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Cardiovascular Diseases Commons

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Sleep Quality, Anxiety And Cardiovascular Disease Risk In Humans, Melissa Rader 2018 University of Iowa

Sleep Quality, Anxiety And Cardiovascular Disease Risk In Humans, Melissa Rader

University of Iowa Honors Theses

Adequate sleep duration and sleep quality are essential for maintaining cardiovascular health. Short sleep duration is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, however, less is known about whether sleep quality, independent of sleep duration, is associated with CVD risk. Anxiety is also an independent risk factor for development of CVD, but how anxiety leads to CVD is unclear. Our overall hypothesis is that higher anxiety and vascular biomarkers of CVD risk (arterial stiffness and altered 24-hour blood pressure patterns) will be associated with poor sleep quality (PSQ) in healthy adults. Specifically, we hypothesize that independent of sleep duration, adults ...


Mechanisms For Insulin-Dependent Regulation Of Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria By Opa-1, Serif Bacevac 2018 University of Iowa

Mechanisms For Insulin-Dependent Regulation Of Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria By Opa-1, Serif Bacevac

University of Iowa Honors Theses

Augmentation of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism by insulin might be mediated in part by induction of the inner mitochondrial membrane protein, Optic Atrophy-1 (OPA-1). Decreased OPA-1 in skeletal muscle has been reported in both murine and human type II diabetic models. Reduced OPA-1 in these contexts correlates with mitochondrial content, oxidative capacity, and dynamics. In addition to increasing mitochondrial fusion, OPA-1 mediates cristae remodeling toenhance mitochondrial bioenergetics through oligomer formation. Therefore, we hypothesized that insulin stimulation increases OPA-1 protein levels and mitochondrial respiration by increasing OPA-1 oligomerization and cristae remodeling in skeletal muscle cells. To investigate the role of insulin on ...


The Efficacy And Safety Of Statins In The Primary Prevention Of Cardiovascular Disease, Kayla M. Ashton 2018 University of North Dakota

The Efficacy And Safety Of Statins In The Primary Prevention Of Cardiovascular Disease, Kayla M. Ashton

Physician Assistant Scholarly Project Papers

Atherosclerotic plaques can form in the blood vessels from particles of cholesterol. These plaques are a major cause of cardiovascular disease and have the ability to result in fatal cardiovascular events. In researching this topic, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, DynaMed, and ClinicalKey were all utilized in finding articles published from 2002 to 2018. There are several organizations with conflicting guidelines recommending the use of statin medications in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. The research evaluated discovers data is inconclusive on the benefit of statin medications in this primary prevention as well as the safety of long-term statin use. Some ...


Ten-Year (2001-2011) Trends In The Incidence Rates And Short-Term Outcomes Of Early Versus Late Onset Cardiogenic Shock After Hospitalization For Acute Myocardial Infarction, Hoa L. Nguyen, Jorge L. Yarzebski, Darleen M. Lessard, Joel M. Gore, David D. McManus, Robert J. Goldberg 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Ten-Year (2001-2011) Trends In The Incidence Rates And Short-Term Outcomes Of Early Versus Late Onset Cardiogenic Shock After Hospitalization For Acute Myocardial Infarction, Hoa L. Nguyen, Jorge L. Yarzebski, Darleen M. Lessard, Joel M. Gore, David D. Mcmanus, Robert J. Goldberg

Jorge L. Yarzebski

BACKGROUND: Cardiogenic shock (CS) is a serious complication of acute myocardial infarction, and the time of onset of CS has a potential role in influencing its prognosis. Limited contemporary data exist on this complication, however, especially from a population-based perspective. Our study objectives were to describe decade-long trends in the incidence, in-hospital mortality, and factors associated with the development of CS in 3 temporal contexts: (1) before hospital arrival for acute myocardial infarction (prehospital CS); (2) within 24 hours of hospitalization (early CS); and (3) > /=24 hours after hospitalization (late CS). METHODS AND RESULTS: The study population consisted of 5782 ...


Magnitude And Characteristics Of Patients Who Survived An Acute Myocardial Infarction, Mayra Tisminetzky, Tracy Y. Wang, Jerry H. Gurwitz, Lisa A. Kaltenbach, David D. McManus, Joel M. Gore, Eric Peterson, Robert J. Goldberg 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Magnitude And Characteristics Of Patients Who Survived An Acute Myocardial Infarction, Mayra Tisminetzky, Tracy Y. Wang, Jerry H. Gurwitz, Lisa A. Kaltenbach, David D. Mcmanus, Joel M. Gore, Eric Peterson, Robert J. Goldberg

Jerry H. Gurwitz

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to describe the magnitude and characteristics of patients who did not experience any significant major adverse cardiovascular event early (within 6 weeks) and late (during the first year) after hospital discharge for an acute myocardial infarction (AMI).

METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from 12 243 patients discharged after an AMI from 233 sites across the United States in the TRANSLATE-ACS (Treatment With ADP Receptor Inhibitors: Longitudinal Assessment of Treatment Patterns and Events After Acute Coronary Syndrome) study were analyzed. Multivariable adjusted regression analyses modeled factors associated with 6-week and 1-year survivors who did not ...


Magnitude And Characteristics Of Patients Who Survived An Acute Myocardial Infarction, Mayra Tisminetzky, Tracy Y. Wang, Jerry H. Gurwitz, Lisa A. Kaltenbach, David D. McManus, Joel M. Gore, Eric Peterson, Robert J. Goldberg 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Magnitude And Characteristics Of Patients Who Survived An Acute Myocardial Infarction, Mayra Tisminetzky, Tracy Y. Wang, Jerry H. Gurwitz, Lisa A. Kaltenbach, David D. Mcmanus, Joel M. Gore, Eric Peterson, Robert J. Goldberg

David D. McManus

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to describe the magnitude and characteristics of patients who did not experience any significant major adverse cardiovascular event early (within 6 weeks) and late (during the first year) after hospital discharge for an acute myocardial infarction (AMI).

METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from 12 243 patients discharged after an AMI from 233 sites across the United States in the TRANSLATE-ACS (Treatment With ADP Receptor Inhibitors: Longitudinal Assessment of Treatment Patterns and Events After Acute Coronary Syndrome) study were analyzed. Multivariable adjusted regression analyses modeled factors associated with 6-week and 1-year survivors who did not ...


Ten-Year (2001-2011) Trends In The Incidence Rates And Short-Term Outcomes Of Early Versus Late Onset Cardiogenic Shock After Hospitalization For Acute Myocardial Infarction, Hoa L. Nguyen, Jorge L. Yarzebski, Darleen M. Lessard, Joel M. Gore, David D. McManus, Robert J. Goldberg 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Ten-Year (2001-2011) Trends In The Incidence Rates And Short-Term Outcomes Of Early Versus Late Onset Cardiogenic Shock After Hospitalization For Acute Myocardial Infarction, Hoa L. Nguyen, Jorge L. Yarzebski, Darleen M. Lessard, Joel M. Gore, David D. Mcmanus, Robert J. Goldberg

Robert J. Goldberg

BACKGROUND: Cardiogenic shock (CS) is a serious complication of acute myocardial infarction, and the time of onset of CS has a potential role in influencing its prognosis. Limited contemporary data exist on this complication, however, especially from a population-based perspective. Our study objectives were to describe decade-long trends in the incidence, in-hospital mortality, and factors associated with the development of CS in 3 temporal contexts: (1) before hospital arrival for acute myocardial infarction (prehospital CS); (2) within 24 hours of hospitalization (early CS); and (3) > /=24 hours after hospitalization (late CS). METHODS AND RESULTS: The study population consisted of 5782 ...


Magnitude And Characteristics Of Patients Who Survived An Acute Myocardial Infarction, Mayra Tisminetzky, Tracy Y. Wang, Jerry H. Gurwitz, Lisa A. Kaltenbach, David D. McManus, Joel M. Gore, Eric Peterson, Robert J. Goldberg 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Magnitude And Characteristics Of Patients Who Survived An Acute Myocardial Infarction, Mayra Tisminetzky, Tracy Y. Wang, Jerry H. Gurwitz, Lisa A. Kaltenbach, David D. Mcmanus, Joel M. Gore, Eric Peterson, Robert J. Goldberg

Robert J. Goldberg

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to describe the magnitude and characteristics of patients who did not experience any significant major adverse cardiovascular event early (within 6 weeks) and late (during the first year) after hospital discharge for an acute myocardial infarction (AMI).

METHODS AND RESULTS: Data from 12 243 patients discharged after an AMI from 233 sites across the United States in the TRANSLATE-ACS (Treatment With ADP Receptor Inhibitors: Longitudinal Assessment of Treatment Patterns and Events After Acute Coronary Syndrome) study were analyzed. Multivariable adjusted regression analyses modeled factors associated with 6-week and 1-year survivors who did not ...


Prevalence And Incidence Of Health Risk Factors Among Adolescent Girls, Kylah Pollard, Mohammed Chowdhury, Sarai Bauguess 2017 Kennesaw State University

Prevalence And Incidence Of Health Risk Factors Among Adolescent Girls, Kylah Pollard, Mohammed Chowdhury, Sarai Bauguess

The Kennesaw Journal of Undergraduate Research

Heart Disease has many different risk factors, including hypertension (high blood pressure) and high cholesterol. Research has shown that hypertension can be identified as early as adolescence, and preventative measures can be instilled in this age. However, the relationship between hypertension, high cholesterol, race, and income have not been studied in detail among adolescents. The present study analyzed the effects of different health factors on blood pressure and cholesterol levels in Caucasian and African-American girls ages 9-21 years old, the prime of adolescence. The dataset was part of a larger study completed by the National Heart, Blood, and Lung Institute ...


Study Protocol For Smartphone Monitoring For Atrial Fibrillation In Real-Time In India (Smart-India): A Community-Based Screening And Referral Programme, Apurv Soni, Nisha Fahey, Shyamsundar Raithatha, Anna Handorf, John Bostrom, Ravi Shah, Robert J. Goldberg, Jeroan J. Allison, David D. McManus 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Study Protocol For Smartphone Monitoring For Atrial Fibrillation In Real-Time In India (Smart-India): A Community-Based Screening And Referral Programme, Apurv Soni, Nisha Fahey, Shyamsundar Raithatha, Anna Handorf, John Bostrom, Ravi Shah, Robert J. Goldberg, Jeroan J. Allison, David D. Mcmanus

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Supported Publications

INTRODUCTION: Atrial fibrillation (AF), the world's most common arrhythmia, often goes undetected and untreated in low-resource communities, including India, where AF epidemiology is undefined. AF is an important risk factor for stroke, which plagues an estimated 1.6 million Indians annually. As such, early detection of AF and management of high-risk patients is critically important to decrease stroke burden in individuals with AF. This study aims to describe the epidemiology of AF in Anand District, Gujarat, India, characterise the clinical profile of individuals who are diagnosed with AF and determine the performance of two mobile technologies for community-based AF ...


Aging, Inflammation, And Gut Microbiota In Mice, Jody Demeo 2017 Bowling Green State University

Aging, Inflammation, And Gut Microbiota In Mice, Jody Demeo

Honors Projects

Inflammation and gut microbiota are two areas of study that can be linked to aging in the body. As a person ages, systemic inflammation tends to increase, and changes in microbiota in the gastrointestinal system occur as well.


Iron Reduction Response And Demographic Differences Between Diabetics And Non-Diabetics With Cardiovascular Disease Entered To A Controlled Clinical Trial, Leo Zacharski, Galina Shamayeva, Bruce Chow 2017 Dartmouth College

Iron Reduction Response And Demographic Differences Between Diabetics And Non-Diabetics With Cardiovascular Disease Entered To A Controlled Clinical Trial, Leo Zacharski, Galina Shamayeva, Bruce Chow

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Iron-catalyzed oxygen free radical-induced oxidative stress mediates the pathogenesis of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Diabetics (n=473) and non-diabetics (n=804) with CVD entered to a randomized trial of iron (ferritin) reduction by calibrated phlebotomy (www.clinicaltrials.gov, Identifier NCT00032357) had comparable iron measures at entry but diabetics had greater burden of CVD and comorbidities, lower hemoglobin and hematocrit levels, and higher glucose levels than non-diabetics. Entry iron measures were lower in diabetics on hypoglycemic therapy compared to diabetics untreated previously. Diabetics and non-diabetics had comparable iron measures during follow-up. Loess analysis of paired ferritin and hemoglobin, and paired ...


Does Cognitive Impairment Impact Adherence? A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis Of The Association Between Cognitive Impairment And Medication Non-Adherence In Stroke., Daniela Rohde, Niamh A. Merriman, Frank Doyle, Kathleen Bennett, David Williams, Anne Hickey 2017 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

Does Cognitive Impairment Impact Adherence? A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis Of The Association Between Cognitive Impairment And Medication Non-Adherence In Stroke., Daniela Rohde, Niamh A. Merriman, Frank Doyle, Kathleen Bennett, David Williams, Anne Hickey

Psychology Articles

BACKGROUND: While medication adherence is essential for the secondary prevention of stroke, it is often sub-optimal, and can be compromised by cognitive impairment. This study aimed to systematically review and meta-analyse the association between cognitive impairment and medication non-adherence in stroke.

METHODS: A systematic literature search of longitudinal and cross-sectional studies of adults with any stroke type, which reported on the association between any measure of non-adherence and cognitive impairment, was carried out according to PRISMA guidelines. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were the primary measure of effect. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Bias Methods Group ...


Structural Insights Into The Potency Of Sk Channel Positive Modulators, Young-Woo Nam, Razan Orfali, Tingting Liu, Kunqian Yu, Meng Cui, Heike Wulff, Miao Zhang 2017 Chapman University

Structural Insights Into The Potency Of Sk Channel Positive Modulators, Young-Woo Nam, Razan Orfali, Tingting Liu, Kunqian Yu, Meng Cui, Heike Wulff, Miao Zhang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) channels play essential roles in the regulation of cellular excitability and have been implicated in neurological and cardiovascular diseases through both animal model studies and human genetic association studies. Over the past two decades, positive modulators of SK channels such as NS309 and 1-EBIO have been developed. Our previous structural studies have identified the binding pocket of 1-EBIO and NS309 that is located at the interface between the channel and calmodulin. In this study, we took advantage of four compounds with potencies varying over three orders of magnitude, including 1-EBIO, NS309, SKS-11 (6-bromo-5-methyl-1H-indole-2 ...


Comparative Effectiveness And Safety Of Empagliflozin On Cardiovascular Mortality And Morbidity In Adults With Type 2 Diabetes, Wilbert Aronow, T Shamliyan 2017 New York Medical College

Comparative Effectiveness And Safety Of Empagliflozin On Cardiovascular Mortality And Morbidity In Adults With Type 2 Diabetes, Wilbert Aronow, T Shamliyan

Faculty Publications

Background: Based on a single placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial, empagliflozin is licensed to reduce cardiovascular death in diabetes and comorbid cardiovascular disease. Methods: We examined the comparative effectiveness of empagliflozin on mortality and cardiovascular morbidity in type 2 diabetes. We conducted random-effects direct frequentist meta-analyses of aggregate data and appraised the quality of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. Our search in PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, clinicaltrials.gov, and PharmaPendium up to May 2017 identified 11 meta-analyses, multiple publications, and unpublished data from 29 randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Results: Empagliflozin reduces all-cause mortality ...


Masked Hypertension, Wilbert Aronow 2017 New York Medical College

Masked Hypertension, Wilbert Aronow

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Association Between Leukocyte Telomere Length And The Risk Of Incident Atrial Fibrillation: The Framingham Heart Study, Laila Staerk, Biqi Wang, Kathryn L. Lunetta, Robert H. Helm, Darae Ko, Jason A. Sherer, Patrick T. Ellinor, Steven A. Lubitz, David D. McManus, Ramachandran S. Vasan, Emelia J. Benjamin, Ludovic Trinquart 2017 University Hospital Herlev and Gentofte

Association Between Leukocyte Telomere Length And The Risk Of Incident Atrial Fibrillation: The Framingham Heart Study, Laila Staerk, Biqi Wang, Kathryn L. Lunetta, Robert H. Helm, Darae Ko, Jason A. Sherer, Patrick T. Ellinor, Steven A. Lubitz, David D. Mcmanus, Ramachandran S. Vasan, Emelia J. Benjamin, Ludovic Trinquart

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Advancing age is a prominent risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF). Shorter telomere length is a biomarker of biological aging, but the link between shorter telomere length and increased risk of AF remains unclear. We examined the association between shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and incident AF.

METHODS AND RESULTS: We included AF-free participants from the observational Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort from 1995 to 1998, who had LTL measurements. We examined the association between baseline LTL and incident AF with multivariable Cox models adjusted for age, sex, current smoking, height, weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, use of ...


Comparison Of Inappropriate Shocks And Other Health Outcomes Between Single- And Dual-Chamber Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators For Primary Prevention Of Sudden Cardiac Death: Results From The Cardiovascular Research Network Longitudinal Study Of Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators, Pamela N. Peterson, Jerry H. Gurwitz 2017 University of Colorado Denver Anschutz Medical Campus

Comparison Of Inappropriate Shocks And Other Health Outcomes Between Single- And Dual-Chamber Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators For Primary Prevention Of Sudden Cardiac Death: Results From The Cardiovascular Research Network Longitudinal Study Of Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators, Pamela N. Peterson, Jerry H. Gurwitz

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: In US clinical practice, many patients who undergo placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death receive dual-chamber devices. The superiority of dual-chamber over single-chamber devices in reducing the risk of inappropriate ICD shocks in clinical practice has not been established. The objective of this study was to compare risk of adverse outcomes, including inappropriate shocks, between single- and dual-chamber ICDs for primary prevention.

METHODS AND RESULTS: We identified patients receiving a single- or dual-chamber ICD for primary prevention who did not have an indication for pacing from 15 hospitals within 7 integrated health ...


Sensitivity Of Current Methods For Diagnosing And Documenting Metabolic Syndrome Within A Large Community-Based Health Care System, Tiffany A. Mullen, Danielle M. Greer, Jennifer T. Fink, Renee E. Walker 2017 Department of Integrative Medicine, Aurora Sinai Medical Center

Sensitivity Of Current Methods For Diagnosing And Documenting Metabolic Syndrome Within A Large Community-Based Health Care System, Tiffany A. Mullen, Danielle M. Greer, Jennifer T. Fink, Renee E. Walker

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of metabolic conditions, including abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high triglyceride level, low high-density-lipoprotein level and high fasting blood glucose level, that increase the risk of developing chronic health conditions. Various combinations of diagnostic criteria have been proposed, including those by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III), World Health Organization (WHO) and International Diabetes Foundation (IDF), among others. However, inconsistent use of diagnostic criteria and inadequate scientific evidence supporting use of specific criteria are current problems in health care.

Purpose: Quantify the prevalence of MetS diagnosis within the ...


Do U.S. Adults Living In Food Insecure Households Experience Poorer Cardiovascular Health?, Meera Sreedhara, Andrea Lopez-Cepero, Milagros C. Rosal, Stephenie C. Lemon 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Do U.S. Adults Living In Food Insecure Households Experience Poorer Cardiovascular Health?, Meera Sreedhara, Andrea Lopez-Cepero, Milagros C. Rosal, Stephenie C. Lemon

UMass Worcester PRC Presentations

Background

Twelve percent of U.S. adults live in food insecure households, putting them at risk for adverse health outcomes. Relationships between food insecurity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors range from well-established to inconsistent and understudied. Food insecurity has been positively associated with poor glycemic control, tobacco use, and poor diet. The link with unhealthy body mass index (BMI) is only observed among women. Inconsistent evidence of relationships with hypertension and dyslipidemia has been found and literature examining physical activity is sparse. The relationships between food insecurity and overall cardiovascular health metrics have not been studied in a nationally ...


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