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Immune System Diseases Commons

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Analysis Of Primary Risk Factors For Oral Cancer From Us States With Increasing Rates, Anthony Bunnell, Nathan Pettit, Nicole Reddout, Kanika Sharma, Susan O'Malley, Michelle Chino, Karl Kingsley 2010 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Analysis Of Primary Risk Factors For Oral Cancer From Us States With Increasing Rates, Anthony Bunnell, Nathan Pettit, Nicole Reddout, Kanika Sharma, Susan O'Malley, Michelle Chino, Karl Kingsley

Public Health Faculty Publications

Objectives

To examine the primary risk factor for oral cancer in the US, smoking and tobacco use, among the specific US states that experienced short-term increases in oral cancer incidence and mortality.

Methods

Population-based data on oral cancer morbidity and mortality in the US were obtained from the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database for analysis of recent trends. Data were also obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to measure current and former trends of tobacco usage. To comprehensive measures of previous state tobacco ...


Rapids Evaluation Final Report 2005-2009 Key Findings, Louis Apicella, Katie D. Schenk, Hena Khan 2010 Population Council

Rapids Evaluation Final Report 2005-2009 Key Findings, Louis Apicella, Katie D. Schenk, Hena Khan

HIV and AIDS

RAPIDS (Reaching HIV/AIDS Affected People with Integrated Development and Support) is an intervention funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and is designed to mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS in Zambia. The overall goal of RAPIDS is to improve the quality of life of Zambians affected by HIV and AIDS by expanding successful community-based models of home-based care and support to orphans and vulnerable children and people who are chronically ill, as well as through interventions targeting youth with livelihood opportunities and life-skills training, focusing on initiatives supporting abstinence and being faithful.


Protecting Hope: Situation Analysis Of Vulnerable Children In Uganda 2009, Sam Kalibala, Lynne Elson 2010 Population Council

Protecting Hope: Situation Analysis Of Vulnerable Children In Uganda 2009, Sam Kalibala, Lynne Elson

HIV and AIDS

The Government of Uganda has focused attention on the problem of orphaned and other vulnerable children through a number of policies, regulations, and initiatives. In 2004, the Ministry of Gender Labor and Social Development developed the National OVC Policy, aimed at improving the quality of life for poor and vulnerable children, such as children who have been orphaned, children who are living on the streets, children who are at risk of abuse, and children exposed to situations of armed conflict. However, despite the many efforts to improve the circumstances of vulnerable children in Uganda, policymakers, donors, and program managers still ...


Synthesis, Antiviral And Contraceptive Activities Of Nucleoside-Sodium Cellulose Sulfate Acetate And Succinate Conjugates, Hitesh K. Agarwal, Anil Kumar, Gustavo F. Doncel, Keykavous Parang 2010 University of Rhode Island

Synthesis, Antiviral And Contraceptive Activities Of Nucleoside-Sodium Cellulose Sulfate Acetate And Succinate Conjugates, Hitesh K. Agarwal, Anil Kumar, Gustavo F. Doncel, Keykavous Parang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Chemical conjugates between sodium cellulose sulfate (CS), displaying contraceptive and HIV-entry inhibiting properties, and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) (3′-azido-2′,3′-dideoxythymidine (AZT), 3′-fluoro-2′,3′-dideoxythymidine (FLT), or 2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine (3TC)) were designed to simultaneously provide contraceptive and anti-HIV activity. Two linkers, acetate and succinate, were used to conjugate the nucleoside analogs with CS. The conjugates containing cellulose sulfate-acetate (CSA) (e.g., AZT-CSA and FLT-CSA) were found to be more potent than CS and other conjugates (e.g., AZT-succinate-CS, and FLT-succinate-CS). The presence of both sulfate and the acetate groups on cellulose were critical for generating ...


Prevention With Positives: How Do We Reach Them In The Community?, Avina Sarna, Jerry Okal, Stanley Luchters, Nzioki King'ola, Scott Geibel 2010 Population Council

Prevention With Positives: How Do We Reach Them In The Community?, Avina Sarna, Jerry Okal, Stanley Luchters, Nzioki King'ola, Scott Geibel

HIV and AIDS

In the past, HIV prevention efforts have focused primarily on developing risk-reduction interventions for those presumed to be HIV-negative and therefore at risk of becoming infected with HIV. In recognition of the need for prevention among people living with HIV (PLHIV), programs have been initiated in Africa, but primarily in clinical settings for those who are on antiretroviral therapy (ART). There is little knowledge about how to reach those PLHIV not on ART, and therefore not in regular contact with the health system or with effective prevention messages. This diagnostic study aimed to address the gap in information on how ...


Monitoring And Evaluation Of The Emergency Plan Progress (Meepp): End-Of-Project Evaluation, Sam Kalibala 2010 Population Council

Monitoring And Evaluation Of The Emergency Plan Progress (Meepp): End-Of-Project Evaluation, Sam Kalibala

HIV and AIDS

This report evaluates the scope of the Monitoring and Evaluation of the Emergency Plan Progress (MEEPP) and the lessons learned from the project in Uganda, which aims to improve availability and quality of PEPFAR data.


An Epitope From Acanthamoeba Castellanii That Cross-React With Proteolipid Protein 139-151-Reactive T Cells Induces Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis In Sjl Mice, Chandirasegaran Massilamany, David Steffan, Jay Reddy 2010 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

An Epitope From Acanthamoeba Castellanii That Cross-React With Proteolipid Protein 139-151-Reactive T Cells Induces Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis In Sjl Mice, Chandirasegaran Massilamany, David Steffan, Jay Reddy

Jay Reddy Publications

We report here that an epitope (aa, 83-95) derived from Acanthamoeba castellanii (ACA) induces clinical signs of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in SJL/J mice reminiscent of the disease induced with myelin proteolipid protein (PLP) 139-151. By using IAs/tetramers, we demonstrate that both ACA 83-95 and PLP 139-151 generate antigen-specific cross-reactive CD4 T cells and the T cells secrete identical patterns of cytokines and induce EAE with a similar severity. These results may provide insights into the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis and ACA-induced granulomatous encephalitis.


Plasma Pharmacokinetics And Tissue Disposition Of Novel Dextran- Methylprednisolone Conjugates With Peptide Linkers In Rats, Suman Penugonda, Hitesh K. Agarwal, Keykavous Parang, Reza Mehvar 2010 Texas Tech University

Plasma Pharmacokinetics And Tissue Disposition Of Novel Dextran- Methylprednisolone Conjugates With Peptide Linkers In Rats, Suman Penugonda, Hitesh K. Agarwal, Keykavous Parang, Reza Mehvar

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The plasma and tissue disposition of two novel dextran prodrugs of methylprednisolone (MP) containing one (DMP-1) or five (DMP-5) amino acids as linkers were studied in rats. Single 5-mg/kg doses (MP equivalent) of each prodrug or MP were administered intravenously, and blood and tissue samples were collected. Prodrug and drug concentrations were quantitated using HPLC, and noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. Whereas conjugation of MP with dextran in both prodrugs substantially decreased the clearance of the drug by ∼200-fold, the accumulations of the drug in the liver, spleen, and kidneys were significantly increased by conjugation. However, the extent of ...


When You Hear Hoof Beats, It Might Be A Zebra: Lupus Patient With Fever And Leukopenia, Erica Peart DO, James Ross MD, FACP 2010 Lehigh Valley Health Network

When You Hear Hoof Beats, It Might Be A Zebra: Lupus Patient With Fever And Leukopenia, Erica Peart Do, James Ross Md, Facp

Department of Medicine

No abstract provided.


Becoming A Father, David J. Malebranche 2009 Emory University

Becoming A Father, David J. Malebranche

David J Malebranche

No abstract provided.


Exploring The "Bisexual Bridge": A Qualitative Study Of Risk Behavior And Disclosure Of Same-Sex Behavior Among Black Bisexual Men, David J. Malebranche, Kim Arriola, Tyrrell R. Jenkins, Emily Dauria, Shilpa N. Patel 2009 Emory University

Exploring The "Bisexual Bridge": A Qualitative Study Of Risk Behavior And Disclosure Of Same-Sex Behavior Among Black Bisexual Men, David J. Malebranche, Kim Arriola, Tyrrell R. Jenkins, Emily Dauria, Shilpa N. Patel

David J Malebranche

Objectives. We explored factors influencing sexual behavior, disclosure of same-sex behavior, and condom-use practices among Black bisexual men. Methods. We conducted semistructured interviews with 38 Black men in Atlanta, Georgia, who reported having had oral, vaginal, or anal sex with both men and women in the prior 6 months. Results. Participants described approaches to disclosure of same-sex behavior as part of a complex decisional balance influenced by both situational and individual factors and ranging from full disclosure to total secrecy. Influences on sexual behavior and condom-use practices included: (1) type of relationship, (2) gender-specific considerations, (3) perceptions of comfort or ...


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