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Age-Dependent Human Beta Cell Proliferation Induced By Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 And Calcineurin Signaling, Chunhua Dai, Yan Hang, Alena Shostak, Greg Poffenberger, Nathaniel Hart, Nripesh Prasad, Neil Phillips, Shawn E. Levy, Dale L. Greiner, Leonard D. Shultz, Rita Bottino, Seung K. Kim, Alvin C. Powers 2017 Vanderbilt University

Age-Dependent Human Beta Cell Proliferation Induced By Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 And Calcineurin Signaling, Chunhua Dai, Yan Hang, Alena Shostak, Greg Poffenberger, Nathaniel Hart, Nripesh Prasad, Neil Phillips, Shawn E. Levy, Dale L. Greiner, Leonard D. Shultz, Rita Bottino, Seung K. Kim, Alvin C. Powers

Open Access Articles

Inadequate pancreatic beta cell function underlies type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Strategies to expand functional cells have focused on discovering and controlling mechanisms that limit the proliferation of human beta cells. Here, we developed an engraftment strategy to examine age-associated human islet cell replication competence and reveal mechanisms underlying age-dependent decline of beta cell proliferation in human islets. We found that exendin-4 (Ex-4), an agonist of the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R), stimulates human beta cell proliferation in juvenile but not adult islets. This age-dependent responsiveness does not reflect loss of GLP-1R signaling in adult islets, since Ex-4 ...


Heightened Circulating Levels Of Antimicrobial Peptides In Tuberculosis-Diabetes Co-Morbidity And Reversal Upon Treatment, Nathella Pavan Kumar, Kadar Moideen, Vijay Viswanathan, Shanmugam Sivakumar, Pradeep A. Menon, Hardy Kornfeld, Subash Babu 2017 National Institutes of Health-NIRT-International Center for Excellence in Research

Heightened Circulating Levels Of Antimicrobial Peptides In Tuberculosis-Diabetes Co-Morbidity And Reversal Upon Treatment, Nathella Pavan Kumar, Kadar Moideen, Vijay Viswanathan, Shanmugam Sivakumar, Pradeep A. Menon, Hardy Kornfeld, Subash Babu

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: The association of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with tuberculosis-diabetes comorbidity (PTB-DM) is not well understood.

METHODS: To study the association of AMPs with PTB-DM, we examined the systemic levels of cathelicidin (LL37), human beta defensin- 2 (HBD2), human neutrophil peptides 1-3, (HNP1-3) and granulysin in individuals with either PTB-DM, PTB, latent TB (LTB) or no TB infection (NTB).

RESULTS: Circulating levels of cathelicidin and HBD2 were significantly higher and granulysin levels were significantly lower in PTB-DM compared to PTB, LTB or NTB, while the levels of HNP1-3 were significantly higher in PTB-DM compared to LTB or NTB individuals. Moreover, the ...


Coxsackievirus-Induced Proteomic Alterations In Primary Human Islets Provide Insights For The Etiology Of Diabetes, Julius O. Nyalwidhe, Glen R. Gallagher, Lindsey M. Glenn, Margaret A. Morris, Pranitha Vangala, Agata Jurczyk, Rita Bortell, David M. Harlan, Jennifer P. Wang, Jerry L. Nadler 2017 Eastern Virginia Medical School

Coxsackievirus-Induced Proteomic Alterations In Primary Human Islets Provide Insights For The Etiology Of Diabetes, Julius O. Nyalwidhe, Glen R. Gallagher, Lindsey M. Glenn, Margaret A. Morris, Pranitha Vangala, Agata Jurczyk, Rita Bortell, David M. Harlan, Jennifer P. Wang, Jerry L. Nadler

Open Access Articles

Enteroviral infections have been associated with the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D), a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. Cultured human islets, including the insulin-producing beta cells, can be infected with coxsackievirus B4 (CVB4) and thus are useful for understanding cellular responses to infection. We performed quantitative mass spectrometry analysis on cultured primary human islets infected with CVB4 to identify molecules and pathways altered upon infection. Corresponding uninfected controls were included in the study for comparative protein expression analyses. Proteins were significantly and differentially regulated in human islets challenged with virus compared with ...


Temporal Changes In Cortical And Hippocampal Expression Of Genes Important For Brain Glucose Metabolism Following Controlled Cortical Impact Injury In Mice, June Zhou, Mark Burns, Linda Huynh, Sonia Villapol, Daniel D. Taub, Juan M. Saavedra, Marc R. Blackman 2017 George Washington University

Temporal Changes In Cortical And Hippocampal Expression Of Genes Important For Brain Glucose Metabolism Following Controlled Cortical Impact Injury In Mice, June Zhou, Mark Burns, Linda Huynh, Sonia Villapol, Daniel D. Taub, Juan M. Saavedra, Marc R. Blackman

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes transient increases and subsequent decreases in brain glucose utilization. The underlying molecular pathways are orchestrated processes and poorly understood. In the current study, we determined temporal changes in cortical and hippocampal expression of genes important for brain glucose/lactate metabolism and the effect of a known neuroprotective drug telmisartan on the expression of these genes after experimental TBI. Adult male C57BL/6J mice (n = 6/group) underwent sham or unilateral controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury. Their ipsilateral and contralateral cortex and hippocampus were collected 6 h, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after ...


Care For Diabetic Population, Jennifer Aronson, Leanne Bellino, Elizabeth Eisenhardt, Diane Bryant, Haley Pelletier, Internal Medicine Team, Adult Outpatient Clinic 2017 Maine Medical Center

Care For Diabetic Population, Jennifer Aronson, Leanne Bellino, Elizabeth Eisenhardt, Diane Bryant, Haley Pelletier, Internal Medicine Team, Adult Outpatient Clinic

Maine Medical Center

No abstract provided.


Frequency And Predictors Of Self-Reported Hypoglycemia In Insulin-Treated Diabetes, Samir Malkani, Anupam Kotwal 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Frequency And Predictors Of Self-Reported Hypoglycemia In Insulin-Treated Diabetes, Samir Malkani, Anupam Kotwal

Open Access Articles

AIMS: Hypoglycemia is a limiting factor for achieving stringent glycemic control in diabetes. This study analyzes the frequency and predictors of hypoglycemia in insulin-treated diabetes in an ambulatory setting.

METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed to study self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) data for 3 months prior to a patient's HbA1c test.

RESULTS: Hypoglycemia occurred more frequently in type 1 than in type 2 diabetes; however, 19% of type 2 diabetes patients did experience at least one episode of severe hypoglycemia. For type 1 diabetes, hypoglycemia had a positive association with glycemic variability and duration of diabetes and a ...


Pursuing Equity In Diabetes Population, Aisha Rawlinson 2017 The University of San Francisco

Pursuing Equity In Diabetes Population, Aisha Rawlinson

Master's Projects and Capstones

Abstract

Background

Poor glycemic control (HbA1c >8) overtime leads to microvascular and macrovascular complications after the first and third years respectively, ultimately resulting in death after five years (Karter, 2016). Current Kaiser Permanente (KP) data stratified by race, ethnicity, age, and gender shows a significant disparity gap between Hispanics/Latino and Caucasian populations. The Pursuing IHI initiative is over a 2-year period completed at a microsystem that is focusing on health equity practices to reduce disparity gaps.

Project aim

KP Riverside, microsystem selected has a large population of Hispanic/Latino KP members, with focus on health equity. The project aim ...


Partial Clinical Remission In Type 1 Diabetes: A Comparison Of The Accuracy Of Total Daily Dose Of Insulin Of <0.3 Units/Kg/Day To The Gold Standard Insulin-Dose Adjusted Hemoglobin A1c Of ≤9 For The Detection Of Partial Clinical Remission, Rachel L. Lundberg, Katherine R. Marino, Aastha Jasrotia, Louise S. Maranda, Bruce A. Barton, Laura C. Alonso, Benjamin U. Nwosu 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Partial Clinical Remission In Type 1 Diabetes: A Comparison Of The Accuracy Of Total Daily Dose Of Insulin Of <0.3 Units/Kg/Day To The Gold Standard Insulin-Dose Adjusted Hemoglobin A1c Of ≤9 For The Detection Of Partial Clinical Remission, Rachel L. Lundberg, Katherine R. Marino, Aastha Jasrotia, Louise S. Maranda, Bruce A. Barton, Laura C. Alonso, Benjamin U. Nwosu

Benjamin U. Nwosu

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the gold standard test for the detection of partial clinical remission (PCR) in new-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D), the insulin-dose adjusted Hemoglobin A1c (IDAA1c) of ≤9, is superior to a new tool, total daily dose of insulin (TDD) of METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 204 subjects of ages 2-14 years, mean age 7.9±3.2 years, (male 7.8±3.4 years, [n=98]; female 7.9±3.0 years, [n=106], p=0.816) with new-onset T1D. Anthropometric and biochemical data were collected for the first 36 months of disease. PCR was defined ...


Type Ii Diabetes, Michelle Irwin 2017 Otterbein University

Type Ii Diabetes, Michelle Irwin

Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) Student Scholarship

The chosen topic to research is Diabetes Mellitus Type II (DMII). DMII has become a rampant disease in the United States and is becoming more common. The United States has an alarming rate of new diagnosis of DMII (Chen, 2012). One of the most disappointing facts is that it can be prevented. DMII is not a disease that one has to have for a lifetime. An important detail of this disease is that it has so many comorbidities. Many people in the general population think that they can just take a pill or take insulin to control it. However, even ...


Germinal Centre Frequency Is Decreased In Pancreatic Lymph Nodes From Individuals With Recent-Onset Type 1 Diabetes, Abby Willcox, Sarah J. Richardson, Lucy S. K. Walker, Sally C. Kent, Noel G. Morgan, Kathleen M. Gillespie 2017 University of Bristol

Germinal Centre Frequency Is Decreased In Pancreatic Lymph Nodes From Individuals With Recent-Onset Type 1 Diabetes, Abby Willcox, Sarah J. Richardson, Lucy S. K. Walker, Sally C. Kent, Noel G. Morgan, Kathleen M. Gillespie

Open Access Articles

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Pancreatic lymph nodes (PLNs) are critical sites for the initial interaction between islet autoantigens and autoreactive lymphocytes, but the histology of PLNs in tissue from individuals with type 1 diabetes has not been analysed in detail. The aim of this study was to examine PLN tissue sections from healthy donors compared with those at risk of, or with recent-onset and longer-duration type 1 diabetes.

METHODS: Immunofluorescence staining was used to examine PLN sections from the following donor groups: non-diabetic (n=15), non-diabetic islet autoantibody-positive (n=5), recent-onset ( < /=1.5 years duration) type 1 diabetes (n=13), and longer-duration type 1 diabetes (n=15). Staining for CD3, CD20 and Ki67 was used to detect primary and secondary (germinal centre-containing) follicles and CD21 and CD35 to detect follicular dendritic cell networks.

RESULTS: The frequency of secondary follicles was lower in the recent-onset ...


Plk2 Plays An Essential Role In High D-Glucose-Induced Apoptosis, Ros Generation And Inflammation In Podocytes., Hong-Hong Zou, Ping-Ping Yang, Tian-Lun Huang, Xiao-Xu Zheng, Gao-Si Xu 2017 George Washington University

Plk2 Plays An Essential Role In High D-Glucose-Induced Apoptosis, Ros Generation And Inflammation In Podocytes., Hong-Hong Zou, Ping-Ping Yang, Tian-Lun Huang, Xiao-Xu Zheng, Gao-Si Xu

Medicine Faculty Publications

Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a serious complication of hyperglycemia. Currently, there is no effective therapeutic intervention for DKD. In this study, we sought to provide a set of gene profile in diabetic kidneys. We identified 338 genes altered in diabetes-induced DKD glomeruli, and PLK2 exhibited the most dramatic change. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) indicated multiple signaling pathways are involved DKD pathogenesis. Here, we investigated whether PLK2 contributes to podocyte dysfunction, a characteristic change in the development of DKD. High D-glucose (HDG) significantly increased PLK2 expression in mouse podocytes. Suppressing PLK2 attenuated HDG-induced apoptosis and inflammatory responses both in ...


Donor Diabetes And Prolonged Cold Ischemia Time Synergistically Increase The Risk Of Graft Failure After Liver Transplantation, Isabel M. A. Bruggenwirth, Natasha H. Dolgin, Robert J. Porte, Adel Bozorgzadeh, Paulo N.A. Martins 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Donor Diabetes And Prolonged Cold Ischemia Time Synergistically Increase The Risk Of Graft Failure After Liver Transplantation, Isabel M. A. Bruggenwirth, Natasha H. Dolgin, Robert J. Porte, Adel Bozorgzadeh, Paulo N.A. Martins

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Both prolonged cold ischemia time (CIT) and donor history of diabetes mellitus (DM) are associated with reduced graft survival after liver transplantation. However, it is unknown whether the adverse effect of prolonged CIT on posttransplant graft survival is more pronounced after transplant with DM versus non-DM donor grafts.

METHODS: The study sample included 58 226 liver transplant recipients (2002-2015) from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients. Multivariable Cox survival regression with interaction analysis was used to quantify the extent to which history of donor DM (n = 6478) potentiates the adverse effect of prolonged ( > /=8 hours) CIT (n = 18 287 ...


Possible Type 1 Diabetes Risk Prediction: Using Ultrasound Imaging To Assess Pancreas Inflammation In The Inducible Autoimmune Diabetes Bbdr Model, Frederick R. Roberts, Clinton Hupple, Elaine Norowski, Nicole C. Walsh, Natalia Przewozniak, Ken-Edwin Aryee, Filia M. Van Dessel, Agata Jurczyk, David M. Harlan, Dale L. Greiner, Rita Bortell, Chaoxing Yang 2017 FuJiFilm VisualSonics

Possible Type 1 Diabetes Risk Prediction: Using Ultrasound Imaging To Assess Pancreas Inflammation In The Inducible Autoimmune Diabetes Bbdr Model, Frederick R. Roberts, Clinton Hupple, Elaine Norowski, Nicole C. Walsh, Natalia Przewozniak, Ken-Edwin Aryee, Filia M. Van Dessel, Agata Jurczyk, David M. Harlan, Dale L. Greiner, Rita Bortell, Chaoxing Yang

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Studies of human cadaveric pancreas specimens indicate that pancreas inflammation plays an important role in type 1 diabetes pathogenesis. Due to the inaccessibility of pancreas in living patients, imaging technology to visualize pancreas inflammation is much in need. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of utilizing ultrasound imaging to assess pancreas inflammation longitudinally in living rats during the progression leading to type 1 diabetes onset.

METHODS: The virus-inducible BBDR type 1 diabetes rat model was used to systematically investigate pancreas changes that occur prior to and during development of autoimmunity. The nearly 100% diabetes incidence upon virus ...


Snail-Cathepsin L Signaling In Human Breast And Prostate Cancers, LizaJoy Burton 2017 Clark Atlanta University

Snail-Cathepsin L Signaling In Human Breast And Prostate Cancers, Lizajoy Burton

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

Prostate and breast cancer are the leading causes of cancer-related death in men and women, respectively, and metastasis is the primary factor underlying the high mortality rates.1 Snail transcription factor is an important molecule that drives prostate and breast cancer metastasis through the process of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). Proteolytic enzymes that promote invasion and metastasis such as the lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin L (Cat L) have been shown to degrade E-cadherin, promoting the epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT).2 It has also been shown that silencing Cat L can inhibit transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β)-mediated EMT by suppressing Snail ...


The Effectiveness Of Tablet-Based Application For Older Adults With Diabetes Mellitus Type Ii: A Pilot Study, Mohammad Alkawaldeh, Jacelon Cynthia, Jeungok Choi, Jenna Marquard, John Ridgway 2017 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Effectiveness Of Tablet-Based Application For Older Adults With Diabetes Mellitus Type Ii: A Pilot Study, Mohammad Alkawaldeh, Jacelon Cynthia, Jeungok Choi, Jenna Marquard, John Ridgway

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Introduction: Advances in technological applications such as tablet-based computers is growing dramatically in the field of healthcare, as there is a considerable eagerness for mobile health interventions. Tablet-based interventions can have positive effects on both health and health service delivery processes (Free et al, 2013). Technological applications have been developed for a wide range of healthcare needs, including patient registration, data management, and self- management applications.

Background: The usefulness of technology and the powerful capabilities of technological applications have led to a significantly increased interest in finding novel approaches to support older adults’ self-management.Self-management technological applications have been used ...


Prolonged Exercise And Its Effects On Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, Laurel G. Markert 2017 University of Wyoming

Prolonged Exercise And Its Effects On Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, Laurel G. Markert

Honors Theses AY 16/17

Type 1 diabetes mellitus is presumably caused by immunological or viral cumulative destruction of pancreatic β cells, leading to a complete inability to produce endogenous insulin. Exercise can cause different reactions in relation to blood glucose concentration, depending on duration and intensity. High intensity aerobic workouts can cause blood glucose to drop. Anaerobic exercise can cause blood glucose to rise. This can cause problems for a diabetic patient in terms of diabetes management during exercise, as patients often over-compensate for an expected glucose drop by eating carbohydrates and taking a reduced bolus amount of insulin (or no insulin at all ...


A Predictive Model For Lack Of Partial Clinical Remission In New-Onset Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes, Katherine R. Marino, Rachel L. Lundberg, Aastha Jasrotia, Louise Maranda, Michael J. Thompson, Bruce A. Barton, Laura C. Alonso, Benjamin U. Nwosu 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Predictive Model For Lack Of Partial Clinical Remission In New-Onset Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes, Katherine R. Marino, Rachel L. Lundberg, Aastha Jasrotia, Louise Maranda, Michael J. Thompson, Bruce A. Barton, Laura C. Alonso, Benjamin U. Nwosu

Benjamin U. Nwosu

IMPORTANCE: >50% of patients with new-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D) do not enter partial clinical remission (PCR); early identification of these patients may improve initial glycemic control and reduce long-term complications. AIM: To determine whether routinely obtainable clinical parameters predict non-remission in children and adolescents with new-onset T1D. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Data on remission were collected for the first 36 months of disease in 204 subjects of ages 2-14 years with new-onset type 1 diabetes. There were 86 remitters (age 9.1±3.0y; male 57%), and 118 non-remitters (age 7.0±3.1y; male 40.7%). PCR was defined ...


Type 1 Diabetes And Eating Disorders: The Importance Of Healthcare Provider Knowledge Of Eating Disorders In Type 1 Diabetes, Breanna Young 2017 University of Wyoming

Type 1 Diabetes And Eating Disorders: The Importance Of Healthcare Provider Knowledge Of Eating Disorders In Type 1 Diabetes, Breanna Young

Honors Theses AY 16/17

Type 1 diabetes affects more than 3 million people in the United States and the rate of incidence is increasing on a global level (Atkinson, 2014). The diagnosis of type 1 diabetes often occurs prior to or during adolescence and the disease requires a high level of self-management. Adolescence is a challenging time for many adolescents especially in regards to body changes, weight gain and body image. Due to the added burden surrounding food with type 1 diabetes, disordered eating is more likely to occur. The rate of eating disorders in individuals with type 1 diabetes is as much as ...


A Predictive Model For Lack Of Partial Clinical Remission In New-Onset Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes, Katherine R. Marino, Rachel L. Lundberg, Aastha Jasrotia, Louise Maranda, Michael J. Thompson, Bruce A. Barton, Laura C. Alonso, Benjamin U. Nwosu 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Predictive Model For Lack Of Partial Clinical Remission In New-Onset Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes, Katherine R. Marino, Rachel L. Lundberg, Aastha Jasrotia, Louise Maranda, Michael J. Thompson, Bruce A. Barton, Laura C. Alonso, Benjamin U. Nwosu

Endocrinology/Diabetes

IMPORTANCE: >50% of patients with new-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D) do not enter partial clinical remission (PCR); early identification of these patients may improve initial glycemic control and reduce long-term complications.

AIM: To determine whether routinely obtainable clinical parameters predict non-remission in children and adolescents with new-onset T1D.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Data on remission were collected for the first 36 months of disease in 204 subjects of ages 2-14 years with new-onset type 1 diabetes. There were 86 remitters (age 9.1±3.0y; male 57%), and 118 non-remitters (age 7.0±3.1y; male 40.7%). PCR was defined ...


Variables Associated With Overweight/Obesity Among African-American Women With Hypertension And/Or Diabetes, Monica A. Hamilton, DNP, RN, ACNS-BC 2017 George Washington University

Variables Associated With Overweight/Obesity Among African-American Women With Hypertension And/Or Diabetes, Monica A. Hamilton, Dnp, Rn, Acns-Bc

Doctor of Nursing Practice Projects

BACKGROUND

Obesity is the second leading cause of preventable death next to tobacco use. Although it is prevalent in all populations, it disproportionately affects AA women. Overweight/obesity increases AA women’s chances of developing chronic illnesses such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, and decreases their life expectancy. The purpose of this study was to explore variables associated with overweight/obese AA women with hypertension and/or diabetes.

METHODS

A secondary data analysis was conducted using a descriptive-correlational design to analyze cross-sectional data obtained from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). The sample consisted of AA women (n ...


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