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Lipid Extraction From Scenedesmus Sp. Microalgae For Biodiesel Production Using Hot Compressed Hexane, Hee-Yong Shin, Jae-Hun Ryu, Seong-Youl Bae, Czarena L. Crofcheck, Mark Crocker 2014 University of Kentucky

Lipid Extraction From Scenedesmus Sp. Microalgae For Biodiesel Production Using Hot Compressed Hexane, Hee-Yong Shin, Jae-Hun Ryu, Seong-Youl Bae, Czarena L. Crofcheck, Mark Crocker

Center for Applied Energy Research Faculty and Staff Publications

Lipid extraction from Scenedesmus sp. microalgae using hot compressed hexane (HCH) was investigated. Extraction performance was evaluated near the critical point of hexane and was compared with that of hexane extraction performed at room temperature and pressure, and the Bligh and Dyer extraction method. Experimental data showed that HCH significantly improves the lipid yield and rate of lipid extraction compared to the use of hexane at ambient conditions. High yields of biodiesel-convertible lipid fractions were rapidly achieved at the critical point of hexane, at a level comparable to that of the Bligh and Dyer method.


The Effect Of Docosahexaenoic Acid (Dha)-Containing Phosphatidylcholine (Pc) On Liquid-Ordered And Liquid-Disordered Coexistence, Yongwen Gu 2014 Portland State University

The Effect Of Docosahexaenoic Acid (Dha)-Containing Phosphatidylcholine (Pc) On Liquid-Ordered And Liquid-Disordered Coexistence, Yongwen Gu

Dissertations and Theses

Plasma membranes are essential to both the structure and function of mammalian cells. The first unifying paradigm of membrane structure, the Fluid Mosaic Model, is no longer considered adequate to describe the many non-homogeneous lipid structures that have been observed in both natural and model membranes over the past approximately thirty years. The field of membrane biophysics now appreciates that the complex mixture of different lipid species found in natural membranes produces a range of dynamic, laterally segregated, non-homogeneous structures which exist on time scales ranging from microseconds to minutes.

When sphingomyelin (SM), POPC and cholesterol are all present in …


Design, Synthesis And Biological Evaluation Of Novel Compounds With Cns-Activity Targeting Cannabinoid And Biogenic Amine Receptors, Alexander M. Sherwood 2014 University of New Orleans

Design, Synthesis And Biological Evaluation Of Novel Compounds With Cns-Activity Targeting Cannabinoid And Biogenic Amine Receptors, Alexander M. Sherwood

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

This work seeks to contribute to the discipline of neuropharmacology by way of structure activity relationship from the standpoint of an organic chemist. More specifically, we sought to develop robust synthetic methodology able to efficiently produce an array of compounds for the purpose of systematic evaluation of their interaction with specific sights within the central nervous system (CNS) in order to better understand the mind and to develop drugs that may have beneficial effects on neurological function.

The focus of these studies has been toward the development of novel molecules, using a structure-activity relationship approach, that exhibit binding affinity at …


Anti-Gd2 Etoposide-Loaded Immunoliposomes For The Treatment Of Gd2 Positive Tumors, Brandon S. Brown 2014 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Anti-Gd2 Etoposide-Loaded Immunoliposomes For The Treatment Of Gd2 Positive Tumors, Brandon S. Brown

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Systemic chemotherapeutics remain the standard of care for most malignancies even though they frequently suffer from narrow therapeutic index, poor serum solubility, and off-target effects. Monoclonal antibodies that specifically bind antigens overexpressed on many tumors such as the ganglioside, GD2, can be conjugated to drug-loaded liposomes to create a targeted drug delivery system. In this study, we have encapsulated etoposide, a topoisomerase inhibitor effective against a wide range of cancers, in surface modified liposomes decorated with anti-GD2 antibodies. We characterized the properties of the liposomes using a variety of methods including dynamic light scattering, electron microscopy, and Fourier transformed infrared …


Childhood Obesity And Familial Hypercholesterolemia: Genetic Diseases That Contribute To Cardiovascular Disease, Alyssa Caudle 2014 Liberty University

Childhood Obesity And Familial Hypercholesterolemia: Genetic Diseases That Contribute To Cardiovascular Disease, Alyssa Caudle

Senior Honors Theses

Childhood obesity occurs as the result of an imbalance between caloric intake and energy expenditure. Genetic risk factors for obesity have become an area of research due to its permanency. Mutated genes such as Fat Mass and Obesity Associated (FTO), Leptin (LEP), Leptin Receptor (LEPR), Melanocortin 4 Receptor (MC4R), Adiponectin C1Q and Collagen Domain Containing (ADIPOQ), Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 1 (PCSK1), and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARG) all contribute to the development of childhood obesity. In the presence of high cholesterol caused by obesity, the genetic condition known as familial hypercholesterolemia is exacerbated. Familial hypercholesterolemia is caused by a …


The Effects Of Ocean Acidification And Eutrophication On The Growth, Lipid Composition And Toxicity Of The Marine Raphidophyte Heterosigma Akashiwo., Julia Rose Matheson 2014 The University of Western Ontario

The Effects Of Ocean Acidification And Eutrophication On The Growth, Lipid Composition And Toxicity Of The Marine Raphidophyte Heterosigma Akashiwo., Julia Rose Matheson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Anthropogenic forcing, such as ocean acidification caused by rising carbon dioxide emissions, and eutrophication due to increased nutrient loadings in run-off, are causing major changes to the biogeochemistry of the oceans. As a consequence, coastal phytoplankton are susceptible to altered biogeochemical environments. This study examined the effect of a lower pH and increased levels of nutrients on the common coastal harmful alga, Heterosigma akashiwo. Growth rates, maximal cell yields, neutral lipid accumulation and toxicity of cells grown under various pH and nutrients regimes were measured. H. akashiwo growth was near maximal when grown at lower pH levels. There was …


Quantification Of Factors Governing Drug Release Kinetics From Nanoparticles: A Combined Experimental And Mechanistic Modeling Approach, Kyle Daniel Fugit 2014 University of Kentucky

Quantification Of Factors Governing Drug Release Kinetics From Nanoparticles: A Combined Experimental And Mechanistic Modeling Approach, Kyle Daniel Fugit

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

Advancements in nanoparticle drug delivery of anticancer agents require mathematical models capable of predicting in vivo formulation performance from in vitro characterization studies. Such models must identify and incorporate the physicochemical properties of the therapeutic agent and nanoparticle driving in vivo drug release. This work identifies these factors for two nanoparticle formulations of anticancer agents using an approach which develops mechanistic mathematical models in conjunction with experimental studies.

A non-sink ultrafiltration method was developed to monitor liposomal release kinetics of the anticancer agent topotecan. Mathematical modeling allowed simultaneous determination of drug permeability and interfacial binding to the bilayer from release …


The Control Of Lipid Metabolism By Mrna Splicing In Drosophila, R. M. Gingras, M. E. Warren, A. A. Nagengast, J. R. Diangelo 2014 Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine

The Control Of Lipid Metabolism By Mrna Splicing In Drosophila, R. M. Gingras, M. E. Warren, A. A. Nagengast, J. R. Diangelo

Journal Articles

The storage of lipids is an evolutionarily conserved process that is important for the survival of organisms during shifts in nutrient availability. Triglycerides are stored in lipid droplets, but the mechanisms of how lipids are stored in these structures are poorly understood. Previous in vitro RNAi screens have implicated several components of the spliceosome in controlling lipid droplet formation and storage, but the in vivo relevance of these phenotypes is unclear. In this study, we identify specific members of the splicing machinery that are necessary for normal triglyceride storage in the Drosophila fat body. Decreasing the expression of the splicing …


Cardiolipin Prevents Membrane Translocation And Permeabilization By Daptomycin, TianHua Zhang, Jawad K. Muraih, Nasim Tishbi, Jennifer Herskowitz, Rachel L. Victor, Jared Silverman, Stephanie Uwumarenogie, Scott D. Taylor, Michael Palmer, Evan Mintzer 2014 Touro College

Cardiolipin Prevents Membrane Translocation And Permeabilization By Daptomycin, Tianhua Zhang, Jawad K. Muraih, Nasim Tishbi, Jennifer Herskowitz, Rachel L. Victor, Jared Silverman, Stephanie Uwumarenogie, Scott D. Taylor, Michael Palmer, Evan Mintzer

Lander College of Arts and Sciences Publications and Research

Daptomycin is an acidic lipopeptide antibiotic that, in the presence of calcium, forms oligomeric pores on membranes containing phosphatidylglycerol. It is clinically used against various Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcusspecies. Genetic studies have indicated that an increased content of cardiolipin in the bacterial membrane may contribute to bacterial resistance against the drug. Here, we used a liposome model to demonstrate that cardiolipin directly inhibits membrane permeabilization by daptomycin. When cardiolipin is added at molar fractions of 10 or 20% to membranes containing phosphatidylglycerol, daptomycin no longer forms pores or translocates to the inner membrane leaflet. Under …


Identification Of Plasma Lipid Biomarkers In Alzheimer's Disease, Rhona Creegan 2014 Edith Cowan University

Identification Of Plasma Lipid Biomarkers In Alzheimer's Disease, Rhona Creegan

Theses: Doctorates and Masters

Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the commonest form of dementia, is a chronic, progressive neurodegenerative disease which manifests clinically as a slow global decline in cognitive function, including deterioration of memory, reasoning, abstraction, language and emotional stability, culminating in a patient with end-stage disease, totally dependent on custodial care. With an ageing population, there is predicted to be a marked increase in the number of people diagnosed with AD in the coming decades, making this a significant challenge to socio-economic policy and aged care. Currently there is no cure for AD and while current therapies may temporarily ameliorate symptoms, death usually occurs …


Effects Of Fatty Acids And Glycation On Drug Interactions With Human Serum Albumin, Jeanethe Anguizola, Sara B. G. Basiaga, David S. Hage 2013 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Effects Of Fatty Acids And Glycation On Drug Interactions With Human Serum Albumin, Jeanethe Anguizola, Sara B. G. Basiaga, David S. Hage

David Hage Publications

The presence of elevated glucose concentrations in diabetes is a metabolic change that leads to an increase in the amount of non-enzymatic glycation that occurs for serum proteins. One protein that is affected by this process is the main serum protein, human serum albumin (HSA), which is also an important carrier agent for many drugs and fatty acids in the circulatory system. Sulfonylurea drugs, used to treat type 2 diabetes, are known to have significant binding to HSA. This study employed ultrafiltration and high-performance affinity chromatography to examine the effects of HSA glycation on the interactions of several sulfonylurea drugs …


Multiplex Biomarkers In Blood, Veer Bala Bala Gupta, Ramani Sundaram, Ralph N. Martins 2013 Edith Cowan University

Multiplex Biomarkers In Blood, Veer Bala Bala Gupta, Ramani Sundaram, Ralph N. Martins

Research outputs 2013

Advances in the field of blood biomarker discovery will help in identifying Alzheimer's disease in its preclinical stage, allowing treatment to be initiated before irreversible damage occurs. This review discusses some recent past and current approaches being taken by researchers in the field. Individual blood biomarkers have been unsuccessful in defining the disease pathology, progression and thus diagnosis. This directs to the need for discovering a multiplex panel of blood biomarkers as a promising approach with high sensitivity and specificity for early diagnosis. However, it is a great challenge to standardize a worldwide blood biomarker panel due to the innate …


A Novel Selective Lipid Uptake Pathway Contributing To Ldl-Induced Macrophage Foam Cell Formation, Jason M. Meyer 2013 University of Kentucky

A Novel Selective Lipid Uptake Pathway Contributing To Ldl-Induced Macrophage Foam Cell Formation, Jason M. Meyer

Theses and Dissertations--Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

Atherosclerosis is a disease characterized by cholesterol-rich plaques within the intima of medium and large arteries. Cholesterol deposition is thought to occur by infiltration of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) into lesions followed by uptake into macrophages, generating lipid-loaded “foam cells.” Foam cells can also be generated in vitro by treatment of macrophages with LDL or oxidized LDL (oxLDL). The purpose of the current investigation was to determine the contribution of selective cholesteryl ester (CE) uptake versus whole-particle uptake during LDL-induced foam cell formation in cultured macrophages. Murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) exhibited significant cholesterol accumulation when treated with LDL as indicated …


Increased Geranylgeranylated K-Ras Contributes To Antineoplastic Effects Of Farnesyltransferase Inhibitors., Mandy A. Hall 2012 The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at Houston

Increased Geranylgeranylated K-Ras Contributes To Antineoplastic Effects Of Farnesyltransferase Inhibitors., Mandy A. Hall

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The Ras family of small GTPases (N-, H-, and K-Ras) is a group of important signaling mediators. Ras is frequently activated in some cancers, while others maintain low level activity to achieve optimal cell growth. In cells with endogenously low levels of active Ras, increasing Ras signaling through the ERK and p38 MAPK pathways can cause growth arrest or cell death. Ras requires prenylation – the addition of a 15-carbon (farnesyl) or 20-carbon (geranylgeranyl) group – to keep the protein anchored into membranes for effective signaling. N- and K-Ras can be alternatively geranylgeranylated (GG’d) if farnesylation is inhibited but are …


Severe Lamotrigine Neurotoxicity Treated With Intralipid Emulsion Therapy, Philip W. Moore DO, Megan C. Urquhart DO, Dale L. McMillion DO, Keith K. Burkhart MD, Louis R. Cantilena Jr, MD, J Ward Donovan MD 2012 Lehigh Valley Health Network

Severe Lamotrigine Neurotoxicity Treated With Intralipid Emulsion Therapy, Philip W. Moore Do, Megan C. Urquhart Do, Dale L. Mcmillion Do, Keith K. Burkhart Md, Louis R. Cantilena Jr, Md, J Ward Donovan Md

Department of Emergency Medicine

No abstract provided.


Characterization Of The Mechanism Of Pparγ-Mediated Neointima Formation In Rodents, Ryoko Tsukahara 2011 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Characterization Of The Mechanism Of Pparγ-Mediated Neointima Formation In Rodents, Ryoko Tsukahara

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and its ether analog alkyl glycerophosphate (AGP) elicit arterial wall remodeling when applied intralumenally into the uninjured carotid artery. LPA is the ligand of eight GPCRs and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). We pursued a gene knockout strategy to identify the LPA receptor subtypes necessary for the neointimal response in a non-injury model of carotid remodeling and also compared the effects of AGP and the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone (ROSI) on balloon injury-elicited neointima development. In the balloon injury model AGP significantly increased neointima; however, rosiglitazone application attenuated it. AGP and ROSI were also applied intralumenally for …


Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis Without The Lipids: Substrate Recognition For Escherichia Coli Heptosyltransferasei, Daniel J. Czyzyk, Cassie Liu, Erika A. Taylor 2011 Wesleyan University

Lipopolysaccharide Biosynthesis Without The Lipids: Substrate Recognition For Escherichia Coli Heptosyltransferasei, Daniel J. Czyzyk, Cassie Liu, Erika A. Taylor

Erika A. Taylor, Ph.D.

Heptosyltransferase I (HepI) is responsible for the transfer of l-glycero-d-manno-heptose to a 3-deoxy-α-D-oct-2-ulopyranosonic acid (Kdo) of the growing core region of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The catalytic efficiency of HepI with the fully deacylated analogue of Escherichia coli HepI LipidA is 12-fold greater than with the fully acylated substrate, with a k(cat)/K(m) of 2.7 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1), compared to a value of 2.2 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) for the Kdo(2)-LipidA substrate. Not only is this is the first demonstration that an LPS biosynthetic enzyme is catalytically enhanced by the absence of lipids, this result has significant implications for downstream enzymes that …


Chemical Tools To Characterize Membrane-Protein Binding Interactions Using Synthetic Lipid Probes, Meng Meng Rowland 2011 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Chemical Tools To Characterize Membrane-Protein Binding Interactions Using Synthetic Lipid Probes, Meng Meng Rowland

Doctoral Dissertations

Signaling lipids such as diacylglycerol (DAG) and the phosphatidylinositol polyphosphates (PIPns) play crucial roles in numerous cellular pathways. However, characterization of their activities is hindered by the complexity of associated signaling pathways and of the membrane environment. To address this issue, we have developed lipid probes that are effective for characterizing biological events using different applications, including activity-based probing (PIPns and DAG) and microarray analysis (PIPns). The activity-based probes have been applied to label receptor targets in multiple cancer cell proteomes through photocrosslinking followed by click reactions. The probes were found to label several …


Health Risks Of Very Low Cholesterol, Menachem Nagar 2011 Touro College

Health Risks Of Very Low Cholesterol, Menachem Nagar

The Science Journal of the Lander College of Arts and Sciences

Cholesterol is a molecule central to all human physiological processes at systemic as well as cellular levels. Cholesterol, combined with Apolipoprotein B as low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been the focus of scientific research because the molecule has been proven to play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease, a disease of pandemic proportions. Considerable scientific and medical attention has been devoted to identifying the role and management of high levels of total serum cholesterol in order to address this global health burden, creating large scale awareness regarding lowering cholesterol concentration in circulation. However, the same molecule, combined into various …


Synthesis And Analytical Evaluation Of Folate Conjugates For Use In Cancer Cell Detection, Sneha Reddy Kuthuru 2010 Governors State University

Synthesis And Analytical Evaluation Of Folate Conjugates For Use In Cancer Cell Detection, Sneha Reddy Kuthuru

All Capstone Projects

Recent clinical studies have shown the importance of folate receptor in drug delivery system as they increase the potency and reduce toxicity of many cancer therapies. The folate receptor alpha ( FR-a) binds with high affinity for folic acid and serves for receptor mediated transport of folate into cells. Folate is necessary for DNA metabolism and thus it is speculated that rapidly dividing cancer cells have an increased requirement for folic acid. It is known that FR-a levels are elevated in specific malignant diseases (solid tumors, leukemia) and thus the FR receptor serves as useful targeting moiety for the diagnosis …


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