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Integration Of Host And Virus Gene Expression For Chickens Response To Avian Leukosis Virus Challenge, Xi Lan, John C.F. Hsieh, Haibo Liu, Susan J. Lamont, Qing Zhu 2018 Iowa State University

Integration Of Host And Virus Gene Expression For Chickens Response To Avian Leukosis Virus Challenge, Xi Lan, John C.F. Hsieh, Haibo Liu, Susan J. Lamont, Qing Zhu

Animal Industry Report

The tumorigenesis caused by avian leukosis virus (ALV) occurs through a complex regulatory architecture. , We applied a novel methodology to jointly analyze four different types of datasets: mRNA expression, the associated regulatory factors of miRNA and lncRNA, and ALV gene expression. The pathway analysis shows that combined analysis produced more informative results than single data-type analyses, and the co-expression network analysis found key elements involved in the host-pathogen interaction. The integration of multiple data sources yielded deeper insights into the pathogenesis of the virus and the host immune response.


Novel Resilience Phenotypes From A Natural Disease Challenge Model For Wean-To-Finish Pigs, Austin M. Putz, John C.S. Harding, Michael K. Dyck, Frédéric Fontin, Graham S. Plastow, Jack C. M. Dekkers 2018 Iowa State University

Novel Resilience Phenotypes From A Natural Disease Challenge Model For Wean-To-Finish Pigs, Austin M. Putz, John C.S. Harding, Michael K. Dyck, Frédéric Fontin, Graham S. Plastow, Jack C. M. Dekkers

Animal Industry Report

Novel phenotypes from a commercial testing system could add value to selection for resilience to disease and other stressors beyond simply collecting mortality. Day-to-day variability in feed intake (FI) and in duration at the feeder (DUR), quantified by root mean squared errors (RMSE), were investigated as novel measures of resilience using data from grow-finish pigs in a natural disease challenge facility. • RMSE of FI and DUR were moderately heritable • RMSE of FI and DUR showed moderate to strong genetic correlations with mortality and treatments These results show that day-to-day variation in FI and DUR in a challenge environment can be ...


Innate Chemical Resistance Of Virginia Big-Eared Bats (Corynorhinus Townsendii Virginianus) To White-Nose Syndrome, Daniel S. Danford, Leah Shriver, Hazel A. Barton 2018 The University of Akron

Innate Chemical Resistance Of Virginia Big-Eared Bats (Corynorhinus Townsendii Virginianus) To White-Nose Syndrome, Daniel S. Danford, Leah Shriver, Hazel A. Barton

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

White-nose Syndrome (WNS) is an emergent epidemic disease of bats in North America. Caused by the novel fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, with a mortality rate of >75%, in the last decade WNS has led to the local extinction of numerous bat species. Despite this high mortality, one species, the Virginia big-eared bat (Corynorhinus townsendii virginianus) remains unaffected. Virginia big-eared bats (VBEs) are commonly found covered in a yellow, oily substance, with a pelage commensal population dominated by the yeast, Debaryomyces udenii. As D. udenii is an oleaginous yeast that produces yellow colonies, the fungus may be responsible for the production ...


Ms Environmental Biology Capstone Project, AnnaMaria Marcel 2018 Regis University

Ms Environmental Biology Capstone Project, Annamaria Marcel

All Regis University Theses

Due to the worldwide decline of biodiversity, protected nature reserves are necessary for species facing extinction. Many frog species have been experiencing rapid population decline and extinction due to the threat of the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which inflicts the highly transmittable and deadly disease chytridiomycosis. Chytridiomycosis causes increased skin tissue growth which disrupts respiration and the maintenance of water balance, which can ultimately lead to death. Certain ecological and geographical characteristics have been studied in order to assess their influence on Bd’s prevalence. Specifically, it is hypothesized that high elevations, lotic habitats, and low species richness have a ...


Characterization Of Isolates And Whole Samples From Turkeys Infected With Bordetellosis, Alexandra Lovrinic 2018 James Madison University

Characterization Of Isolates And Whole Samples From Turkeys Infected With Bordetellosis, Alexandra Lovrinic

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

Bordetellosis is a disease in turkeys attributed to the Gram-negative bacterium, Bordetella avium. The closely related species, B. hinzii, is known to colonize in turkeys as well but was not thought to cause disease. However, over the past few years, B. hinzii has been isolated from turkeys diagnosed with bordetellosis. The presumed identification of isolates obtained from Butterball farms in different locations was conducted through standard identification tests, including hemagglutination, PCR of B. avium specific genes, 16s rDNA PCR, carbohydrate utilization tests, and complete genome sequencing of a few strains. Out of ~100 isolates tested, 14 yielded contradictory results. Sequencing ...


Evaluation Of The Effects Of Formaldehyde On Growth Parameters Of Broiler Chicks, Paula Johnson 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluation Of The Effects Of Formaldehyde On Growth Parameters Of Broiler Chicks, Paula Johnson

Theses and Dissertations

Formaldehyde has been used as a disinfectant in poultry hatching cabinets to aid in controlling key pathogenic organisms, such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli (E.coli). There is some evidence that prolonged exposure of chicks to formaldehyde can reduce tracheal ciliary function and thus reasons to believe that exposure to formaldehyde, in the absence of pathogen challenge, may reduce chick vitality. It has been found that elevated temperatures during incubation may adversely affect body weights of broiler chicks, as well as post-hatch environmental heat stress on performance in poultry. Post-hatch environmental heat stress has been shown to impact performance in ...


Exogenous Fniii 12-14 Regulates Tgf-Β1-Induced Markers, Hilmi M. Humeid 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

Exogenous Fniii 12-14 Regulates Tgf-Β1-Induced Markers, Hilmi M. Humeid

Theses and Dissertations

The extracellular matrix protein Fibronectin (FN) plays an important role in cell contractility, differentiation, growth, adhesion, and migration. The 12th -14th Type III repeats of FN (FNIII 12-14), also referred to as the Heparin-II domain, comprise a highly promiscuous growth factor (GF) binding region. This binding domain aids in cellular signaling initiated from the ECM. Additionally, FN has the ability to assemble into fibrils under certain conditions, mostly observed during cell contractile processes such as those that initiate due to upregulation of Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 (TGF-β1) [1], [2]. Previous work from our lab has shown that self-assembly of ...


Comparative Analysis Of Low Molecular Weight Fraction Of Conditioned Media Derived From Starvation-Dormant And Anaerobically-Dormant Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis, Marina Buciuc 2018 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Comparative Analysis Of Low Molecular Weight Fraction Of Conditioned Media Derived From Starvation-Dormant And Anaerobically-Dormant Mycobacterium Avium Subsp. Paratuberculosis, Marina Buciuc

All Theses, Dissertations, and Other Capstone Projects

Johne's disease (JD) caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is a contagious chronic enteritis affecting all ruminants and causing economic loss of at least $250 million annually in the US dairy industry. One of the major limitations in the diagnosis of JD is the low sensitivity of fecal culture in animals with no clinical signs of the disease, but who are actively shedding MAP. Persistence of MAP in the host with no apparent signs of infection is attributed to its ability to enter a dormant state wherein the bacterium is viable, but is not able to replicate until ...


Detection Of Mycoplasma Gallisepticum In House Finches (Haemorhous Mexicanus) From Arizona, Molly Staley, Camille Bonneaud, Kevin J. McGraw, Carol M. Vleck, Geoffrey E. Hill 2018 Auburn University

Detection Of Mycoplasma Gallisepticum In House Finches (Haemorhous Mexicanus) From Arizona, Molly Staley, Camille Bonneaud, Kevin J. Mcgraw, Carol M. Vleck, Geoffrey E. Hill

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

In 1994, an endemic poultry pathogen, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), was identified as the causative agent of a novel disease in house finches (Haemorhous mexicanus). After an initial outbreak in Maryland, MG spread rapidly throughout eastern North American populations of house finches. Subsequently, MG spread slowly through the northern interior of North America and then into the Pacific Northwest, finally reaching California in 2006. Until 2009, there were no reports of MG in the southwestern United States east of California. In August 2011, after reports of house finches displaying conjunctivitis characteristic of MG infection in Arizona, we trapped house finches at ...


Biosurveillance Utilizing Engorged Ticks As Phlebotomists For Xenodiagnosis, Charles Elliott Lewis 2018 Iowa State University

Biosurveillance Utilizing Engorged Ticks As Phlebotomists For Xenodiagnosis, Charles Elliott Lewis

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Emerging infectious diseases pose a global threat to both human and animal health. The majority of novel zoonotic pathogens occur along the interface between humans, domestic animals, and wildlife creating complex ecological interactions that can be intricate and difficult to decipher. The availability of a diverse array of methods and techniques of sampling and diagnosing these diseases expands the effectiveness of the surveillance programs needed to enact countermeasures to counteract their effects. The purpose of the research reported here is to investigate the use of ticks as biological samplers for the purpose of antibody-based xenosurveillance. We show that antibody diagnostic ...


Chronic Wasting Disease Detection And Mortality Sources In Semi-Protected Deer Population, Krysten L. Schuler, Jonathan A. Jenks, Robert W. Klaver, Christopher S. Jennelle, R. Terry Bowyer 2018 South Dakota State University

Chronic Wasting Disease Detection And Mortality Sources In Semi-Protected Deer Population, Krysten L. Schuler, Jonathan A. Jenks, Robert W. Klaver, Christopher S. Jennelle, R. Terry Bowyer

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Surveillance for wildlife diseases is essential for assessing population dynamics of ungulates, especially in free-ranging populations where infected animals are difficult to sample. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an emerging infectious disease of concern because of the potential for substantial negative effects on populations of cervids. Variability in the likelihood that CWD is detected could invalidate traditional estimators for prevalence. In some instances, deer located after death cannot be tested for infectious diseases, including CWD, because of lack of availability or condition of appropriate tissues. We used various methods to detect infectious diseases that could cause mortality for deer Odocoileus ...


Spatial Modelling And Wildlife Health Surveillance: A Case Study Of White Nose Syndrome In Ontario, Lauren Yee 2018 Wilfrid Laurier University

Spatial Modelling And Wildlife Health Surveillance: A Case Study Of White Nose Syndrome In Ontario, Lauren Yee

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Wildlife data is often limited by survey effort, small sample sizes, and spatial biases associated with collection and missing data. These factors can create unique challenges from a surveillance perspective when trying to extract spatial patterns of habitat suitability and disease distributions for conservation and management purposes. This thesis examined data quality from a wildlife health database in the context of spatial analysis of wildlife disease. Spatial analysis of the data to predict habitat suitability of bats and white nose syndrome afflicted bats was examined by using the MaxEnt modelling method. Methods to reduce spatial bias were examined and specific ...


Lack Of Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity In Striped Bass (Morone Saxatilis), Jessica Shannon Miller 2018 Old Dominion University

Lack Of Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity In Striped Bass (Morone Saxatilis), Jessica Shannon Miller

Biological Sciences Theses & Dissertations

Mycobacteriosis is a fatal disease in fishes caused by acid-fast bacteria in the genus Mycobacterium. This disease impacts aquaculture, aquariums, and wild fishes. Unfortunately, there are currently no non-lethal diagnostic tests for mycobacterial infection in fishes. Type IV delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses in vivo and in vitro are currently used for the non-lethal detection of mycobacterial infections in humans and in animals; however, there is little information available on DTH responses in fishes. In this work, we examine in vivo DTH response in Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis), an important U.S. Eastern seaboard fish species, experimentally infected with ...


Of Rats And Men, Thomas S. Walsh 2017 Cuny Graduate School of Journalism

Of Rats And Men, Thomas S. Walsh

Capstones

This capstone is a data-driven investigation into New York City's rat problem. By using publicly available government data to map rat activity in NYC, I identified several socio-economic variables that correlate with rat populations at the community district, borough, and city-scale. I used these findings (mainly that rat problems are linked to lower incomes) as the basis of an investigation, which includes interviews with residents, experts, and city officials. Prof. Bobby Corrigan, urban rodentologist and formerly with the NYC Department of Health criticizes the city's efforts for the first time on the record.

https://thomasseiyawalsh.wixsite.com/ratstone


Dftd Age Structure And Vaccination Modeling, Christopher D. Bruno 2017 University of St. Francis

Dftd Age Structure And Vaccination Modeling, Christopher D. Bruno

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Bacterial Communities Associated With Healthy And Diseased Acropora Cervicornis (Staghorn Coral) Using High-Throughput Sequencing, Charles Walton 2017 Nova Southeastern University

Bacterial Communities Associated With Healthy And Diseased Acropora Cervicornis (Staghorn Coral) Using High-Throughput Sequencing, Charles Walton

HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations

Coral diseases were first noted in the 1960s and 1970s and have had major impacts globally on coral reef community structures. In the Caribbean, a major outbreak of white band disease has been considered responsible for the drastic decline of Caribbean Acroporids since the 1970s. In addition to white band disease, another more recently described condition known as rapid tissue loss (RTL) has had major impacts on Acropora cervicornis populations, specifically offshore Broward County Southeast Florida. While these diseases have contributed to the population decline, determining their etiologies has been elusive.

Coral diseases have been characterized by shifts in their ...


Use Of Fecal Volatile Organic Compound Analysis To Discriminate Between Non-Vaccinated And Bcg—Vaccinated Cattle Prior To And After Mycobacterium Bovis Challenge, Christine K. Ellis, Somchai Rice, Devin Maurer, Randal Stahl, W. Ray Waters, Mitchell V. Palmer, Pauline Nol, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Jacek A. Koziel 2017 United States Department of Agriculture

Use Of Fecal Volatile Organic Compound Analysis To Discriminate Between Non-Vaccinated And Bcg—Vaccinated Cattle Prior To And After Mycobacterium Bovis Challenge, Christine K. Ellis, Somchai Rice, Devin Maurer, Randal Stahl, W. Ray Waters, Mitchell V. Palmer, Pauline Nol, Jack C. Rhyan, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Jacek A. Koziel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease of global public health concern. Development of diagnostic tools to improve test accuracy and efficiency in domestic livestock and enable surveillance of wildlife reservoirs would improve disease management and eradication efforts. Use of volatile organic compound analysis in breath and fecal samples is being developed and optimized as a means to detect disease in humans and animals. In this study we demonstrate that VOCs present in fecal samples can be used to discriminate between non-vaccinated and BCG-vaccinated cattle prior to and after Mycobacterium bovis challenge.


Infection Of Commercial Laying Hens With Newcastle Disease Virus: Differing Responses Between Birds Provide Potential For Genetic Improvement Through Selection, Kaylee Rowland, Huaijun Zhou, Rodrigo Gallardo, David Bunn, Susan J. Lamont 2017 Iowa State University

Infection Of Commercial Laying Hens With Newcastle Disease Virus: Differing Responses Between Birds Provide Potential For Genetic Improvement Through Selection, Kaylee Rowland, Huaijun Zhou, Rodrigo Gallardo, David Bunn, Susan J. Lamont

Susan J. Lamont

Exotic Newcastle Disease Virus (ENDV) cause extremely rapid mortality in chickens after exposure to the virus. People rely heavily on poultry to provide protein and income in many places where NDV is not effectively controlled through vaccination and biosecurity. Losses from NDV contribute to worldwide hunger and poverty. It may be possible to use genetic selection to produce chickens that have a stronger immune response in the face of NDV challenge. For genetic selection to be successful, two major elements are required: differences in immune response among chickens and genetic control of these differences. This study clearly demonstrated the existence ...


F. Psychrophilum Resistant And Susceptible Rainbow Trout Show Differences In Abundance Of Igt+ And Igm+ B Cells, Erin Hennessey 2017 College of William and Mary

F. Psychrophilum Resistant And Susceptible Rainbow Trout Show Differences In Abundance Of Igt+ And Igm+ B Cells, Erin Hennessey

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Rainbow trout are heavily affected by Flavobacterium psychrophilum, a bacterium which is highly contagious in cold water. This bacterium causes Bacterial Cold Water Disease (BCWD) in the fish, which leads to severe symptoms and often results in death. This bacterium’s contagion poses a problem for trout hatcheries, which harvest over 1,000,000 lbs of these fish a year. The National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture has bred two distinct lines of rainbow trout: one line that is heavily susceptible to F. psychrophilum, and one that is resistant to it. Although this lab was able to genetically ...


Economic Assessment Of A Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Outbreak In Washington And Benton Counties In Arkansas, Antonio Beitia 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Economic Assessment Of A Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Outbreak In Washington And Benton Counties In Arkansas, Antonio Beitia

Theses and Dissertations

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) presents a substantial economic risk to the poultry industry. Domesticated fowl contract HPAI initially through exposure, direct or indirect with migratory waterfowl and outbreaks can result in significant economic losses to growers and the poultry industry at large. A HPAI outbreak occurred in Minnesota and Iowa and spread across over 13 other states in 2014 and 2015. This caused an estimated $1.6 billion in losses (CDC, 2016) and led to shortages of eggs and turkeys together with elevated prices (Anni et al. 2005). Even small outbreaks of HPAI inflict substantial damages as USDA-APHIS guidelines ...


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