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Cardiovascular Diseases Commons

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Aggressive Diuresis And Severity-Adjusted Length Of Hospital Stay In Acute Congestive Heart Failure Patients, Muhammad U. Butt 2018 University of Kentucky

Aggressive Diuresis And Severity-Adjusted Length Of Hospital Stay In Acute Congestive Heart Failure Patients, Muhammad U. Butt

Theses and Dissertations--Clinical Research Design

To see if aggressive diuresis in first twenty four hours is associated with a comparable number of total days in the hospital as compared to non-aggressive diuresis. In this retrospective cohort study, we compared the length of hospital stay of consecutive patients admitted in one year based on their diuresis during the first twenty-four hours of hospitalization: aggressive diuresis (group 1) i.e. > 2400mL versus non-aggressive diuresis (group 2) i.e. ≤ 2400mL urine output. Patients were excluded if in cardiogenic shock, had creatinine level above 3 mg/dL on admission, or on dialysis. A total of 194 patients were enrolled ...


Reduction Of Vascular Inflammation, Ldl-C, Or Both For The Protection From Cardiovascular Events?, Andromachi Reklou, Michael Doumas, Konstantinos Imprialos, Konstantinos Stavropoulos, Dimitris Patoulias, Vasilios Athyros 2018 George Washington University

Reduction Of Vascular Inflammation, Ldl-C, Or Both For The Protection From Cardiovascular Events?, Andromachi Reklou, Michael Doumas, Konstantinos Imprialos, Konstantinos Stavropoulos, Dimitris Patoulias, Vasilios Athyros

Medicine Faculty Publications

Background:

Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and low grade arterial inflammation are key pathogenic factors for atherosclerosis and its manifestation, cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Objective:

In this narrative review we assessed if decreasing LDL-C levels or inflammation or both is more effective in reducing CVD events.

Results:

In the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S), all statin trials of the 90s’ and the Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research with PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects with Elevated Risk (FOURIER) the benefit came from the LDL-C reduction. In the GREak and Atorvastatin Coronary heart disease Evaluation (GREACE), the Treating to New Targets (TNT), and the Justification ...


Role Of Sex Chromosomes In Sexual Dimorphism Of Angii-Induced Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms, Yasir Alsiraj 2018 University of Kentucky

Role Of Sex Chromosomes In Sexual Dimorphism Of Angii-Induced Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms, Yasir Alsiraj

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences

Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), a permanent dilation in the abdominal region of the aorta, is a highly sexually dimorphic disease. AAAs prevalence is ranging from 4-10 fold higher in males than females. Defining the mechanistic basis for reduced (in females) or increased (in males) AAA formation and progression may uncover potential therapeutic targets. The majority of studies examining sexual dimorphism focus on the role of sex hormones. However, genes residing on sex chromosomes, in addition to sex hormones, may contribute to sexual dimorphism of AAAs. For example, the X chromosome contains about 5% of the whole genome, but the role ...


Improving Outcomes After Pediatric Cardiac Arrest – The Icu-Resuscitation Project: Study Protocol For A Randomized Controlled Trial, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network (CPCCRN), Murray M. Pollack 2018 George Washington University

Improving Outcomes After Pediatric Cardiac Arrest – The Icu-Resuscitation Project: Study Protocol For A Randomized Controlled Trial, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute Of Child Health And Human Development Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network (Cpccrn), Murray M. Pollack

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

Background

Quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is associated with survival, but recommended guidelines are often not met, and less than half the children with an in-hospital arrest will survive to discharge. A single-center before-and-after study demonstrated that outcomes may be improved with a novel training program in which all pediatric intensive care unit staff are encouraged to participate in frequent CPR refresher training and regular, structured resuscitation debriefings focused on patient-centric physiology.

Methods/design

This ongoing trial will assess whether a program of structured debriefings and point-of-care bedside practice that emphasizes physiologic resuscitation targets improves the rate of survival to ...


Sleep Quality, Anxiety And Cardiovascular Disease Risk In Humans, Melissa Rader 2018 University of Iowa

Sleep Quality, Anxiety And Cardiovascular Disease Risk In Humans, Melissa Rader

University of Iowa Honors Theses

Adequate sleep duration and sleep quality are essential for maintaining cardiovascular health. Short sleep duration is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, however, less is known about whether sleep quality, independent of sleep duration, is associated with CVD risk. Anxiety is also an independent risk factor for development of CVD, but how anxiety leads to CVD is unclear. Our overall hypothesis is that higher anxiety and vascular biomarkers of CVD risk (arterial stiffness and altered 24-hour blood pressure patterns) will be associated with poor sleep quality (PSQ) in healthy adults. Specifically, we hypothesize that independent of sleep duration, adults ...


Mechanisms For Insulin-Dependent Regulation Of Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria By Opa-1, Serif Bacevac 2018 University of Iowa

Mechanisms For Insulin-Dependent Regulation Of Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria By Opa-1, Serif Bacevac

University of Iowa Honors Theses

Augmentation of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism by insulin might be mediated in part by induction of the inner mitochondrial membrane protein, Optic Atrophy-1 (OPA-1). Decreased OPA-1 in skeletal muscle has been reported in both murine and human type II diabetic models. Reduced OPA-1 in these contexts correlates with mitochondrial content, oxidative capacity, and dynamics. In addition to increasing mitochondrial fusion, OPA-1 mediates cristae remodeling toenhance mitochondrial bioenergetics through oligomer formation. Therefore, we hypothesized that insulin stimulation increases OPA-1 protein levels and mitochondrial respiration by increasing OPA-1 oligomerization and cristae remodeling in skeletal muscle cells. To investigate the role of insulin on ...


Workplace Standing Desks And Arterial Stiffness, Ian Greenlund 2018 Michigan Technological University

Workplace Standing Desks And Arterial Stiffness, Ian Greenlund

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Many jobs in today’s society require sitting at a desk with little physical activity. Individuals who engage in ten hours of sedentary behavior per day double their CVD risk. Standing desks are thought to decrease sedentary time and improve cardiovascular health. Acute use of standing desks is shown to lower PWV. However, chronic effects remain unknown. Forty eight participants qualified as seated (19 females, 5 males: age 41 ± 2 years, BMI 25 ± 1 kg/m2) or standing (21 females, 3 males: age 45 ± 2 years, BMI 25 ± 1 kg/m2) groups based on habitual workplace use. Arterial ...


The Efficacy And Safety Of Statins In The Primary Prevention Of Cardiovascular Disease, Kayla M. Ashton 2018 University of North Dakota

The Efficacy And Safety Of Statins In The Primary Prevention Of Cardiovascular Disease, Kayla M. Ashton

Physician Assistant Scholarly Project Papers

Atherosclerotic plaques can form in the blood vessels from particles of cholesterol. These plaques are a major cause of cardiovascular disease and have the ability to result in fatal cardiovascular events. In researching this topic, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, DynaMed, and ClinicalKey were all utilized in finding articles published from 2002 to 2018. There are several organizations with conflicting guidelines recommending the use of statin medications in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. The research evaluated discovers data is inconclusive on the benefit of statin medications in this primary prevention as well as the safety of long-term statin use. Some ...


The Efficacy And Safety Of Statins In The Primary Prevention Of Cardiovascular Disease, Kayla M. Ashton 2018 University of North Dakota

The Efficacy And Safety Of Statins In The Primary Prevention Of Cardiovascular Disease, Kayla M. Ashton

Physician Assistant Scholarly Project Posters

Atherosclerotic plaques can form in the blood vessels from particles of cholesterol. These plaques are a major cause of cardiovascular disease and have the ability to result in fatal cardiovascular events. In researching this topic, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, DynaMed, and ClinicalKey were all utilized in finding articles published from 2002 to 2018. There are several organizations with conflicting guidelines recommending the use of statin medications in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. The research evaluated discovers data is inconclusive on the benefit of statin medications in this primary prevention as well as the safety of long-term statin use. Some ...


The Neuroprotective Effects Of Targeted Temperature Management On Post-Cardiac Arrest Patients, Timothy Hovde 2018 University of North Dakota

The Neuroprotective Effects Of Targeted Temperature Management On Post-Cardiac Arrest Patients, Timothy Hovde

Physician Assistant Scholarly Project Posters

Novel methods of ensuring survival following cardiac arrest and resuscitation are of supreme importance to the medical community. Targeted temperature management (TTM) has become increasingly utilized pre-hospital, in emergency departments, and within intensive care units to increase the likelihood of survival to hospital discharge. TTM has further been used to attempt to improve neurological functioning. The efficacy and mechanism behind TTM remains poorly understood. In several patient populations it also remains unproven. The purpose of this study is to assess the physiological mechanism, survival, neurological recovery and methodology of TTM use and implementation.

Literature review was utilized to assess the ...


Systemic Therapy Versus Catheter Directed Techniques For The Treatment Of Acute Massive Pulmonary Embolism, Lawrence Duane Lee 2018 University of North Dakota

Systemic Therapy Versus Catheter Directed Techniques For The Treatment Of Acute Massive Pulmonary Embolism, Lawrence Duane Lee

Physician Assistant Scholarly Project Posters

•Acute massive pulmonary embolism is characterized by obstruction of the pulmonary arterial tree that exceeds 50% of the cross-sectional area causing acute and severe cardiopulmonary failure from right ventricular overload.

•Systemic thrombolytic therapy is recommended as standard, first-line treatment in patients with massive pulmonary embolism unless contraindicated and catheter directed therapies, including low dose thrombolytic administration directly into thrombus and mechanical thrombectomy can be adjunctive or used as an alternative to systemic treatments.

•This literature review researched articles looking at both systemic thrombolysis and endovascular techniques for the treatment of acute massive pulmonary embolism with an emphasis on long term ...


The Impact Of Circadian Misalignment On Cardiometabolic Health, Cynthia Marie Mills 2018 University of North Dakota

The Impact Of Circadian Misalignment On Cardiometabolic Health, Cynthia Marie Mills

Physician Assistant Scholarly Project Posters

The circadian system is important in all living organisms because it generates a 24-hour rhythm for physiological and behavioral processes enabling anticipation and adaptation to daily changes in the environment. The prevalence of cardiometabolic diseases, which are linked to lifestyle choices, has been rising at an alarming rate. Modernization and globalization are two of many factors to blame for lifestyle changes resulting in circadian disruption. The purpose of this literature review is to explore circadian misalignment with regards to its mechanism and impact on cardiometabolic health and to determine possible interventional measures. The primary focus is on lifestyle change, particularly ...


Pre-Participation Physical Exams: Are We Doing Enough?, Steven Jacob Pietrusza 2018 University of North Dakota

Pre-Participation Physical Exams: Are We Doing Enough?, Steven Jacob Pietrusza

Physician Assistant Scholarly Project Posters

•Inclusion of screening electrocardiograms (EKGs) during pre-participation physical examination has been a topic of debate for some time. There is unquestioned usefulness in the ability of a well-trained health care provider in using EKG to identify cardiac abnormalities.

•Further, there have been several contemporary EKG criteria published that increase specificity and sensitivity of detection of disease. However, these criteria do not account for athletes less than 14 years of age, and that demographic represents a large portion of patients seeking pre-participation screenings in the United States.

•The lack of research into pediatric cardiac remodeling secondary to activity, coupled with the ...


The Neuroprotective Effects Of Targeted Temperature Management On Post-Cardiac Arrest Patients, Timothy Hovde 2018 University of North Dakota

The Neuroprotective Effects Of Targeted Temperature Management On Post-Cardiac Arrest Patients, Timothy Hovde

Physician Assistant Scholarly Project Papers

Novel methods of ensuring survival following cardiac arrest and resuscitation are of supreme importance to the medical community. Targeted temperature management (TTM) has become increasingly utilized pre-hospital, in emergency departments, and within intensive care units to increase the likelihood of survival to hospital discharge. TTM has further been used to attempt to improve neurological functioning. The efficacy and mechanism behind TTM remains poorly understood. In several patient populations it also remains unproven. The purpose of this study is to assess the physiological mechanism, survival, neurological recovery and methodology of TTM use and implementation.

Literature review was utilized to assess the ...


Limb Salvage For Diabetic Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease, Jamie Jesse Johnson 2018 University of North Dakota

Limb Salvage For Diabetic Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease, Jamie Jesse Johnson

Physician Assistant Scholarly Project Papers

Diabetes is rapidly increasing throughout the United States. According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) (2017), the total number of patients diagnosed with diabetes is 23.1 million, patients with undiagnosed diabetes are 7.2 million, for a combined total number of patients with diabetes exceeding 30.2 million and growing.

According to the CDC (2016), approximately 8.5 million people in the United States have peripheral artery disease (PAD), which includes 12-20% of individuals who are older than age 60. According to a study performed by Swaminathan et al. (2014), 186,000 patients underwent lower extremity amputation (LEA ...


Limb Salvage For Diabetic Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease, Jamie Jesse Johnson 2018 University of North Dakota

Limb Salvage For Diabetic Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease, Jamie Jesse Johnson

Physician Assistant Scholarly Project Posters

•According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) (2017), the total number of patients diagnosed with diabetes is exceeding 30.2 million and rapidly increasing.

•According to the CDC (2016), approximately 8.5 million people in the United States have peripheral artery disease (PAD), which includes 12-20% of individuals who are older than age 60.

•According to a study performed by Swaminathan et al. (2014), 186,000 patients underwent lower extremity amputation (LEA). Data also shows that patients undergoing LEA have a mortality rate of 20% noted within one year, and a 40% to 50% mortality rate indicated within 18 ...


The Impact Of Circadian Misalignment On Cardiometabolic Health, Cynthia Marie Mills 2018 University of North Dakota

The Impact Of Circadian Misalignment On Cardiometabolic Health, Cynthia Marie Mills

Physician Assistant Scholarly Project Papers

The circadian system is important in all living organisms because it generates a 24-hour rhythm for physiological and behavioral processes enabling anticipation and adaptation to daily changes in the environment. The prevalence of cardiometabolic diseases, which are linked to lifestyle choices, has been rising at an alarming rate. Modernization and globalization are two of many factors to blame for lifestyle changes resulting in circadian disruption. The purpose of this literature review is to explore circadian misalignment with regards to its mechanism and impact on cardiometabolic health and to determine possible interventional measures. The primary focus is on lifestyle change, particularly ...


Panama: Ischemic Heart Disease, Alexander R. Ligeza 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Panama: Ischemic Heart Disease, Alexander R. Ligeza

Global Public Health

This public health brief draws attention to the issue of ischemic heart disease that is currently plaguing Panama. Due largely to the dietary culture of the country, ischemic heart disease remains the number one health-related killer of Panamanians. Over the past few decades, there has been a stark increase in the amount of processed foods that are becoming a large part of the diets of western nations, and Panama has become no stranger to this trend. Although there have been great strides made in the treatment of ischemic heart disease, Panama still has a long road ahead of itself before ...


Bahrain: Cardiovascular Disease, Sandra Morales 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Bahrain: Cardiovascular Disease, Sandra Morales

Global Public Health

A beautiful island in the Arabian Gulf (Persian Gulf), east of Saudi Arabia, north of Qatar, Bahrain is home to over 1.5 million people. The diverse population consists of Muslims, Hindus, Christians, Asians, Africans, and so much more. Bahrain is a constitutional monarchy. The current commander of the Bahrain defense force is Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa. For the most part, Bahrainis have political freedoms. However, one major problem Bahrainis face, in particular men, is cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular disease accounted for 34% of deaths in 2002. It is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Bahrain. Obesity and ...


Tonga: Chronic Diseases, Muhammad Taimoor 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Tonga: Chronic Diseases, Muhammad Taimoor

Global Public Health

Tonga is an Archipelago in the south Pacific Ocean, south of Samoa. The public health brief project is on chronic diseases in Tonga. The total population of Tonga was 107,122 in 2010. The Free Wesleyan Church of Tonga is the established religion in Tonga. Tongan’s make up the majority of the population but there are other ethnicities such as Euromericans and Europeans too. The major challenges faced by Tonga are decaying infrastructure, low economy, and political corruption. The widespread of non-communicable diseases such as cancer is a major health issue in Tonga. 74% of all adults in Tonga ...


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