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Dancing Through Life: Molecular Dynamics Simulations And Network-Centric Modeling Of Allosteric Mechanisms In Hsp70 And Hsp110 Chaperone Proteins, Gabrielle Stetz, Gennady M. Verkhivker 2015 Chapman University

Dancing Through Life: Molecular Dynamics Simulations And Network-Centric Modeling Of Allosteric Mechanisms In Hsp70 And Hsp110 Chaperone Proteins, Gabrielle Stetz, Gennady M. Verkhivker

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Hsp70 and Hsp110 chaperones play an important role in regulating cellular processes that involve protein folding and stabilization, which are essential for the integrity of signaling networks. Although many aspects of allosteric regulatory mechanisms in Hsp70 and Hsp110 chaperones have been extensively studied and significantly advanced in recent experimental studies, the atomistic picture of signal propagation and energetics of dynamics-based communication still remain unresolved. In this work, we have combined molecular dynamics simulations and protein stability analysis of the chaperone structures with the network modeling of residue interaction networks to characterize molecular determinants of allosteric mechanisms. We have shown that …


Chemical Modifications Mark Alternatively Spliced And Uncapped Messenger Rnas In Arabidposis, Lee E. Vandivier, Rafael Campos, Pavel P. Kuksa, Ian M. Silverman, Li-San Wang, Brian D. Gregory 2015 University of Pennsylvania

Chemical Modifications Mark Alternatively Spliced And Uncapped Messenger Rnas In Arabidposis, Lee E. Vandivier, Rafael Campos, Pavel P. Kuksa, Ian M. Silverman, Li-San Wang, Brian D. Gregory

Departmental Papers (Biology)

Posttranscriptional chemical modification of RNA bases is a widespread and physiologically relevant regulator of RNA maturation, stability, and function. While modifications are best characterized in short, noncoding RNAs such as tRNAs, growing evidence indicates that mRNAs and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are likewise modified. Here, we apply our high-throughput annotation of modified ribonucleotides (HAMR) pipeline to identify and classify modifications that affect Watson-Crick base pairing at three different levels of the Arabidopsis thaliana transcriptome (polyadenylated, small, and degrading RNAs). We find this type of modifications primarily within uncapped, degrading mRNAs and lncRNAs, suggesting they are the cause or consequence of …


Genestation 1.0: A Synthetic Resource Of Diverse Evolutionary And Functional Genomic Data For Studying The Evolution Of Pregnancy-Associated Tissues And Phenotypes, Mara Kim, Brian A. Cooper, Rohit Venkat, Julie B. Phillips, Haley R. Eidem, Jibril Hirbo, Sashank Nutakki, Scott M. Williams, Louis J. Muglia, J. Anthony Capra, Kenneth Petren, Patrick Abbot, Antonis Rokas, Kriston L. McGary 2015 Vanderbilt University

Genestation 1.0: A Synthetic Resource Of Diverse Evolutionary And Functional Genomic Data For Studying The Evolution Of Pregnancy-Associated Tissues And Phenotypes, Mara Kim, Brian A. Cooper, Rohit Venkat, Julie B. Phillips, Haley R. Eidem, Jibril Hirbo, Sashank Nutakki, Scott M. Williams, Louis J. Muglia, J. Anthony Capra, Kenneth Petren, Patrick Abbot, Antonis Rokas, Kriston L. Mcgary

Dartmouth Scholarship

Mammalian gestation and pregnancy are fast evolving processes that involve the interaction of the fetal, maternal and paternal genomes. Version 1.0 of the GEneSTATION database (http://genestation.org) integrates diverse types of omics data across mammals to advance understanding of the genetic basis of gestation and pregnancy-associated phenotypes and to accelerate the translation of discoveries from model organisms to humans. GEneSTATION is built using tools from the Generic Model Organism Database project, including the biology-aware database CHADO, new tools for rapid data integration, and algorithms that streamline synthesis and user access. GEneSTATION contains curated life history information on pregnancy and …


Elongation Factor-P At The Crossroads Of The Host-Endosymbiont Interface, Andrei Rajkovic, Anne Witzky, William Navarre, Andrew J. Darwin, Michael Ibba 2015 The Ohio State University

Elongation Factor-P At The Crossroads Of The Host-Endosymbiont Interface, Andrei Rajkovic, Anne Witzky, William Navarre, Andrew J. Darwin, Michael Ibba

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Elongation factor P (EF-P) is an ancient bacterial translational factor that aids the ribosome in polymerizing oligo-prolines. EF-P structurally resembles tRNA and binds in-between the exit and peptidyl sites of the ribosome to accelerate the intrinsically slow reaction of peptidyl-prolyl bond formation. Recent studies have identified in separate organisms, two evolutionarily convergent EF-P post-translational modification systems (EPMS), split predominantly between gammaproteobacteria, and betaproteobacteria. In both cases EF-P receives a post-translational modification, critical for its function, on a highly conserved residue that protrudes into the peptidyl-transfer center of the ribosome. EPMSs are comprised of a gene(s) that synthesizes the precursor molecule …


Design And Synthesis Of Novel Nucleoside Analogues: Oxidative And Reductive Approaches Toward Synthesis Of 2'-Fluoro Pyrimidine Nucleosides, Ramanjaneyulu Rayala 2015 Florida International University

Design And Synthesis Of Novel Nucleoside Analogues: Oxidative And Reductive Approaches Toward Synthesis Of 2'-Fluoro Pyrimidine Nucleosides, Ramanjaneyulu Rayala

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Fluorinated nucleosides, especially the analogues with fluorine atom(s) in the ribose ring, have been known to exert potent biological activities. The first part of this dissertation was aimed at developing oxidative desulfurization-fluorination and reductive desulfonylation-fluorination methodologies toward the synthesis of 2'-mono and/or 2',2'-difluoro pyrimidine nucleosides from the corresponding 2'-arylthiopyrimidine precursors. Novel oxidative desulfurization-difluorination methodology was developed for the synthesis of α,α-difluorinted esters from the corresponding α-arylthio esters, wherein the arylthio group is present on a secondary internal carbon. For the reductive desulfonylation studies, cyclic voltammetry was utilized to measure the reduction potentials at which the sulfone moiety of substrates can …


Cyclic Rhamnosylated Elongation Factor P Establishes Antibiotic Resistance In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Andrei Rajkovic, Sarah Erickson, Anne Witzky, Owen E. Branson, Jin Seo, Philip R. Gafken, Michael A. Frietas, Julian P. Whitelegge, Kym F. Faull, William Wiley Navarre, Andrew J. Darwin, Michael Ibba 2015 The Ohio State University

Cyclic Rhamnosylated Elongation Factor P Establishes Antibiotic Resistance In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Andrei Rajkovic, Sarah Erickson, Anne Witzky, Owen E. Branson, Jin Seo, Philip R. Gafken, Michael A. Frietas, Julian P. Whitelegge, Kym F. Faull, William Wiley Navarre, Andrew J. Darwin, Michael Ibba

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Elongation factor P (EF-P) is a ubiquitous bacterial protein that is required for the synthesis of poly-proline motifs during translation. In Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica, the posttranslational β-lysylation of Lys34 by the PoxA protein is critical for EF-P activity. PoxA is absent from many bacterial species such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, prompting a search for alternative EF-P posttranslation modification pathways. Structural analyses of P. aeruginosa EF-P revealed the attachment of a single cyclic rhamnose moiety to an Arg residue at a position equivalent to that at which β-Lys is attached to E. coli EF-P. Analysis of the genomes …


Micrornas In Alcoholic Liver Disease, Gyongyi Szabo, Abhishek Satishchandran 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Micrornas In Alcoholic Liver Disease, Gyongyi Szabo, Abhishek Satishchandran

Gyongyi Szabo

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is characterized by hepatocyte damage, inflammatory cell activation and increased intestinal permeability leading to the clinical manifestations of alcoholic hepatitis. Selected members of the family of microRNAs are affected by alcohol, resulting in an abnormal miRNA profile in the liver and circulation in ALD. Increasing evidence suggests that mRNAs that regulate inflammation, lipid metabolism and promote cancer are affected by excessive alcohol administration in mouse models of ALD. This communication highlights recent findings in miRNA expression and functions as they relate to the pathogenesis of ALD. The cell-specific distribution of miRNAs, as well as the significance …


Synthesis Of Β-Triphosphotriester Pronucleotides, Yousef A. Beni, Chandravanu Dash, Keykavous Parang 2015 Tennessee State University

Synthesis Of Β-Triphosphotriester Pronucleotides, Yousef A. Beni, Chandravanu Dash, Keykavous Parang

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Dinucleoside phosphorochloridite were synthesized from phosphorus trichloride and three nucleoside analogues, 3-fluoro-2,3-dideoxythymidine (FLT), 2',3'-dideoxy-5-fluoro-3'- thiacytidine (FTC), and 2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine (3TC), in a multistep synthesis. Polymerbound N-Boc p-acetoxybenzyl 5¢-O-2¢-deoxythymidine was reacted with dinucleoside phosphorochloridite in the presence of 2,6-lutidine, followed by the reaction with dodecyl alcohol and 5-(ethylthio)-1H-tetrazole, oxidation with tert-butyl hydroperoxide, and acidic cleavage, respectively, to afford the b-triphosphotriester derivatives containing three different nucleosides.


Evaluation Of Polyamine-Anthracene Conjugates As Dna Ligands: A Potential Anti-Cancer Agent, Khoa T. Nguyen, Sunhwa Joung, Jennifer J. Archer, Otto Phanstiel IV, Kathryn B. Grant 2015 Georgia State University

Evaluation Of Polyamine-Anthracene Conjugates As Dna Ligands: A Potential Anti-Cancer Agent, Khoa T. Nguyen, Sunhwa Joung, Jennifer J. Archer, Otto Phanstiel Iv, Kathryn B. Grant

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Introduction To Gene Enrichment Analysis Tools, Rolando Garcia-Milian 2015 Yale University

Introduction To Gene Enrichment Analysis Tools, Rolando Garcia-Milian

Rolando Garcia-Milian

Bioinformatics enrichment tools play an important role in identifying, annotating, and functionally analyzing large list of genes generated by high-throughput technologies (e.g. microarrary, RNA-seq, ChIP-chip). This workshop will provide an overview of the principle, type of enrichments, and the infrastructure of enrichment tools. By using concrete examples, it will also introduce some of the most popular tools for gene enrichment analysis such as DAVID, GSEA, and WebGestalt.


Human Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course (1st Edition), Carlos Liachovitzky 2015 CUNY Bronx Community College

Human Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course (1st Edition), Carlos Liachovitzky

Open Educational Resources

The overall purpose of this preparatory course textbook is to help students familiarize with some terms and some basic concepts they will find later in the Human Anatomy and Physiology I course.

The organization and functioning of the human organism generally is discussed in terms of different levels of increasing complexity, from the smallest building blocks to the entire body. This Anatomy and Physiology preparatory course covers the foundations on the chemical level, and a basic introduction to cellular level, organ level, and organ system levels. There is also an introduction to homeostasis at the beginning.


Transfer Rna Comes Of Age, Michael Ibba 2015 Chapman University

Transfer Rna Comes Of Age, Michael Ibba

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

"The year the journal RNA was founded was slated by some in scientific publishing to be the year that one particular type of RNA's run in the spotlight would end. In 1995 I had recently started as a post-doc with Dieter Söll at Yale when he came into the lab to solemnly inform us all that an editor at a certain (S)cience journal had just told him “we won't be publishing any more tRNA papers.” For a post-doc who had migrated across the Atlantic for the sole purpose of furthering his career by working on tRNA this was not great …


Effect Of Hydrogen Peroxide On The Biosynthesis Of Heme And Proteins: Potential Implications For The Partitioning Of Glu-TrnaGlu Between These Pathways, Carolina Farah, Gloria Levicán, Michael Ibba, Omar Orellana 2014 Universidad de Chile

Effect Of Hydrogen Peroxide On The Biosynthesis Of Heme And Proteins: Potential Implications For The Partitioning Of Glu-TrnaGlu Between These Pathways, Carolina Farah, Gloria Levicán, Michael Ibba, Omar Orellana

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Glutamyl-tRNA (Glu-tRNAGlu) is the common substrate for both protein translation and heme biosynthesis via the C5 pathway. Under normal conditions, an adequate supply of this aminoacyl-tRNA is available to both pathways. However, under certain circumstances, Glu-tRNAGlu can become scarce, resulting in competition between the two pathways for this aminoacyl-tRNA. In Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, glutamyl-tRNA synthetase 1 (GluRS1) is the main enzyme that synthesizes Glu-tRNAGlu. Previous studies have shown that GluRS1 is inactivated in vitro by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This raises the question as to whether H2O2 negatively affects …


Mrp4-Dependent Regulation Of Fibroblast Migration, Chandrima Sinha 2014 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Mrp4-Dependent Regulation Of Fibroblast Migration, Chandrima Sinha

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Roles of cyclic nucleotides and cyclic nucleotide-dependent signaling molecules in regulating several signaling pathways including cell migration have long been known. However, the new and revolutionary concept is that it is not just the absence or presence of cyclic nucleotides, but a highly coordinated balance between these molecules regulates cell migration. Multi-drug resistance protein 4 (MRP4), is a member of the large family of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins, that localizes to the plasma membrane and functions as a nucleotide efflux transporter and thus plays a pivotal role in the regulation of intracellular cyclic nucleotide dynamics. In our study …


Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors Possess Intrinsic Anti-Inflammatory Activity, Benjamin J. Fowler, Bradley D. Gelfand, Younghee Kim, Nagaraj Kerur, Valeria Tarallo, Yoshio Hirano, Shoba Amarnath, Daniel H. Fowler, Marta Radwan, Mark T. Young, Keir Pittman, Paul Kubes, Hitesh Agarwal, Keykavous Parang, David R. Hinton, Ana Bastos-Carvalho, Shengjian Li, Testuhiro Yasuma, Takeshi Mizutani, Reo Yasuma, Charles Wright, Jayakrishna Ambati 2014 University of Kentucky

Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors Possess Intrinsic Anti-Inflammatory Activity, Benjamin J. Fowler, Bradley D. Gelfand, Younghee Kim, Nagaraj Kerur, Valeria Tarallo, Yoshio Hirano, Shoba Amarnath, Daniel H. Fowler, Marta Radwan, Mark T. Young, Keir Pittman, Paul Kubes, Hitesh Agarwal, Keykavous Parang, David R. Hinton, Ana Bastos-Carvalho, Shengjian Li, Testuhiro Yasuma, Takeshi Mizutani, Reo Yasuma, Charles Wright, Jayakrishna Ambati

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are mainstay therapeutics for HIV that block retrovirus replication. Alu (an endogenous retroelement that also requires reverse transcriptase for its life cycle)–derived RNAs activate P2X7 and the NLRP3 inflammasome to cause cell death of the retinal pigment epithelium in geographic atrophy, a type of age-related macular degeneration. We found that NRTIs inhibit P2X7-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation independent of reverse transcriptase inhibition. Multiple approved and clinically relevant NRTIs prevented caspase-1 activation, the effector of the NLRP3 inflammasome, induced by Alu RNA. NRTIs were efficacious in mouse models of geographic atrophy, choroidal neovascularization, graft-versus-host disease, and sterile …


The Non-Canonical Hydroxylase Structure Of Yfcm Reveals A Metal Ion-Coordination Motif Required For Ef-P Hydroxylation, Kan Kobayashi, Assaf Katz, Andrei Rajkovic, Ryohei Ishii, Owen E. Branson, Michael A. Freitas, Ryuichiro Ishitani, Michael Ibba, Osamu Nureki 2014 University of Tokyo

The Non-Canonical Hydroxylase Structure Of Yfcm Reveals A Metal Ion-Coordination Motif Required For Ef-P Hydroxylation, Kan Kobayashi, Assaf Katz, Andrei Rajkovic, Ryohei Ishii, Owen E. Branson, Michael A. Freitas, Ryuichiro Ishitani, Michael Ibba, Osamu Nureki

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

EF-P is a bacterial tRNA-mimic protein, which accelerates the ribosome-catalyzed polymerization of poly-prolines. In Escherichia coli, EF-P is post-translationally modified on a conserved lysine residue. The post-translational modification is performed in a two-step reaction involving the addition of a β-lysine moiety and the subsequent hydroxylation, catalyzed by PoxA and YfcM, respectively. The β-lysine moiety was previously shown to enhance the rate of poly-proline synthesis, but the role of the hydroxylation is poorly understood. We solved the crystal structure of YfcM and performed functional analyses to determine the hydroxylation mechanism. In addition, YfcM appears to be structurally distinct from any …


Mistranslation Of The Genetic Code, Adil Moghal, Kyle Mohler, Michael Ibba 2014 The Ohio State University

Mistranslation Of The Genetic Code, Adil Moghal, Kyle Mohler, Michael Ibba

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

During mRNA decoding at the ribosome, deviations from stringent codon identity, or “mistranslation,” are generally deleterious and infrequent. Observations of organisms that decode some codons ambiguously, and the discovery of a compensatory increase in mistranslation frequency to combat environmental stress have changed the way we view “errors” in decoding. Modern tools for the study of the frequency and phenotypic effects of mistranslation can provide quantitative and sensitive measurements of decoding errors that were previously inaccessible. Mistranslation with non‐protein amino acids, in particular, is an enticing prospect for new drug therapies and the study of molecular evolution.


Relaxed Substrate Specificity Leads To Extensive Trna Mischarging By Streptococcus Pneumoniae Class I And Class Ii Aminoacyl-Trna Synthetases, Jennifer Shepherd, Michael Ibba 2014 The Ohio State University

Relaxed Substrate Specificity Leads To Extensive Trna Mischarging By Streptococcus Pneumoniae Class I And Class Ii Aminoacyl-Trna Synthetases, Jennifer Shepherd, Michael Ibba

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases provide the first step in protein synthesis quality control by discriminating cognate from noncognate amino acid and tRNA substrates. While substrate specificity is enhanced in many instances by cis- and trans-editing pathways, it has been revealed that in organisms such as Streptococcus pneumoniae some aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases display significant tRNA mischarging activity. To investigate the extent of tRNA mischarging in this pathogen, the aminoacylation profiles of class I isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase (IleRS) and class II lysyl-tRNA synthetase (LysRS) were determined. Pneumococcal IleRS mischarged tRNAIle with both Val, as demonstrated in other bacteria, and Leu in a tRNA sequence-dependent …


Translation Initiation Rate Determines The Impact Of Ribosome Stalling On Bacterial Protein Synthesis, Steven J. Hersch, Sara Elgamal, Assaf Katz, Michael Ibba, William Wiley Navarre 2014 University of Toronto

Translation Initiation Rate Determines The Impact Of Ribosome Stalling On Bacterial Protein Synthesis, Steven J. Hersch, Sara Elgamal, Assaf Katz, Michael Ibba, William Wiley Navarre

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Ribosome stalling during translation can be caused by a number of characterized mechanisms. However, the impact of elongation stalls on protein levels is variable, and the reasons for this are often unclear. To investigate this relationship, we examined the bacterial translation elongation factor P (EF-P), which plays a critical role in rescuing ribosomes stalled at specific amino acid sequences including polyproline motifs. In previous proteomic analyses of both Salmonella and Escherichia coli efp mutants, it was evident that not all proteins containing a polyproline motif were dependent on EF-P for efficient expression in vivo . The α- and β-subunits of …


Ef-P Dependent Pauses Integrate Proximal And Distal Signals During Translation, Sara Elgamal, Assaf Katz, Steven J. Hersch, David Newsom, Peter White, William Wiley Navarre, Michael Ibba 2014 The Ohio State University

Ef-P Dependent Pauses Integrate Proximal And Distal Signals During Translation, Sara Elgamal, Assaf Katz, Steven J. Hersch, David Newsom, Peter White, William Wiley Navarre, Michael Ibba

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Elongation factor P (EF-P) is required for the efficient synthesis of proteins with stretches of consecutive prolines and other motifs that would otherwise lead to ribosome pausing. However, previous reports also demonstrated that levels of most diprolyl-containing proteins are not altered by the deletion of efp. To define the particular sequences that trigger ribosome stalling at diprolyl (PPX) motifs, we used ribosome profiling to monitor global ribosome occupancy in Escherichia coli strains lacking EF-P. Only 2.8% of PPX motifs caused significant ribosomal pausing in the Δefp strain, with up to a 45-fold increase in ribosome density observed at …


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