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Counterregulatory Effects Of Ptx3 On Inflammation And Cellular Aging, Aaron L. Slusher 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

Counterregulatory Effects Of Ptx3 On Inflammation And Cellular Aging, Aaron L. Slusher

Theses and Dissertations

Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a vital regulator of innate immune function that has been shown to counterregulate pro-inflammatory signaling and protect against the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Less is known about how PTX3 may mitigate against CVD risk by regulating the pro-inflammatory response at the cellular level. Therefore, this dissertation details four manuscripts which aimed to examine the capacity of PTX3 to regulate the innate immune response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from healthy adults. Manuscript 1 examined the capacity of PTX3 to alter the inflammatory milieu following in vitro stimulation of isolated PBMCs with the pro-inflammatory ...


Should Saturated Fat Be Limited To Treat Or Prevent Cardiovascular Disease, Casey Colin 2018 South Dakota State University

Should Saturated Fat Be Limited To Treat Or Prevent Cardiovascular Disease, Casey Colin

Health and Nutritional Sciences Graduate Students Plan B Capstone Projects

Objective: The purpose of this review was to determine if the recommendation to reduce SFA consumption to treat or prevent CVD is still relevant in the context of current peer-reviewed, evidence-based literature.
Methods: A literature review regarding SFA and CVD was conducted using articles from 2011-2018 through PubMed.
Results: 374 articles were found, of which 211 were excluded. The remaining inclusions included 37 primary research articles and 21 reviews. All included publications were examined using the EAL Quality Criteria. Of the positive quality primary research, 8 studies found SFA to have a negative impact on CVD, 11 studies found SFA ...


Adrenergic Stimulation In Acute Hyperglycemia: Effects On Cellular And Tissue Level Murine Cardiac Electrophysiology, Sridevi Thyagarajan 2018 University of Kentucky

Adrenergic Stimulation In Acute Hyperglycemia: Effects On Cellular And Tissue Level Murine Cardiac Electrophysiology, Sridevi Thyagarajan

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Cardiovascular complications associated with elevated levels of glucose in the blood (Hyperglycemia, HG) is a growing health concern. HG is known to be associated with a variety of cardiovascular morbidities including higher incidence of electrical disturbances. Although effects of chronic HG have been widely investigated, electrophysiological effects of acute hyperglycemia are relatively less known. Further, hyperglycemic effects on adrenergic response is not widely investigated. We used excised ventricular tissues from mice to record trans-membrane potentials during a variety of pacing protocols to investigate cellular/tissue level electrophysiological effects of acute hyperglycemia and adrenergic stimulation (1µM Isoproterenol, a β-adrenergic agonist). A ...


Systemic Therapy Versus Catheter Directed Techniques For The Treatment Of Acute Massive Pulmonary Embolism, Lawrence Duane Lee 2018 University of North Dakota

Systemic Therapy Versus Catheter Directed Techniques For The Treatment Of Acute Massive Pulmonary Embolism, Lawrence Duane Lee

Physician Assistant Scholarly Project Papers

Acute massive pulmonary embolism is characterized by obstruction of the pulmonary arterial tree that exceeds 50% of the cross-sectional area causing acute and severe cardiopulmonary failure from right ventricular overload. Systemic thrombolytic therapy is recommended as standard, first-line treatment in patients with massive pulmonary embolism unless contraindicated and catheter directed therapies, including low dose thrombolytic administration directly into thrombus and mechanical thrombectomy can be adjunctive or used as an alternative to systemic treatments. This literature review researched articles looking both systemic thrombolysis and endovascular techniques for the treatment of acute massive pulmonary embolism with an emphasis on long term clinical ...


Pre-Participation Physical Examination: Are Current Cardiovascular Recommendations Enough?, Steven Jacob Pietrusza 2018 University of North Dakota

Pre-Participation Physical Examination: Are Current Cardiovascular Recommendations Enough?, Steven Jacob Pietrusza

Physician Assistant Scholarly Project Papers

Inclusion of screening electrocardiograms (EKGs) during pre-participation physical examination has been a topic of debate for some time. There is unquestioned usefulness in the ability of a well-trained health care provider in using EKG to identify cardiac abnormalities. Further, there have been several contemporary EKG criteria published that increase specificity and sensitivity of detection of disease. However, these criteria do not account for athletes less than 14 years of age, and that demographic represents a large portion of patients seeking pre-participation screenings in the United States. The lack of research into pediatric cardiac remodeling secondary to activity, coupled with the ...


Health Systems Readiness For Adopting Mhealth Interventions For Addressing Non-Communicable Diseases In Low- And Middle-Income Countries: A Current Debate, Anam Feroz, Muhammad Masood Kadir, Sarah Saleem 2018 Aga Khan University

Health Systems Readiness For Adopting Mhealth Interventions For Addressing Non-Communicable Diseases In Low- And Middle-Income Countries: A Current Debate, Anam Feroz, Muhammad Masood Kadir, Sarah Saleem

Community Health Sciences

In low-and-middle-income countries, epidemiologic transition is taking place very rapidly from communicable diseases to non-communicable diseases. NCDs mortality rates are increasing faster and nearly 80% of NCDs deaths occur in LMICs. Existing weak health systems of LMICs are undergoing a devastating human and economic toll as a result of increasing treatment costs and losses to productivity from NCDs. At the same time, the increasing penetration of mobile phone technology and the spread of cellular network and infrastructure have led to the introduction of the mHealth field. While mHealth field offers a great promise to prevent and control non-communicable diseases in ...


Comparison Between Different Strategies Of Rheumatic Heart Disease Echocardiographic Screening In Brazil: Data From The Provar (Rheumatic Valve Disease Screening Program) Study, B Nascimento, Craig A. Sable, M Nunes, A Diamantino, K Oliveira, Andrea Z. Beaton, +several additional authors 2018 George Washington University

Comparison Between Different Strategies Of Rheumatic Heart Disease Echocardiographic Screening In Brazil: Data From The Provar (Rheumatic Valve Disease Screening Program) Study, B Nascimento, Craig A. Sable, M Nunes, A Diamantino, K Oliveira, Andrea Z. Beaton, +Several Additional Authors

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

Background-—Considering the limited accuracy of clinical examination for early diagnosis of rheumatic heart disease (RHD), echocardiography has emerged as an important epidemiological tool. The ideal setting for screening is yet to be defined. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and pattern of latent RHD in schoolchildren (aged 5–18 years) and to compare effectiveness of screening between public schools, private schools, and primary care centers in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Methods and Results-—The PROVAR (Rheumatic Valve Disease Screening Program) study uses nonexperts and portable and handheld devices for RHD echocardiographic screening, with remote interpretation by telemedicine, according to the ...


Mild Cognitive Impairment Impacts Health Outcomes Of Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing A Disease Management Intervention, Jocasta Ball, Maja-Lisa Loechen, Melinda Carrington, Joshua Wiley, S. Stewart 2018 Australian Catholic University

Mild Cognitive Impairment Impacts Health Outcomes Of Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing A Disease Management Intervention, Jocasta Ball, Maja-Lisa Loechen, Melinda Carrington, Joshua Wiley, S. Stewart

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objective: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is prevalent in atrial fibrillation (AF) and has the potential to contribute to poor outcomes. We investigated the influence of MCI on survival and rehospitalisation in patients with chronic forms of AF undergoing a home-based, AF-specific disease management intervention (home-based intervention (HBI)) or standard management(SM). Methods The Montreal Cognitive Assessment tool was administered at baseline (a score of < 26/30 indicated MCI) in patients with AF randomised to HBI versus SM. Post hoc analyses of mortality and rehospitalisations during a minimum 24-month follow-up were conducted in the overall cohort and in each study group separately. Results Of 260 patients (mean age 72±11, 47% female), 65% demonstrated MCI on screening (34% in SM; 31% in HBI). Overall, the number of days spent alive and outof- hospital during follow-up (P=0.012) and all-cause rehospitalisation were influenced by MCI during follow-up (OR 3.16 (95% CI 1.46 to 6.84)) but MCI did not influence any outcomes in the SM group. However, survival was negatively influenced by MCI in the HBI group (P=0.036); those with MCI in this group were 5.6 times more likely to die during follow-up (OR 5.57 (95% CI 1.10 to 28.1)). Those with MCI in the HBI group also spent less days alive and out-of-hospital than those with no MCI (P=0.022). MCI was also identified as a significant independent correlate of shortest duration of event-free survival (OR 3.48 (95% CI 1.06 to 11.4)), allcause rehospitalisation (OR 3.30 (95% CI 1.25 to 8.69)) and cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related rehospitalisation (OR 2.35 (95% CI 1.12 to 4.91)) in this group. Conclusions The effectiveness of home-based, disease management for patients with chronic forms of AF is negatively affected by comorbid MCI. The benefit of adjunctive support for patients with MCI on CVD-related health outcomes requires further investigation.


Interleukin-6 And Exercise; Early Evidence Of A Novel Myokine, Brendan Hogg Mr. 2018 University of Montana, Missoula

Interleukin-6 And Exercise; Early Evidence Of A Novel Myokine, Brendan Hogg Mr.

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was first identified as a pleiotropic cytokine, with a host of body-wide functions. Cytokine functions are characterized by chronically elevated levels within various inflammatory states. In this regard, IL-6 is largely associated with the acute phase response to many stimuli and performs specific actions when produced from certain cell types. Accrued evidence indicates IL-6 release from skeletal muscle often includes myokine functions. Novel myokine functions are adaptive in nature, and as compared to inflammatory/cytokine roles, exhibit a transient time course. Following exercise plasma IL-6 peaks and returns to resting levels within 1-2 hours. In contrast, IL-6 is ...


Predictors Of Arterial Stiffness In Law Enforcement Officers, Jason Michael Keeler 2018 University of Kentucky

Predictors Of Arterial Stiffness In Law Enforcement Officers, Jason Michael Keeler

Theses and Dissertations--Kinesiology and Health Promotion

The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among law enforcement officers (LEOs) is slightly higher than the general population. Furthermore, the prevalence of CVD doubles among LEOs following retirement compared to the general population. The measure of arterial stiffness serves as an independent risk factor that has prognostic value for future incidence of CVD. However, there is limited research on lifestyle, occupational, and demographic factors that may be associated with increased arterial stiffness in LEOs. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to compare the level of arterial stiffness among LEOs versus the general population and to identify lifestyle, occupational, and ...


Gender Disparities In Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrests, Glenn Goodwin, Dyana Picache, Nicholas Gaeto, Brian J. Louie, Tarik Reid, Paxton P. Aung, Sonu Sahni 2018 Touro College of Osteopathic Medicine (New York)

Gender Disparities In Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrests, Glenn Goodwin, Dyana Picache, Nicholas Gaeto, Brian J. Louie, Tarik Reid, Paxton P. Aung, Sonu Sahni

Touro College of Osteopathic Medicine (New York) Publications and Research

Background

Despite advances in resuscitation science and public health, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOHCA) has an average survival rate of only 12% nationwide, compared to 24.8% of patients who suffer from cardiac arrest while in hospital. Additionally, gender is an important element of human health, and there is a clear pattern for gender-specific survivability in cardiac arrest. This study examined differences in presentations, treatment, management, and outcomes.

Aim

The primary focus of this study was to shed light on differences in presentations, treatments, and outcomes between men and women suffering from an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and the accompanying contributing factors ...


Bow Hunter's Syndrome In A Patient With A Right Hypoplastic Vertebral Artery And A Dynamically Compressible Left Vertebral Artery, David Z. Cai, Ryan P. Roach, John P. Weaver, Gerald T. McGillicuddy, Zachary M. Mansell, Jonathan P. Eskander, Mark S. Eskander 2018 Tulane University

Bow Hunter's Syndrome In A Patient With A Right Hypoplastic Vertebral Artery And A Dynamically Compressible Left Vertebral Artery, David Z. Cai, Ryan P. Roach, John P. Weaver, Gerald T. Mcgillicuddy, Zachary M. Mansell, Jonathan P. Eskander, Mark S. Eskander

Open Access Articles

This is a case report of a 48-year-old man with multiple transient ischemic attacks and a known hypoplastic right vertebral artery (VA) who presented after a syncopal event while turning his head to the left. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the necessity of proper diagnosis and management of cerebrovascular pathology including imaging and surgical intervention in patients with known anatomical anomalies. This study was conducted at Massachusetts, United States of America. Our patient's history was significant for a hypoplastic right VA and a stenotic segment of the right VA at the C3-C4 junction. There was also ...


Perceptions Of Health Professionals In Ghana On The Role Of The Community In Chronic Disease Management, Jesuseme Omoruan 2018 Georgia Southern University

Perceptions Of Health Professionals In Ghana On The Role Of The Community In Chronic Disease Management, Jesuseme Omoruan

Electronic Theses & Dissertations

The prevalence of chronic disease has been on the rise in various developing countries. This study is an exploratory investigation of the perceptions of health professionals in Kumasi, Ghana on the role of the community in chronic disease management. Using the Chronic Care Model as a framework, the objective of the study was to examine the extent of community-healthcare system in chronic disease management and to explore the barriers to and facilitators of community involvement in chronic disease management. By exploring the availability of community resources that positively contribute to the management of these patients, the study fills an existing ...


Ten-Year (2001-2011) Trends In The Incidence Rates And Short-Term Outcomes Of Early Versus Late Onset Cardiogenic Shock After Hospitalization For Acute Myocardial Infarction, Hoa L. Nguyen, Jorge L. Yarzebski, Darleen M. Lessard, Joel M. Gore, David D. McManus, Robert J. Goldberg 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Ten-Year (2001-2011) Trends In The Incidence Rates And Short-Term Outcomes Of Early Versus Late Onset Cardiogenic Shock After Hospitalization For Acute Myocardial Infarction, Hoa L. Nguyen, Jorge L. Yarzebski, Darleen M. Lessard, Joel M. Gore, David D. Mcmanus, Robert J. Goldberg

Jorge L. Yarzebski

BACKGROUND: Cardiogenic shock (CS) is a serious complication of acute myocardial infarction, and the time of onset of CS has a potential role in influencing its prognosis. Limited contemporary data exist on this complication, however, especially from a population-based perspective. Our study objectives were to describe decade-long trends in the incidence, in-hospital mortality, and factors associated with the development of CS in 3 temporal contexts: (1) before hospital arrival for acute myocardial infarction (prehospital CS); (2) within 24 hours of hospitalization (early CS); and (3) > /=24 hours after hospitalization (late CS). METHODS AND RESULTS: The study population consisted of 5782 ...


Magnitude And Characteristics Of Patients Who Survived An Acute Myocardial Infarction, Mayra Tisminetzky, Tracy Y. Wang, Jerry H. Gurwitz, Lisa A. Kaltenbach, David D. McManus, Joel M. Gore, Eric Peterson, Robert J. Goldberg 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Magnitude And Characteristics Of Patients Who Survived An Acute Myocardial Infarction, Mayra Tisminetzky, Tracy Y. Wang, Jerry H. Gurwitz, Lisa A. Kaltenbach, David D. Mcmanus, Joel M. Gore, Eric Peterson, Robert J. Goldberg

Jerry H. Gurwitz

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to describe the magnitude and characteristics of patients who did not experience any significant major adverse cardiovascular event early (within 6 weeks) and late (during the first year) after hospital discharge for an acute myocardial infarction (AMI).

METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from 12 243 patients discharged after an AMI from 233 sites across the United States in the TRANSLATE-ACS (Treatment With ADP Receptor Inhibitors: Longitudinal Assessment of Treatment Patterns and Events After Acute Coronary Syndrome) study were analyzed. Multivariable adjusted regression analyses modeled factors associated with 6-week and 1-year survivors who did not ...


Magnitude And Characteristics Of Patients Who Survived An Acute Myocardial Infarction, Mayra Tisminetzky, Tracy Y. Wang, Jerry H. Gurwitz, Lisa A. Kaltenbach, David D. McManus, Joel M. Gore, Eric Peterson, Robert J. Goldberg 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Magnitude And Characteristics Of Patients Who Survived An Acute Myocardial Infarction, Mayra Tisminetzky, Tracy Y. Wang, Jerry H. Gurwitz, Lisa A. Kaltenbach, David D. Mcmanus, Joel M. Gore, Eric Peterson, Robert J. Goldberg

David D. McManus

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to describe the magnitude and characteristics of patients who did not experience any significant major adverse cardiovascular event early (within 6 weeks) and late (during the first year) after hospital discharge for an acute myocardial infarction (AMI).

METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from 12 243 patients discharged after an AMI from 233 sites across the United States in the TRANSLATE-ACS (Treatment With ADP Receptor Inhibitors: Longitudinal Assessment of Treatment Patterns and Events After Acute Coronary Syndrome) study were analyzed. Multivariable adjusted regression analyses modeled factors associated with 6-week and 1-year survivors who did not ...


Prevalence And Incidence Of Health Risk Factors Among Adolescent Girls, Kylah Pollard, Mohammed Chowdhury, Sarai Bauguess 2017 Kennesaw State University

Prevalence And Incidence Of Health Risk Factors Among Adolescent Girls, Kylah Pollard, Mohammed Chowdhury, Sarai Bauguess

The Kennesaw Journal of Undergraduate Research

Heart Disease has many different risk factors, including hypertension (high blood pressure) and high cholesterol. Research has shown that hypertension can be identified as early as adolescence, and preventative measures can be instilled in this age. However, the relationship between hypertension, high cholesterol, race, and income have not been studied in detail among adolescents. The present study analyzed the effects of different health factors on blood pressure and cholesterol levels in Caucasian and African-American girls ages 9-21 years old, the prime of adolescence. The dataset was part of a larger study completed by the National Heart, Blood, and Lung Institute ...


Study Protocol For Smartphone Monitoring For Atrial Fibrillation In Real-Time In India (Smart-India): A Community-Based Screening And Referral Programme, Apurv Soni, Nisha Fahey, Shyamsundar Raithatha, Anna Handorf, John Bostrom, Ravi Shah, Robert J. Goldberg, Jeroan J. Allison, David D. McManus 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Study Protocol For Smartphone Monitoring For Atrial Fibrillation In Real-Time In India (Smart-India): A Community-Based Screening And Referral Programme, Apurv Soni, Nisha Fahey, Shyamsundar Raithatha, Anna Handorf, John Bostrom, Ravi Shah, Robert J. Goldberg, Jeroan J. Allison, David D. Mcmanus

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Supported Publications

INTRODUCTION: Atrial fibrillation (AF), the world's most common arrhythmia, often goes undetected and untreated in low-resource communities, including India, where AF epidemiology is undefined. AF is an important risk factor for stroke, which plagues an estimated 1.6 million Indians annually. As such, early detection of AF and management of high-risk patients is critically important to decrease stroke burden in individuals with AF. This study aims to describe the epidemiology of AF in Anand District, Gujarat, India, characterise the clinical profile of individuals who are diagnosed with AF and determine the performance of two mobile technologies for community-based AF ...


Aging, Inflammation, And Gut Microbiota In Mice, Jody Demeo 2017 Bowling Green State University

Aging, Inflammation, And Gut Microbiota In Mice, Jody Demeo

Honors Projects

Inflammation and gut microbiota are two areas of study that can be linked to aging in the body. As a person ages, systemic inflammation tends to increase, and changes in microbiota in the gastrointestinal system occur as well.


Iron Reduction Response And Demographic Differences Between Diabetics And Non-Diabetics With Cardiovascular Disease Entered To A Controlled Clinical Trial, Leo Zacharski, Galina Shamayeva, Bruce Chow 2017 Dartmouth College

Iron Reduction Response And Demographic Differences Between Diabetics And Non-Diabetics With Cardiovascular Disease Entered To A Controlled Clinical Trial, Leo Zacharski, Galina Shamayeva, Bruce Chow

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Iron-catalyzed oxygen free radical-induced oxidative stress mediates the pathogenesis of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Diabetics (n=473) and non-diabetics (n=804) with CVD entered to a randomized trial of iron (ferritin) reduction by calibrated phlebotomy (www.clinicaltrials.gov, Identifier NCT00032357) had comparable iron measures at entry but diabetics had greater burden of CVD and comorbidities, lower hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and higher glucose levels than non-diabetics. Entry iron measures were lower in diabetics on hypoglycemic therapy compared to diabetics untreated previously. Diabetics and non-diabetics had comparable iron measures during follow-up. Loess analysis of paired ferritin and hemoglobin, and paired ...


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