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A Humanized Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Model To Elucidate Molecular Mechanism In Disease Pathology, Ragavi Vijayakumar, Maxine Hong 2018 NUS High School of Mathematics and Science

A Humanized Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Model To Elucidate Molecular Mechanism In Disease Pathology, Ragavi Vijayakumar, Maxine Hong

The International Student Science Fair 2018

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), that clinically manifests as an enlarged heart is a highly prevalent cardiac disorder with propensity towards arrhythmia-induced sudden cardiac death. The mechanism of HCM remains poorly defined, necessitating further understanding of the disease for improved therapeutic strategies. As it is challenging to obtain cardiac biopsies from human subjects, using induced pluripotent stem cells technology, we generated cardiomyocytes (CMs) in a dish from HCM patients. These HCM-CMs presented the clinical manifestation in that they were significantly larger in size in comparison to control (healthy)-CMs. Furthermore, gene expression profiling of cardiac ion channels revealed increased transcripts encoding for ...


A Humanized Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Model To Elucidate Molecular Mechanism In Disease Pathology, Ragavi Vijayakumar, Maxine Hong 2018 NUS High School of Mathematics and Science

A Humanized Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Model To Elucidate Molecular Mechanism In Disease Pathology, Ragavi Vijayakumar, Maxine Hong

The International Student Science Fair 2018

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), that clinically manifests as an enlarged heart is a highly prevalent cardiac disorder with propensity towards arrhythmia-induced sudden cardiac death. The mechanism of HCM remains poorly defined, necessitating further understanding of the disease for improved therapeutic strategies. As it is challenging to obtain cardiac biopsies from human subjects, using induced pluripotent stem cells technology, we generated cardiomyocytes (CMs) in a dish from HCM patients. These HCM-CMs presented the clinical manifestation in that they were significantly larger in size in comparison to control (healthy)-CMs. Furthermore, gene expression profiling of cardiac ion channels revealed increased transcripts encoding for ...


Review Of Kawasaki Disease, Rani Shah, Hisham Hirzallah, Munes Fares, Ashwini Mallad, Gudjon Karlsson, Mehiar El-Hamdani 2018 Marshall University

Review Of Kawasaki Disease, Rani Shah, Hisham Hirzallah, Munes Fares, Ashwini Mallad, Gudjon Karlsson, Mehiar El-Hamdani

Hisham Hirzallah

Abstract

Background: Kawasaki disease is one of the leading causes of acquired heart disease in children. It is an acute self-limited vasculitis that predominantly affects infants and children younger than 5 years of age. These patients present with nonspecific symptoms, such as fever and lymphadenopathy, making the diagnosis challenging. This disease can have serious and potentially fatal outcomes, and prompt recognition of this disease is vital to the patient’s outcome. We present a complete review of the disease, including the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of acute Kawasaki disease, the natural history of this disease, and follow up of ...


Association Of Religiosity And Spirituality With Quality Of Life In Patients With Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review, Hawa Abu, Christine M. Ulbricht, Eric Y. Ding, Jeroan J. Allison, Elena Salmoirago-Blotcher, Robert J. Goldberg, Catarina I. Kiefe 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Association Of Religiosity And Spirituality With Quality Of Life In Patients With Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review, Hawa Abu, Christine M. Ulbricht, Eric Y. Ding, Jeroan J. Allison, Elena Salmoirago-Blotcher, Robert J. Goldberg, Catarina I. Kiefe

Quantitative Health Sciences Publications and Presentations

Purpose: This review systematically identified and critically appraised the available literature that has examined the association between religiosity and/or spirituality (R/S) and quality of life (QOL) in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Methods: We searched several electronic online databases (PubMed, SCOPUS, PsycINFO, and CINAHL) from database inception until October 2017. Included articles were peer-reviewed, published in English, and quantitatively examined the association between R/S and QOL. We assessed the methodological quality of each included study.

Results: The 15 articles included were published between 2002 and 2017. Most studies were conducted in the US and enrolled patients with ...


Inertial Sensor-Based Variables Are Indicators Of Frailty And Adverse Post-Operative Outcomes In Cardiovascular Disease Patients, Rahul Soangra, Thurmon E. Lockhart 2018 Chapman University

Inertial Sensor-Based Variables Are Indicators Of Frailty And Adverse Post-Operative Outcomes In Cardiovascular Disease Patients, Rahul Soangra, Thurmon E. Lockhart

Physical Therapy Faculty Articles and Research

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients with intrinsic cardiac cause for falling have been found to be frail and submissive to morbidity and mortality as post-operative outcomes. In these older CVD patients, gait speed is conjectured by the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) as an independent predictor of post-operative morbidity and mortality. However, this guideline by STS has not been studied adequately with a large sample size; rather it is based largely on expert opinions of cardiac surgeons and researchers. Although one’s gait speed is not completely associated with one’s risk of falls, gait speed is a quick robust measure ...


Study Of Early After Depolarization In A Complex Human Cardiac Cell Model In Tissue, Abouzar Kaboudian, Yanyan Claire Ji, Elizabeth M. Cherry, Flavio H. Fenton 2018 Georgia Institute of Technology

Study Of Early After Depolarization In A Complex Human Cardiac Cell Model In Tissue, Abouzar Kaboudian, Yanyan Claire Ji, Elizabeth M. Cherry, Flavio H. Fenton

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Cognitive Impairment, Vulnerability, And Mortality Post Ischemic Stroke: A Five-Year Follow-Up Of The Action On Secondary Prevention Interventions And Rehabilitation In Stroke (Aspire-S) Cohort, Eva Gaynor, Daniela Rohde, Margaret Large, Lisa Mellon, Patricia Hall, Linda Brewer, Orla Conway, Anne Hickey, Kathleen Bennett, Eamon Dolan, Elizabeth Callaly, David Williams 2018 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

Cognitive Impairment, Vulnerability, And Mortality Post Ischemic Stroke: A Five-Year Follow-Up Of The Action On Secondary Prevention Interventions And Rehabilitation In Stroke (Aspire-S) Cohort, Eva Gaynor, Daniela Rohde, Margaret Large, Lisa Mellon, Patricia Hall, Linda Brewer, Orla Conway, Anne Hickey, Kathleen Bennett, Eamon Dolan, Elizabeth Callaly, David Williams

Psychology Articles

Background

The aim of this study was to examine predictors of mortality in patients 5 years after ischemic stroke, focusing on cognitive impairment, vulnerability, and vascular risk factors assessed at 6 months post stroke.

Materials and Methods

Patients from the Action on Secondary Prevention Interventions and Rehabilitation in Stroke (ASPIRE-S) cohort were followed up 5 years post ischemic stroke. Vascular risk factors, cognitive impairment, and vulnerability were assessed at 6 months post stroke. Cognitive impairment was assessed using a cutoff score lower than 26 on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Vulnerability was defined as a score of 3 or higher ...


Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender 2018 Fordham University

Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender

Student Theses 2015-Present

This paper aims to shed light on the dissonance caused by the superimposition of Dominant Human Systems on Natural Systems. I highlight the synthetic nature of Dominant Human Systems as egoic and linguistic phenomenon manufactured by a mere portion of the human population, which renders them inherently oppressive unto peoples and landscapes whose wisdom were barred from the design process. In pursuing a radical pragmatic approach to mending the simultaneous oppression and destruction of the human being and the earth, I highlight the necessity of minimizing entropic chaos caused by excess energy expenditure, an essential feature of systems that aim ...


Design Of A Distributed Real-Time E-Health Cyber Ecosystem With Collective Actions: Diagnosis, Dynamic Queueing, And Decision Making, Yanlin Zhou 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Design Of A Distributed Real-Time E-Health Cyber Ecosystem With Collective Actions: Diagnosis, Dynamic Queueing, And Decision Making, Yanlin Zhou

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research from Electrical & Computer Engineering

In this thesis, we develop a framework for E-health Cyber Ecosystems, and look into different involved actors. The three interested parties in the ecosystem including patients, doctors, and healthcare providers are discussed in 3 different phases. In Phase 1, machine-learning based modeling and simulation analysis is performed to remotely predict a patient's risk level of having heart diseases in real time. In Phase 2, an online dynamic queueing model is devised to pair doctors with patients having high risk levels (diagnosed in Phase 1) to confirm the risk, and provide help. In Phase 3, a decision making paradigm is ...


The Synergistic Effects Of Saxagliptin And Metformin On Cd34+ Endothelial Progenitor Cells In Early Type 2 Diabetes Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial., Fiona J Dore, Cleyton C Domingues, Neeki Ahmadi, Nabanita Kundu, Yana Kropotova, Sara Houston, Carol Rouphael, Aytan Mammadova, Linda Witkin, Anamil Khiyami, Richard L Amdur, Sabyasachi Sen 2018 George Washington University

The Synergistic Effects Of Saxagliptin And Metformin On Cd34+ Endothelial Progenitor Cells In Early Type 2 Diabetes Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial., Fiona J Dore, Cleyton C Domingues, Neeki Ahmadi, Nabanita Kundu, Yana Kropotova, Sara Houston, Carol Rouphael, Aytan Mammadova, Linda Witkin, Anamil Khiyami, Richard L Amdur, Sabyasachi Sen

Surgery Faculty Publications

AIMS: Type 2 diabetes is associated with endothelial dysfunction leading to cardiovascular disease. CD34+ endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPCs) are responsible for endothelial repair and neo-angiogenesis and can be used as a cardiovascular disease risk biomarker. This study investigated whether the addition of saxagliptin, a DPP-IV inhibitor, to metformin, may reduce cardiovascular disease risk in addition to improving glycemic control in Type 2 diabetes patients.

METHODS: In 12 week, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial, 42 subjects already taking metformin 1-2 grams/day were randomized to placebo or saxagliptin 5 mg. Subjects aged 40-70 years with diabetes for < 10 years, with no known cardiovascular disease, BMI 25-39.9, HbA1C 6-9% were included. We evaluated EPCs number, function, surface markers and gene expression, in addition to arterial stiffness, blood biochemistries, resting energy expenditure, and body composition parameters. A mixed model regression to examine saxagliptin vs placebo, accounting for within-subject autocorrelation, was done with SAS (p < 0.05).

RESULTS: Although there was no ...


Extraction And Analysis Of Vector Flow Imaging Data In A Pediatric Population, Bailey Stinnett 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Extraction And Analysis Of Vector Flow Imaging Data In A Pediatric Population, Bailey Stinnett

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Vector flow imaging (VFI) is a new ultrasound technology that provides real time, angle-independent visualization of flow velocities in the heart and great vessels. Thus far, VFI has been used for superficial applications due to the limited penetration depth of available transducer probes; however, this depth in smaller pediatric patients enables adequate aortic views. In this project, VFI was used to study pediatric aortic stenosis (PAS)—a congenital heart defect that results in the narrowing of the aorta and/or aortic valve. The decision to refer PAS patients for surgical or catheter-based intervention is initially based on Doppler ultrasound. VFI ...


In Vitro Aortic Arch Flow Model For Vector Flow Imaging Testing, Jackson Mosley 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

In Vitro Aortic Arch Flow Model For Vector Flow Imaging Testing, Jackson Mosley

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Pediatric stenosis is the narrowing of the aorta at the aortic valve, above the aortic valve, or below the aortic valve. Typically, this disease’s severity is diagnosed by conventional Doppler ultrasound methods, or echocardiography. Conventional Doppler can sometimes overestimate the pressure gradient over the area of stenosis, diagnosing some cases of PAS to be more severe than they actually are. This causes earlier intervention than is desired in children. A new US modality, Vector Flow Imaging (VFI), is an angle-independent US imaging method that can potentially more accurately quantify peak blood flow velocities and pressure gradients across stenotic sections ...


In-Vitro Simulation Of Acute Ischemic Stroke, Paolo Garcia 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

In-Vitro Simulation Of Acute Ischemic Stroke, Paolo Garcia

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a condition that involves the occlusion of a blood vessel within the brain, effectively preventing the passage of oxygen and nutrients. AIS is highly prevalent in the United States, where nearly 795,000 strokes happen per year and 87% of those are ischemic. From a medical standpoint, the obstructing clot can be removed with the use of a stroke retrieval device. However, a need arises for testing the aforementioned devices on a patient’s specific vascular geometries in order to increase the likelihood of a successful procedure. Outlined is a process for developing a physical ...


Maturation Of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Derived Engineered Cardiac Tissues Using Chief Transfection And Chronic Optical Pacing., Marc M. Dwenger 2018 University of Louisville

Maturation Of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Derived Engineered Cardiac Tissues Using Chief Transfection And Chronic Optical Pacing., Marc M. Dwenger

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The immaturity of engineered cardiac tissues (ECTs) limits their ability to regenerate damaged myocardium and to serve as in vitro disease models and surrogates for drug toxicity testing. Several chronic biomimetic conditioning protocols, including mechanical stretch, perfusion, and electrical stimulation promote ECT maturation but have significant technical limitations. Non-contacting chronic light stimulation using heterologously expressed light-sensitive ChIEF ion channels, termed optogenetics, may be an advantageous alternative to chronic electrical stimulation. As a proof of principle, we transfected ECTs using an AAV packaged ChIEF and then verified acute optical pacing (OP) by patch clamp. We then chronically OP ECTs for 7 ...


Lifetime Risk Of Atrial Fibrillation According To Optimal, Borderline, Or Elevated Levels Of Risk Factors: Cohort Study Based On Longitudinal Data From The Framingham Heart Study, Laila Staerk, Biqi Wang, Sarah R. Preis, Martin G. Larson, Steven A. Lubitz, Patrick T. Ellinor, David D. McManus, Darae Ko, Lu-Chen Weng, Kathryn L. Lunetta, Lars Frost, Emelia J. Benjamin, Ludovic Trinquart 2018 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

Lifetime Risk Of Atrial Fibrillation According To Optimal, Borderline, Or Elevated Levels Of Risk Factors: Cohort Study Based On Longitudinal Data From The Framingham Heart Study, Laila Staerk, Biqi Wang, Sarah R. Preis, Martin G. Larson, Steven A. Lubitz, Patrick T. Ellinor, David D. Mcmanus, Darae Ko, Lu-Chen Weng, Kathryn L. Lunetta, Lars Frost, Emelia J. Benjamin, Ludovic Trinquart

Open Access Articles

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between risk factor burdens-categorized as optimal, borderline, or elevated-and the lifetime risk of atrial fibrillation.

DESIGN: Community based cohort study.

SETTING: Longitudinal data from the Framingham Heart Study.

PARTICIPANTS: Individuals free of atrial fibrillation at index ages 55, 65, and 75 years were assessed. Smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, blood pressure, diabetes, and history of heart failure or myocardial infarction were assessed as being optimal (that is, all risk factors were optimal), borderline (presence of borderline risk factors and absence of any elevated risk factor), or elevated (presence of at least one elevated risk ...


Problems Experienced In The First Month After Discharge From A Heart Failure-Related Hospitalization, Joan S. Grant, Lucinda J. Graven, Kelly Fuller 2018 University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Nursing

Problems Experienced In The First Month After Discharge From A Heart Failure-Related Hospitalization, Joan S. Grant, Lucinda J. Graven, Kelly Fuller

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Purpose: Heart failure is a global health concern with high morbidity and mortality rates. Individuals with heart failure commonly experience problems that impact daily life. However, little is known regarding which problems are most significant during the immediate posthospitalization period. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify high-priority problems experienced by individuals the first month after discharge from an acute care facility with a diagnosis of heart failure.

Methods: This descriptive, exploratory study was part of a 12-week randomized controlled pilot study that examined the efficacy of a coping partnership intervention (COPE-HF Partnership) between a trained research nurse ...


Maternal Coxsackievirus B Induced Dysregulation Of Sumoylation Processes As A Potential Cause Of Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome, Bailey Kemp, Sarah Severson 2018 University of Minnesota, Morris

Maternal Coxsackievirus B Induced Dysregulation Of Sumoylation Processes As A Potential Cause Of Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome, Bailey Kemp, Sarah Severson

Undergraduate Research Symposium 2018

Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS) is a life-threatening congenital heart defect with unknown etiology. Here we hypothesize that HLHS has etiologic roots in maternal asymptomatic coxsackievirus B infection. Coxsackievirus has been demonstrated to disrupt normal distribution of small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMO) in the cell. The vital cardiac transcription factor, Nkx2-5, has been shown to be dependent on SUMOylation for proper function. Specifically, co-localization of SUMO and Nkx2.5 has been identified, as well as decreased SUMOylation associated with Nkx2-5 mutants. As Nxk2-5 is essential for fetal heart development and mutations in the gene for this vital transcription factor have been ...


Anxiety, Depression, And Adverse Clinical Outcomes In Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Starting Warfarin: Cardiovascular Research Network Wave Study, Christine Baumgartner, Dongjie Fan, Margaret C. Fang, Daniel E. Singer, Daniel M. Witt, John R. Schmelzer, Marc S. Williams, Jerry H. Gurwitz, Sue Hee Sung, Alan S. Go 2018 University of California, San Francisco

Anxiety, Depression, And Adverse Clinical Outcomes In Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Starting Warfarin: Cardiovascular Research Network Wave Study, Christine Baumgartner, Dongjie Fan, Margaret C. Fang, Daniel E. Singer, Daniel M. Witt, John R. Schmelzer, Marc S. Williams, Jerry H. Gurwitz, Sue Hee Sung, Alan S. Go

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Anxiety and depression are associated with worse outcomes in several cardiovascular conditions, but it is unclear whether they affect outcomes in atrial fibrillation (AF). In a large diverse population of adults with AF, we evaluated the association of diagnosed anxiety and/or depression with stroke and bleeding outcomes.

METHODS AND RESULTS: The Cardiovascular Research Network WAVE (Community-Based Control and Persistence of Warfarin Therapy and Associated Rates and Predictors of Adverse Clinical Events in Atrial Fibrillation and Venous Thromboembolism) Study included adults with AF newly starting warfarin between 2004 and 2007 within 5 health delivery systems in the United States ...


Association Between Food Insecurity And Cvd Risk Factors Is Moderated By Intake Of Fruits And Vegetables In Latinos, Andrea Lopez-Cepero, Stephenie C. Lemon, Milagros C. Rosal 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Association Between Food Insecurity And Cvd Risk Factors Is Moderated By Intake Of Fruits And Vegetables In Latinos, Andrea Lopez-Cepero, Stephenie C. Lemon, Milagros C. Rosal

UMass Worcester PRC Presentations

Background: Food insecurity has been consistently associated with CVD risk factors (i.e., obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia). Consumption of fruits and vegetables may reduce CVD risk factors among food insecure Latinos.

Objective: To examine the potential moderating effect of fruit and vegetable intake in the association between food insecurity and CVD risk factors in a sample of Latino men and women in the northeast U.S.

Methods: A representative community sample of Latino individuals was recruited from a community health center in Lawrence, MA. Food insecurity was measured with the 6-item USDA Household Food Security Scale. Fruit ...


Differences In Self-Reported Weekend Catch Up Sleep Between Children And Adolescents With And Without Primary Hypertension, Neena Gupta, Louise Maranda, Rakesh Gupta 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Differences In Self-Reported Weekend Catch Up Sleep Between Children And Adolescents With And Without Primary Hypertension, Neena Gupta, Louise Maranda, Rakesh Gupta

Pediatric Publications and Presentations

Background: The data on the association of sleep duration and blood pressure in the pediatric age group have been mixed and most studies have focused on weekday sleep duration. The purpose of this study was to compare the weekday and weekend sleep patterns between children and adolescents with newly diagnosed primary hypertension and a normotensive control group.

Methods: Children and adolescents from a pediatric nephrology clinic, aged 6-18 years with newly diagnosed primary hypertension were compared to an age and sex matched normotensive control group from a general pediatric clinic. The questions about bed time and getting out of bed ...


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