Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Nucleic Acids, Nucleotides, and Nucleosides Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

211 Full-Text Articles 607 Authors 55,876 Downloads 44 Institutions

All Articles in Nucleic Acids, Nucleotides, and Nucleosides

Faceted Search

211 full-text articles. Page 5 of 9.

Synthesis Of Rhamnosylated Arginine Glycopeptides And Determination Of The Glycosidic Linkage In Bacterial Elongation Factor P, Siyao Wang, Leo Corcilius, Phillip B. Sharp, Andrei Rajkovic, Michael Ibba, Benjamin L. Parker, Richard J. Payne 2016 University of Sydney

Synthesis Of Rhamnosylated Arginine Glycopeptides And Determination Of The Glycosidic Linkage In Bacterial Elongation Factor P, Siyao Wang, Leo Corcilius, Phillip B. Sharp, Andrei Rajkovic, Michael Ibba, Benjamin L. Parker, Richard J. Payne

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

A new class of N-linked protein glycosylation – arginine rhamnosylation – has recently been discovered as a critical modification for the function of bacterial elongation factor P (EF-P). Herein, we describe the synthesis of suitably protected α- and β-rhamnosylated arginine amino acid “cassettes” that can be directly installed into rhamnosylated peptides. Preparation of a proteolytic fragment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa EF-P bearing both α- and β-rhamnosylated arginine enabled the unequivocal determination of the native glycosidic linkage to be α through 2D NMR and nano-UHPLC-tandem mass spectrometry studies.


The Complex Evolutionary History Of Aminoacyl-Trna Synthetases, Anargyros Chaliotis, Panayotis Vlastaridis, Dimitris Mossialos, Michael Ibba, Hubert D. Becker, Constantinos Stathopoulos, Grigorios D. Amoutzias 2016 University of Thessaly

The Complex Evolutionary History Of Aminoacyl-Trna Synthetases, Anargyros Chaliotis, Panayotis Vlastaridis, Dimitris Mossialos, Michael Ibba, Hubert D. Becker, Constantinos Stathopoulos, Grigorios D. Amoutzias

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARSs) are a superfamily of enzymes responsible for the faithful translation of the genetic code and have lately become a prominent target for synthetic biologists. Our large-scale analysis of >2500 prokaryotic genomes reveals the complex evolutionary history of these enzymes and their paralogs, in which horizontal gene transfer played an important role. These results show that a widespread belief in the evolutionary stability of this superfamily is misconceived. Although AlaRS, GlyRS, LeuRS, IleRS, ValRS are the most stable members of the family, GluRS, LysRS and CysRS often have paralogs, whereas AsnRS, GlnRS, PylRS and SepRS are often absent …


Structures Of Mithramycin Analogues Bound To Dna And Implications For Targeting Transcription Factor Fli1, Caixia Hou, Stevi Weidenbach, Kristin E. Cano, Zhonghua Wang, Prithiba Mitra, Dmitri N. Ivanov, Jürgen Rohr, Oleg V. Tsodikov 2016 University of Kentucky

Structures Of Mithramycin Analogues Bound To Dna And Implications For Targeting Transcription Factor Fli1, Caixia Hou, Stevi Weidenbach, Kristin E. Cano, Zhonghua Wang, Prithiba Mitra, Dmitri N. Ivanov, Jürgen Rohr, Oleg V. Tsodikov

Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Publications

Transcription factors have been considered undruggable, but this paradigm has been recently challenged. DNA binding natural product mithramycin (MTM) is a potent antagonist of oncogenic transcription factor EWS–FLI1. Structural details of MTM recognition of DNA, including the FLI1 binding sequence GGA(A/T), are needed to understand how MTM interferes with EWS–FLI1. We report a crystal structure of an MTM analogue MTM SA–Trp bound to a DNA oligomer containing a site GGCC, and two structures of a novel analogue MTM SA–Phe in complex with DNA. MTM SA–Phe is bound to sites AGGG and GGGT on one DNA, and to AGGG and GGGA(T) …


Genome-Wide Mapping Of Uncapped And Cleaved Transcripts Reveals A Role For The Nuclear Mrna Cap-Binding Complex In Cotranslational Rna Decay In Arabidopsis, Xiang Yu, Matthew R. Willmann, Stephen J. Anderson, Brian D. Gregory 2016 University of Pennsylvania

Genome-Wide Mapping Of Uncapped And Cleaved Transcripts Reveals A Role For The Nuclear Mrna Cap-Binding Complex In Cotranslational Rna Decay In Arabidopsis, Xiang Yu, Matthew R. Willmann, Stephen J. Anderson, Brian D. Gregory

Departmental Papers (Biology)

RNA turnover is necessary for controlling proper mRNA levels posttranscriptionally. In general, RNA degradation is via exoribonucleases that degrade RNA either from the 5′ end to the 3′ end, such as XRN4, or in the opposite direction by the multisubunit exosome complex. Here, we use genome-wide mapping of uncapped and cleaved transcripts to reveal the global landscape of cotranslational mRNA decay in the Arabidopsis thaliana transcriptome. We found that this process leaves a clear three nucleotide periodicity in open reading frames. This pattern of cotranslational degradation is especially evident near the ends of open reading frames, where we observe accumulation …


Isoacceptor Specific Characterization Of Trna Aminoacylation And Misacylation In Vivo, Kyle Mohler, Rebecca Mann, Michael Ibba 2016 The Ohio State University

Isoacceptor Specific Characterization Of Trna Aminoacylation And Misacylation In Vivo, Kyle Mohler, Rebecca Mann, Michael Ibba

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Amino acid misincorporation during protein synthesis occurs due to misacylation of tRNAs or defects in decoding at the ribosome. While misincorporation of amino acids has been observed in a variety of contexts, less work has been done to directly assess the extent to which specific tRNAs are misacylated in vivo, and the identity of the misacylated amino acid moiety. Here we describe tRNA isoacceptor specific aminoacylation profiling (ISAP), a method to identify and quantify the amino acids attached to a tRNA species in vivo. ISAP allows compilation of aminoacylation profiles for specific isoacceptors tRNAs. To demonstrate the efficacy and …


Maintenance Of Transcription-Translation Coupling By Elongation Factor P, Sara Elgamal, Irina Artsimovitch, Michael Ibba 2016 The Ohio State University

Maintenance Of Transcription-Translation Coupling By Elongation Factor P, Sara Elgamal, Irina Artsimovitch, Michael Ibba

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Under conditions of tight coupling between translation and transcription, the ribosome enables synthesis of full-length mRNAs by preventing both formation of intrinsic terminator hairpins and loading of the transcription termination factor Rho. While previous studies have focused on transcription factors, we investigated the role of Escherichia coli elongation factor P (EF-P), an elongation factor required for efficient translation of mRNAs containing consecutive proline codons, in maintaining coupled translation and transcription. In the absence of EF-P, the presence of Rho utilization (rut) sites led to an ~30-fold decrease in translation of polyproline-encoding mRNAs. Coexpression of the Rho inhibitor Psu …


Stability And Kinetics Of Dna Pseudoknots: Formation Of T∗A•T Base-Triplets And Their Targeting Reactions, Calliste Steffensmeier 2016 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Stability And Kinetics Of Dna Pseudoknots: Formation Of T∗A•T Base-Triplets And Their Targeting Reactions, Calliste Steffensmeier

Theses & Dissertations

Pseudoknots have been found to play important roles in the biology of RNA. These stem-loop motifs are considered to be very compact and the targeting of their loops with complementary strands is accompanied with lower favorable free energy terms. We used a combination of spectroscopic (UV, CD and fluorescence), calorimetric (DSC, PPC and ITC) and kinetic (SPR) techniques to investigate: 1) Local base-triplet formation in pseudoknots; 2) energetic contributions for the association of pseudoknots with their complementary strands; and 3) the kinetic rates as a function of targeting strand length.

We investigated a set of DNA pseudoknots with sequence: d(TCTCT …


Assembly Of Nucleic Acid-Based Nanoparticles By Gas-Liquid Segmented Flow Microfluidics, Matthew L. Capek, Ross VerHeul, David H. Thompson 2016 Purdue University

Assembly Of Nucleic Acid-Based Nanoparticles By Gas-Liquid Segmented Flow Microfluidics, Matthew L. Capek, Ross Verheul, David H. Thompson

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The development of novel and efficient mixing methods is important for optimizing the efficiency of many biological and chemical processes. Tuning the physical and performance properties of nucleic acid-based nanoparticles is one such example known to be strongly affected by mixing efficiency. The characteristics of DNA nanoparticles (such as size, polydispersity, ζ-potential, and gel shift) are important to ensure their therapeutic potency, and new methods to optimize these characteristics are of significant importance to achieve the highest efficacy. In the present study, a simple segmented flow microfluidics system has been developed to augment mixing of pDNA/bPEI nanoparticles. This DNA and …


Analysis Of The Intricacies Of Substrate Recognition Of High Mobility Group Proteins And Aminoacyl-Trna Synthetases Using Non-Cognate Substrates, Douglas Van Iverson II 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Analysis Of The Intricacies Of Substrate Recognition Of High Mobility Group Proteins And Aminoacyl-Trna Synthetases Using Non-Cognate Substrates, Douglas Van Iverson Ii

Dissertations

The studies presented in section 1 (Chapters I-IV) focus on the design and development of nucleic acid four-way junctions (4WJs) to target a member of the high mobility group (HMG) proteins, the proinflammatory cytokine high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1). In the present study, hybrid PNA-DNA 4WJs based on a model DNA 4WJ were constructed to improve the thermal stability of 4WJs while maintaining strong binding affinity toward HMGB1. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) was used to examine the binding affinity of an isolated DNA binding domain of HMGB1, the HMGB1 b-box (HMGB1b), toward a set of PNA-DNA …


Translation Control Of Swarming Proficiency In Bacillus Subtilis By 5-Amino-Pentanolylated Elongation Factor P, Andrei Rajkovic, Katherine R. Hummels, Anne Witzky, Sarah Erickson, Philip R. Gafken, Julian P. Whitelegge, Kym F. Faull, Daniel B. Kearns, Michael Ibba 2016 The Ohio State University

Translation Control Of Swarming Proficiency In Bacillus Subtilis By 5-Amino-Pentanolylated Elongation Factor P, Andrei Rajkovic, Katherine R. Hummels, Anne Witzky, Sarah Erickson, Philip R. Gafken, Julian P. Whitelegge, Kym F. Faull, Daniel B. Kearns, Michael Ibba

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Elongation factor P (EF-P) accelerates diprolyl synthesis and requires a posttranslational modification to maintain proteostasis. Two phylogenetically distinct EF-P modification pathways have been described and are encoded in the majority of Gram-negative bacteria, but neither is present in Gram-positive bacteria. Prior work suggested that the EF-P-encoding gene (efp) primarily supports Bacillus subtilis swarming differentiation, whereas EF-P in Gram-negative bacteria has a more global housekeeping role, prompting our investigation to determine whether EF-P is modified and how it impacts gene expression in motile cells. We identified a 5-aminopentanol moiety attached to Lys32 of B. subtilis EF-P that is …


Multiple Quality Control Pathways Limit Non-Protein Amino Acid Use By Yeast Cytoplasmic Phenylalanyl-Trna Synthetase, Adil Moghal, Lin Hwang, Kym F. Faull, Michael Ibba 2016 The Ohio State University

Multiple Quality Control Pathways Limit Non-Protein Amino Acid Use By Yeast Cytoplasmic Phenylalanyl-Trna Synthetase, Adil Moghal, Lin Hwang, Kym F. Faull, Michael Ibba

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Non-protein amino acids, particularly isomers of the proteinogenic amino acids, present a threat to proteome integrity if they are mistakenly inserted into proteins. Quality control during aminoacyl-tRNA synthesis reduces non-protein amino acid incorporation by both substrate discrimination and proofreading. For example phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (PheRS) proofreads the non-protein hydroxylated phenylalanine derivative m-Tyr after its attachment to tRNAPhe. We now show in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that PheRS misacylation of tRNAPhe with the more abundant Phe oxidation product o-Tyr is limited by kinetic discrimination against o-Tyr-AMP in the transfer step followed by o-Tyr-AMP release from the synthetic …


Non-Canonical Roles Of Trnas And Trna Mimics In Bacterial Cell Biology, Assaf Katz, Sara Elgamal, Andrei Rajkovic, Michael Ibba 2016 Universidad de Chile

Non-Canonical Roles Of Trnas And Trna Mimics In Bacterial Cell Biology, Assaf Katz, Sara Elgamal, Andrei Rajkovic, Michael Ibba

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are the macromolecules that transfer activated amino acids from aminoacyl‐tRNA synthetases to the ribosome, where they are used for the mRNA guided synthesis of proteins. Transfer RNAs are ancient molecules, perhaps even predating the existence of the translation machinery. Albeit old, these molecules are tremendously conserved, a characteristic that is well illustrated by the fact that some bacterial tRNAs are efficient and specific substrates of eukaryotic aminoacyl‐tRNA synthetases and ribosomes. Considering their ancient origin and high structural conservation, it is not surprising that tRNAs have been hijacked during evolution for functions outside of translation. These roles beyond …


Novel Compound Heterozygous Mutations Expand The Recognized Phenotypes Of Fars2-Linked Disease, Melissa A. Walker, Kyle Mohler, Kyle W. Hopkins, Derek H. Oakley, David A. Sweetser, Michael Ibba, Matthew P. Frosch, Ronald L. Thibert 2016 Massachusetts General Hospital

Novel Compound Heterozygous Mutations Expand The Recognized Phenotypes Of Fars2-Linked Disease, Melissa A. Walker, Kyle Mohler, Kyle W. Hopkins, Derek H. Oakley, David A. Sweetser, Michael Ibba, Matthew P. Frosch, Ronald L. Thibert

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Mutations in mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are an increasingly recognized cause of human diseases, often arising in individuals with compound heterozygous mutations and presenting with system-specific phenotypes, frequently neurologic. FARS2 encodes mitochondrial phenylalanyl transfer ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthetase (mtPheRS), perturbations of which have been reported in 6 cases of an infantile, lethal disease with refractory epilepsy and progressive myoclonus. Here the authors report the case of juvenile onset refractory epilepsy and progressive myoclonus with compound heterozygous FARS2 mutations. The authors describe the clinical course over 6 years of care at their institution and diagnostic studies including electroencephalogram (EEG), brain magnetic resonance …


Micro- And Nanoparticulates For Dna Vaccine Delivery, Eric Farris, Deborah M. Brown, Amanda Ramer-Tait, Angela K. Pannier 2016 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Micro- And Nanoparticulates For Dna Vaccine Delivery, Eric Farris, Deborah M. Brown, Amanda Ramer-Tait, Angela K. Pannier

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

DNA vaccination has emerged as a promising alternative to traditional protein-based vaccines for the induction of protective immune responses. DNA vaccines offer several advantages over traditional vaccines, including increased stability, rapid and inexpensive production, and flexibility to produce vaccines for a wide variety of infectious diseases. However, the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines delivered as naked plasmid DNA is often weak due to degradation of the DNA by nucleases and inefficient delivery to immune cells. Therefore, biomaterial-based delivery systems based on micro- and nanoparticles that encapsulate plasmid DNA represent the most promising strategy for DNA vaccine delivery. Microparticulate delivery systems allow …


Identification Of Potential Drug Targets In Cancer Signaling Pathways Using Stochastic Logical Models, Peican Zhu, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi, Hasan Uludag, Jie Han 2016 Northwestern Polytechnical University

Identification Of Potential Drug Targets In Cancer Signaling Pathways Using Stochastic Logical Models, Peican Zhu, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi, Hasan Uludag, Jie Han

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The investigation of vulnerable components in a signaling pathway can contribute to development of drug therapy addressing aberrations in that pathway. Here, an original signaling pathway is derived from the published literature on breast cancer models. New stochastic logical models are then developed to analyze the vulnerability of the components in multiple signalling sub-pathways involved in this signaling cascade. The computational results are consistent with the experimental results, where the selected proteins were silenced using specific siRNAs and the viability of the cells were analyzed 72 hours after silencing. The genes elF4E and NFkB are found to have nearly no …


Rna Nanotechnology For Next Generation Targeted Drug Delivery, Fengmei Pi 2016 University of Kentucky

Rna Nanotechnology For Next Generation Targeted Drug Delivery, Fengmei Pi

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

The emerging field of RNA nanotechnology is developing into a promising platform for therapeutically application. Utilizing the state-of-art RNA nanotechnology, RNA nanoparticles can be designed and constructed with controllable shape, size for both RNA therapeutics and chemical drug delivery. The high homogeneity in particle size and ease for RNA therapeutic module conjugation, made it feasible to explore versatile RNA nanoparticle designs for preclinical studies.

One vital module for therapeutic RNA nanoparticle design is RNA aptamer, which can enable the RNA nanoparticles find its specific target for targeted drug delivery. A system of screening divalent RNA aptamers for cancer cell targeting …


Human Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course: Part 1 Of 4 (Interactive), Carlos Liachovitzky 2016 CUNY Bronx Community College

Human Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course: Part 1 Of 4 (Interactive), Carlos Liachovitzky

Open Educational Resources

The overall purpose of these preparatory course set of learning objectives is to help students familiarize with some terms and some basic concepts they will find later in the Human Anatomy and Physiology I course.

These 40+ learning objectives to prepare for Human Anatomy and Physiology can be downloaded and played in a desktop, or laptop (windows exe file).

The entire course has four parts:

Each learning objective is followed by a set of multiple choice question similar to those found later in a Human Anatomy and Physiology course.

The organization and …


Understanding Dna Condensation By Low Generation (G0/G1) And Zwitterionic G4 Pamam Dendrimers, Min An 2016 University of Kentucky

Understanding Dna Condensation By Low Generation (G0/G1) And Zwitterionic G4 Pamam Dendrimers, Min An

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

Cationic polymers have shown potential as gene delivery vectors due to their ability to condense DNA and protect it from cellular and restriction nucleases. Dendrimers are hyperbranched macromolecules with precisely defined molecular weights and highly symmetric branches stemming from a central core. The nanosize, tunable surface chemistries and ease of surface functionalization has made dendrimers an attractive alternative to conventional linear polymers for DNA delivery applications. The commercially available, cationic dendrimer poly(amidoamine) or PAMAM is the most widely studied dendrimer for use as a gene delivery vector. The aim of this dissertation is to provide an increased understanding of the …


Methyl Transfer By Substrate Signaling From A Knotted Protein Fold, Thomas Christian, Reiko Sakaguchi, Agata P. Perlinska, George Lahoud, Takuhiro Ito, Erika A. Taylor, Shigeyuki Yokoyama, Joanna I. Sulkowska, Ya-Ming Hou 2015 Wesleyan University

Methyl Transfer By Substrate Signaling From A Knotted Protein Fold, Thomas Christian, Reiko Sakaguchi, Agata P. Perlinska, George Lahoud, Takuhiro Ito, Erika A. Taylor, Shigeyuki Yokoyama, Joanna I. Sulkowska, Ya-Ming Hou

Erika A. Taylor, Ph.D.

Proteins with knotted configurations, in comparison with unknotted proteins, are restricted in conformational space. Little is known regarding whether knotted proteins have sufficient dynamics to communicate between spatially separated substrate-binding sites. TrmD is a bacterial methyltransferase that uses a knotted protein fold to catalyze methyl transfer from S-adenosyl methionine (AdoMet) to G37-tRNA. The product, m1G37-tRNA, is essential for life and maintains protein-synthesis reading frames. Using an integrated approach of structural, kinetic, and computational analysis, we show that the structurally constrained TrmD knot is required for its catalytic activity. Unexpectedly, the TrmD knot undergoes complex internal movements that respond to AdoMet …


Targeting Oncogenic Mirnas With Small Molecules For Breast Cancer Therapy, Paloma del C. Monroig 2015 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Targeting Oncogenic Mirnas With Small Molecules For Breast Cancer Therapy, Paloma Del C. Monroig

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The crucial role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in cancer pathobiology has driven the introduction of new drug development approaches such as miRNA inhibition. In order to advance miRNA-therapeutics, there is a need to develop screening strategies that can target tumors in a specific way. Small molecule inhibitors represent an attractive approach to pursue this. However, the absence of molecular structures for most of the miRNAs makes it very difficult to predict which inhibitors can bind to them. Herein we designed a strategy to screen for small molecules by assesing whether they could directly bind/ interact with miR-10b/miR-21. As part of our …


Digital Commons powered by bepress