve chances of survivability. We and others have shown that longitudinal measurements of circulating tumor cells (CTC) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) may aid in predicting response ...


Use Of Do-Not-Resuscitate Orders In Patients With Kidney Disease Hospitalized With Acute Myocardial Infarction, Joline Chen, Jonathan Sosnov, Darleen Lessard, Jorge Yarzebski, Joel Gore, Robert Goldberg 2010 Boston University

Use Of Do-Not-Resuscitate Orders In Patients With Kidney Disease Hospitalized With Acute Myocardial Infarction, Joline Chen, Jonathan Sosnov, Darleen Lessard, Jorge Yarzebski, Joel Gore, Robert Goldberg

Jorge L. Yarzebski

BACKGROUND: Patients with kidney disease are at increased risk for adverse health outcomes in comparison to patients without kidney disease. Therefore, patients with kidney disease may have greater use of do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders than patients without kidney disease in the setting of an acute illness. We examined the association between advanced kidney disease and use of DNR orders in patients admitted with an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) to all greater Worcester, MA, hospitals as part of an epidemiological study.

METHODS: Use of DNR orders in 4,033 Worcester residents hospitalized with AMI at 11 greater Worcester medical centers during 1997 ...


Factors Associated With Subjective Improvement Following Midurethral Sling Procedures For Stress Urinary Incontinence: A Masters Thesis, Emily Elise Weber Lebrun 2010 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Factors Associated With Subjective Improvement Following Midurethral Sling Procedures For Stress Urinary Incontinence: A Masters Thesis, Emily Elise Weber Lebrun

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Background
Female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) greatly affects quality of life. The midurethal sling (MUS) procedure has been widely accepted as the standard of care treatment for SUI, although there is little information regarding patients' subjective reports of symptom improvement.

Objectives
The objective of this study was to identify clinical and demographic characteristics that predict subjective symptom improvement following MUS procedures in women with SUI.

Materials and Methods
The study design was retrospective cohort. Subjects included women who underwent MUS between 2006 and 2008, returned mailed surveys and met our predefined inclusion criteria. Pre-operative data included demographics, prior surgery, co-morbid ...


A New Tumor Suppressor Gene Candidate Regulated By The Non-Coding Rna Pca3 In Human Prostate Cancer, Alessandro K. Lee 2010 University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

A New Tumor Suppressor Gene Candidate Regulated By The Non-Coding Rna Pca3 In Human Prostate Cancer, Alessandro K. Lee

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death and the most common non-skin cancer in men in the USA. Considerable advancements in the practice of medicine have allowed a significant improvement in the diagnosis and treatment of this disease and, in recent years, both incidence and mortality rates have been slightly declining. However, it is still estimated that 1 man in 6 will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during his lifetime, and 1 man in 35 will die of the disease.

In order to identify novel strategies and effective therapeutic approaches in the fight against prostate cancer, it ...


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