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Cardiovascular Diseases Commons

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Hungary: Cardiovascular Disease, Taylor Steger 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Hungary: Cardiovascular Disease, Taylor Steger

Global Public Health

Hungary faces many public health issues. In particular, cardiovascular disease has impacted the majority of the Hungarian people with a mortality rate of 50-60%. The high consumption of fattening food, excessive alcohol drinking, smoking habits and tobacco use impact the entire population’s health status. This disease impacts blood vessels and causes them to narrow or be blocked. This blockage causes blood flow from the heart to be suppressed which can cause heart attacks, strokes etc. Hungary has the highest amount of people with cardiovascular disease out of all European countries. The most impacted people are in the urban areas ...


Counterregulatory Effects Of Ptx3 On Inflammation And Cellular Aging, Aaron L. Slusher 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

Counterregulatory Effects Of Ptx3 On Inflammation And Cellular Aging, Aaron L. Slusher

Theses and Dissertations

Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a vital regulator of innate immune function that has been shown to counterregulate pro-inflammatory signaling and protect against the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Less is known about how PTX3 may mitigate against CVD risk by regulating the pro-inflammatory response at the cellular level. Therefore, this dissertation details four manuscripts which aimed to examine the capacity of PTX3 to regulate the innate immune response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from healthy adults. Manuscript 1 examined the capacity of PTX3 to alter the inflammatory milieu following in vitro stimulation of isolated PBMCs with the pro-inflammatory ...


Predictors Of Arterial Stiffness In Law Enforcement Officers, Jason Michael Keeler 2018 University of Kentucky

Predictors Of Arterial Stiffness In Law Enforcement Officers, Jason Michael Keeler

Theses and Dissertations--Kinesiology and Health Promotion

The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among law enforcement officers (LEOs) is slightly higher than the general population. Furthermore, the prevalence of CVD doubles among LEOs following retirement compared to the general population. The measure of arterial stiffness serves as an independent risk factor that has prognostic value for future incidence of CVD. However, there is limited research on lifestyle, occupational, and demographic factors that may be associated with increased arterial stiffness in LEOs. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to compare the level of arterial stiffness among LEOs versus the general population and to identify lifestyle, occupational, and ...


Comparison Between Different Strategies Of Rheumatic Heart Disease Echocardiographic Screening In Brazil: Data From The Provar (Rheumatic Valve Disease Screening Program) Study, B Nascimento, Craig A. Sable, M Nunes, A Diamantino, K Oliveira, Andrea Z. Beaton, +several additional authors 2018 George Washington University

Comparison Between Different Strategies Of Rheumatic Heart Disease Echocardiographic Screening In Brazil: Data From The Provar (Rheumatic Valve Disease Screening Program) Study, B Nascimento, Craig A. Sable, M Nunes, A Diamantino, K Oliveira, Andrea Z. Beaton, +Several Additional Authors

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

Background-—Considering the limited accuracy of clinical examination for early diagnosis of rheumatic heart disease (RHD), echocardiography has emerged as an important epidemiological tool. The ideal setting for screening is yet to be defined. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and pattern of latent RHD in schoolchildren (aged 5–18 years) and to compare effectiveness of screening between public schools, private schools, and primary care centers in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Methods and Results-—The PROVAR (Rheumatic Valve Disease Screening Program) study uses nonexperts and portable and handheld devices for RHD echocardiographic screening, with remote interpretation by telemedicine, according to the ...


Percutaneous Management Of Ostial Stenosis Of The Left Internal Mammary Artery Graft, Tanuka Datta, Mohammed Gibreal, Ramesh Mazhari, Allen J. Solomon 2018 George Washington University

Percutaneous Management Of Ostial Stenosis Of The Left Internal Mammary Artery Graft, Tanuka Datta, Mohammed Gibreal, Ramesh Mazhari, Allen J. Solomon

Medicine Faculty Publications

A 61-year-old man, who had undergone coronary artery bypass surgery 10 years earlier, presented with a non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction. He was treated with medical therapy and taken to the Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory. A left heart catheterization demonstrated an ostial stenosis in the left internal mammary artery graft, which was felt to be the culprit lesion. This was successfully repaired with a drug eluting stent. This case is presented as an unusual location for a de novo coronary stenosis. The pathophysiology of these lesions is not well understood.


Exposure To High Levels Of Noise Poses Hazards And Risks For Development Of Hypertension And Heart Disease: Potential Roles Of Unrecognized Ionized Hypomagnesemia And Release Of Ceramides And Platelet-Activating Factor, Burton M. Altura, Asefa Gebrewold, Anthony Carella, Nilank C. Shah, Bella T. Altura 2018 Touro College

Exposure To High Levels Of Noise Poses Hazards And Risks For Development Of Hypertension And Heart Disease: Potential Roles Of Unrecognized Ionized Hypomagnesemia And Release Of Ceramides And Platelet-Activating Factor, Burton M. Altura, Asefa Gebrewold, Anthony Carella, Nilank C. Shah, Bella T. Altura

Touro College of Osteopathic Medicine (Middletown) Publications and Research

It has been demonstrated in numerous human and animal studies that audiogenic stress (AS) can induce elevation of arterial blood pressure and cardiac damage and that noise –induced hearing loss may be associated with alterations in magnesium (Mg) metabolism. Our laboratories, over a period of approximately 40 years, have been investigating why AS causes high blood pressure and cardiac damage. This review focuses on a number of newer discoveries on why AS causes dysfunctions of the cardiovascular system (CVS) This review discusses the pivotal physiological and biochemical importance of Mg to body health and the fact that most Americans and ...


Controlling Platelet Secretion To Modulate Hemostasis And Thrombosis, Smita Joshi 2018 University of Kentucky

Controlling Platelet Secretion To Modulate Hemostasis And Thrombosis, Smita Joshi

Theses and Dissertations--Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

Upon vascular injury, activated blood platelets fuse their granules to the plasma membrane and release cargo to regulate the vascular microenvironment, a dynamic process central to platelet function in many critical processes including hemostasis, thrombosis, immunity, wound healing, angiogenesis etc. This granule- plasma membrane fusion is mediated by a family of membrane proteins- Soluble N-ethyl maleimide Attachment Receptor Proteins(SNAREs). SNAREs that reside on vesicle (v-SNAREs) /Vesicle-Associated Membrane Proteins(VAMPs) interact with target/t-SNAREs forming a trans-bilayer complex that facilitates granule fusion. Though many components of exocytic machinery are identified, it is still not clear how it could be ...


Rhythm: An Open Source Imaging Toolkit For Cardiac Panoramic Optical Mapping, Christopher Gloschat, Kedar Aras, Shubnam Gupta, N. Rokhana Faye, Hanyu Zhang, Matthew W. Kay, Igor R Efimov, +several additional authors 2018 George Washington University

Rhythm: An Open Source Imaging Toolkit For Cardiac Panoramic Optical Mapping, Christopher Gloschat, Kedar Aras, Shubnam Gupta, N. Rokhana Faye, Hanyu Zhang, Matthew W. Kay, Igor R Efimov, +Several Additional Authors

Pharmacology and Physiology Faculty Publications

Fluorescence optical imaging techniques have revolutionized the field of cardiac electrophysiology and advanced our understanding of complex electrical activities such as arrhythmias. However, traditional monocular optical mapping systems, despite having high spatial resolution, are restricted to a two-dimensional (2D) field of view. Consequently, tracking complex three-dimensional (3D) electrical waves such as during ventricular fibrillation is challenging as the waves rapidly move in and out of the field of view. This problem has been solved by panoramic imaging which uses multiple cameras to measure the electrical activity from the entire epicardial surface. However, the diverse engineering skill set and substantial resource ...


Aggressive Diuresis And Severity-Adjusted Length Of Hospital Stay In Acute Congestive Heart Failure Patients, Muhammad U. Butt 2018 University of Kentucky

Aggressive Diuresis And Severity-Adjusted Length Of Hospital Stay In Acute Congestive Heart Failure Patients, Muhammad U. Butt

Theses and Dissertations--Clinical Research Design

To see if aggressive diuresis in first twenty four hours is associated with a comparable number of total days in the hospital as compared to non-aggressive diuresis. In this retrospective cohort study, we compared the length of hospital stay of consecutive patients admitted in one year based on their diuresis during the first twenty-four hours of hospitalization: aggressive diuresis (group 1) i.e. > 2400mL versus non-aggressive diuresis (group 2) i.e. ≤ 2400mL urine output. Patients were excluded if in cardiogenic shock, had creatinine level above 3 mg/dL on admission, or on dialysis. A total of 194 patients were enrolled ...


Bow Hunter's Syndrome In A Patient With A Right Hypoplastic Vertebral Artery And A Dynamically Compressible Left Vertebral Artery, David Z. Cai, Ryan P. Roach, John P. Weaver, Gerald T. McGillicuddy, Zachary M. Mansell, Jonathan P. Eskander, Mark S. Eskander 2018 Tulane University

Bow Hunter's Syndrome In A Patient With A Right Hypoplastic Vertebral Artery And A Dynamically Compressible Left Vertebral Artery, David Z. Cai, Ryan P. Roach, John P. Weaver, Gerald T. Mcgillicuddy, Zachary M. Mansell, Jonathan P. Eskander, Mark S. Eskander

Open Access Articles

This is a case report of a 48-year-old man with multiple transient ischemic attacks and a known hypoplastic right vertebral artery (VA) who presented after a syncopal event while turning his head to the left. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the necessity of proper diagnosis and management of cerebrovascular pathology including imaging and surgical intervention in patients with known anatomical anomalies. This study was conducted at Massachusetts, United States of America. Our patient's history was significant for a hypoplastic right VA and a stenotic segment of the right VA at the C3-C4 junction. There was also ...


Reduction Of Vascular Inflammation, Ldl-C, Or Both For The Protection From Cardiovascular Events?, Andromachi Reklou, Michael Doumas, Konstantinos Imprialos, Konstantinos Stavropoulos, Dimitris Patoulias, Vasilios Athyros 2018 George Washington University

Reduction Of Vascular Inflammation, Ldl-C, Or Both For The Protection From Cardiovascular Events?, Andromachi Reklou, Michael Doumas, Konstantinos Imprialos, Konstantinos Stavropoulos, Dimitris Patoulias, Vasilios Athyros

Medicine Faculty Publications

Background:

Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and low grade arterial inflammation are key pathogenic factors for atherosclerosis and its manifestation, cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Objective:

In this narrative review we assessed if decreasing LDL-C levels or inflammation or both is more effective in reducing CVD events.

Results:

In the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S), all statin trials of the 90s’ and the Further Cardiovascular Outcomes Research with PCSK9 Inhibition in Subjects with Elevated Risk (FOURIER) the benefit came from the LDL-C reduction. In the GREak and Atorvastatin Coronary heart disease Evaluation (GREACE), the Treating to New Targets (TNT), and the Justification ...


Role Of Sex Chromosomes In Sexual Dimorphism Of Angii-Induced Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms, Yasir Alsiraj 2018 University of Kentucky

Role Of Sex Chromosomes In Sexual Dimorphism Of Angii-Induced Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms, Yasir Alsiraj

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences

Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), a permanent dilation in the abdominal region of the aorta, is a highly sexually dimorphic disease. AAAs prevalence is ranging from 4-10 fold higher in males than females. Defining the mechanistic basis for reduced (in females) or increased (in males) AAA formation and progression may uncover potential therapeutic targets. The majority of studies examining sexual dimorphism focus on the role of sex hormones. However, genes residing on sex chromosomes, in addition to sex hormones, may contribute to sexual dimorphism of AAAs. For example, the X chromosome contains about 5% of the whole genome, but the role ...


Workplace Standing Desks And Arterial Stiffness, Ian Greenlund 2018 Michigan Technological University

Workplace Standing Desks And Arterial Stiffness, Ian Greenlund

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Many jobs in today’s society require sitting at a desk with little physical activity. Individuals who engage in ten hours of sedentary behavior per day double their CVD risk. Standing desks are thought to decrease sedentary time and improve cardiovascular health. Acute use of standing desks is shown to lower PWV. However, chronic effects remain unknown. Forty eight participants qualified as seated (19 females, 5 males: age 41 ± 2 years, BMI 25 ± 1 kg/m2) or standing (21 females, 3 males: age 45 ± 2 years, BMI 25 ± 1 kg/m2) groups based on habitual workplace use. Arterial ...


Panama: Ischemic Heart Disease, Alexander R. Ligeza 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Panama: Ischemic Heart Disease, Alexander R. Ligeza

Global Public Health

This public health brief draws attention to the issue of ischemic heart disease that is currently plaguing Panama. Due largely to the dietary culture of the country, ischemic heart disease remains the number one health-related killer of Panamanians. Over the past few decades, there has been a stark increase in the amount of processed foods that are becoming a large part of the diets of western nations, and Panama has become no stranger to this trend. Although there have been great strides made in the treatment of ischemic heart disease, Panama still has a long road ahead of itself before ...


Tonga: Chronic Diseases, Muhammad Taimoor 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Tonga: Chronic Diseases, Muhammad Taimoor

Global Public Health

Tonga is an Archipelago in the south Pacific Ocean, south of Samoa. The public health brief project is on chronic diseases in Tonga. The total population of Tonga was 107,122 in 2010. The Free Wesleyan Church of Tonga is the established religion in Tonga. Tongan’s make up the majority of the population but there are other ethnicities such as Euromericans and Europeans too. The major challenges faced by Tonga are decaying infrastructure, low economy, and political corruption. The widespread of non-communicable diseases such as cancer is a major health issue in Tonga. 74% of all adults in Tonga ...


Bahrain: Cardiovascular Disease, Sandra Morales 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Bahrain: Cardiovascular Disease, Sandra Morales

Global Public Health

A beautiful island in the Arabian Gulf (Persian Gulf), east of Saudi Arabia, north of Qatar, Bahrain is home to over 1.5 million people. The diverse population consists of Muslims, Hindus, Christians, Asians, Africans, and so much more. Bahrain is a constitutional monarchy. The current commander of the Bahrain defense force is Khalifa bin Salman Al Khalifa. For the most part, Bahrainis have political freedoms. However, one major problem Bahrainis face, in particular men, is cardiovascular disease. Cardiovascular disease accounted for 34% of deaths in 2002. It is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Bahrain. Obesity and ...


Should Saturated Fat Be Limited To Treat Or Prevent Cardiovascular Disease, Casey Colin 2018 South Dakota State University

Should Saturated Fat Be Limited To Treat Or Prevent Cardiovascular Disease, Casey Colin

Health and Nutritional Sciences Graduate Students Plan B Capstone Projects

Objective: The purpose of this review was to determine if the recommendation to reduce SFA consumption to treat or prevent CVD is still relevant in the context of current peer-reviewed, evidence-based literature.
Methods: A literature review regarding SFA and CVD was conducted using articles from 2011-2018 through PubMed.
Results: 374 articles were found, of which 211 were excluded. The remaining inclusions included 37 primary research articles and 21 reviews. All included publications were examined using the EAL Quality Criteria. Of the positive quality primary research, 8 studies found SFA to have a negative impact on CVD, 11 studies found SFA ...


The Efficacy And Safety Of Statins In The Primary Prevention Of Cardiovascular Disease, Kayla M. Ashton 2018 University of North Dakota

The Efficacy And Safety Of Statins In The Primary Prevention Of Cardiovascular Disease, Kayla M. Ashton

Physician Assistant Scholarly Project Posters

Atherosclerotic plaques can form in the blood vessels from particles of cholesterol. These plaques are a major cause of cardiovascular disease and have the ability to result in fatal cardiovascular events. In researching this topic, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, DynaMed, and ClinicalKey were all utilized in finding articles published from 2002 to 2018. There are several organizations with conflicting guidelines recommending the use of statin medications in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. The research evaluated discovers data is inconclusive on the benefit of statin medications in this primary prevention as well as the safety of long-term statin use. Some ...


Improving Outcomes After Pediatric Cardiac Arrest – The Icu-Resuscitation Project: Study Protocol For A Randomized Controlled Trial, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network (CPCCRN), Murray M. Pollack 2018 George Washington University

Improving Outcomes After Pediatric Cardiac Arrest – The Icu-Resuscitation Project: Study Protocol For A Randomized Controlled Trial, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute Of Child Health And Human Development Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network (Cpccrn), Murray M. Pollack

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

Background

Quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is associated with survival, but recommended guidelines are often not met, and less than half the children with an in-hospital arrest will survive to discharge. A single-center before-and-after study demonstrated that outcomes may be improved with a novel training program in which all pediatric intensive care unit staff are encouraged to participate in frequent CPR refresher training and regular, structured resuscitation debriefings focused on patient-centric physiology.

Methods/design

This ongoing trial will assess whether a program of structured debriefings and point-of-care bedside practice that emphasizes physiologic resuscitation targets improves the rate of survival to ...


Interleukin-6 And Exercise; Early Evidence Of A Novel Myokine, Brendan Hogg Mr. 2018 University of Montana, Missoula

Interleukin-6 And Exercise; Early Evidence Of A Novel Myokine, Brendan Hogg Mr.

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was first identified as a pleiotropic cytokine, with a host of body-wide functions. Cytokine functions are characterized by chronically elevated levels within various inflammatory states. In this regard, IL-6 is largely associated with the acute phase response to many stimuli and performs specific actions when produced from certain cell types. Accrued evidence indicates IL-6 release from skeletal muscle often includes myokine functions. Novel myokine functions are adaptive in nature, and as compared to inflammatory/cytokine roles, exhibit a transient time course. Following exercise plasma IL-6 peaks and returns to resting levels within 1-2 hours. In contrast, IL-6 is ...


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