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Corporate Social Responsibility In The Health Care Sector, Dina Siniora 2017 Duquesne University

Corporate Social Responsibility In The Health Care Sector, Dina Siniora

Graduate Student Research Symposium

The challenge for the health care sector is to continually explore ways to ensure that the welfares of individual patients remain the utmost primacy and simultaneously promote health care equity via corporate socially responsible activities (CSR). There is an essential need to truly embrace CSR and ethical principles that would promote equal distribution of health care resources. Relevant CSR activities would be achieved by making the most significant health problems in a given society a priority of health care organizations. CSR in health care applied to hospitals and pharmaceutical companies should promote shared values and common ethical principles in new ...


Clinicians’ Perspectives And Utilization Regarding Harm Reduction In Nursing Practice In Care Of Persons With Addiction: A Literature Review, Audrey Killarney 2017 DePaul University

Clinicians’ Perspectives And Utilization Regarding Harm Reduction In Nursing Practice In Care Of Persons With Addiction: A Literature Review, Audrey Killarney

Grace Peterson Nursing Research Colloquium

Clinicians’ perspectives and utilization regarding harm reduction in nursing practice in care of persons with addiction: A literature review

Audrey Killarney, BS

Prof. Michelle Neuman, MSN, APN, RN

NSG 598: Graduate Research Synthesis

18 August 2017

Introduction

Background & Significance

Harm reduction is a concept best described as the recognition that individuals will engage in unhealthy behaviors, and the goal is to minimize the associated potential harm. (Stockwell, Reist, Macdonald, Benoit, & Jansson, 2010). Classically, it was used an alternative model of care for treating smokers and controlling the spread of HIV and hepatitis B (Henwood, Padgett, & Tiderington, 2014). However, in the context of medicine, harm reduction allows the clinician to accept that the patient may continue a harmful behavior, and their duty as a clinician is to minimize the relative risks and harms associated with that behavior (Öztuna et al., 2014). Most recently, harm reduction has been introduced as a means to address treatment for persons with addiction (Aldridge, 2012). These patients carry complex medical and social histories, for which traditional “treatment first” approaches may not be appropriate (Henwood et al., 2014). For example, Draanen et al. (2013) found an associated mental disorder in over 1/3 of patients who abuse alcohol, and over half of patients who abuse drugs. This finding supports the hypothesis that patients with severe mental illness often self-medicate with drugs and/or alcohol to control their psychosis (Henwood et al., 2014).

Previous studies have consistently reported that patients with addiction are more likely to be immune-compromised and have poor nutritional status, which can greatly affect their response to medical treatment (Bartlett, Brown, Shattell, Wright, & Lewallen, 2013). These individuals are also more likely to delay seeking medical treatment for acute issues, resulting in hospital visits for far more severe and advanced illnesses (Ford, Bammer, & Becker, 2008). Harm reduction allows for clinicians to assess other aspects of a patient’s well-being, such as secure housing, employment, and social support, which may contribute to recovery and/or relapse (Henwood et al., 2014).

Harm reduction holds great significance in current nursing practice given the recent rise of substance abuse and overdose deaths in the United States. In 2014, it was estimated that abuse of tobacco, alcohol and drugs cost the United States over $700 billion in loss of productivity, healthcare, and crime (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2015). These numbers are significant, as harm reduction interventions in Canada have been able to alleviate hospital-based costs, reduce ED visits, as well as reduce overnight hospital stays (Draanen et al., 2013). A growing problem in the United States surrounds the epidemic of opioid overdose. Heroin overdoses account for the fastest growing group of overdose deaths, with a 6-fold rise over the period of 2001-2013 (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2015). In response to rising heroin overdose rates, overdose education and naloxone distribution (OEND) programs are increasing nationwide. These types of programs are commonly sponsored by the Harm Reduction Coalition, as they seek to reduce potential risks and mortality associated with drug use. This finding further supports the argument for inclusion of harm reduction in the care of persons with addiction (Lewis et al., 2016).

Nurses in particular, are positioned to experience situations in which harm reduction strategies may be appropriate. Nursing staff are frequently involved in patient education, and re-education, of hospitalized patients; while an individual may not be ready to receive treatment, nursing staff could be qualified to provide information regarding self-help groups (Bartlett et al., 2013). Additionally, nurses conduct many of the initial screenings during hospitalization; these screenings include alcohol and drug abuse questionnaires that provide a bridge to discussions regarding use and healthy use of alcohol, prescription drugs and illicit substances (Bartlett ...


Every Word, Every Gesture, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2017 Aurora University of Wisconsin Medical Group, Aurora Health Care

Every Word, Every Gesture, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Two nonverbal patients teach a novice clinician the power and often hidden impact of the physician-patient relationship.


Nietzsche’S Posthuman Imperative: On The Human, All Too Human Dream Of Transhumanism, Babette Babich 2017 Fordham University

Nietzsche’S Posthuman Imperative: On The Human, All Too Human Dream Of Transhumanism, Babette Babich

Articles and Chapters in Academic Book Collections

No abstract provided.


Considerations Regarding The Ethical Viability Of Voluntary Active Euthanasia, Grant Garcia 2017 University of Puget Sound

Considerations Regarding The Ethical Viability Of Voluntary Active Euthanasia, Grant Garcia

Sound Decisions: An Undergraduate Bioethics Journal

Issues regarding death are incredibly complicated and involve topics that are often difficult to discuss. In this essay, I will argue that active euthanasia is morally and ethically permissible in instances involving consenting terminally ill patients. Using an act-utilitarian approach, I contend that voluntary active euthanasia should be seen as a viable option due to its potential to reduce the total pain and suffering in an end-of-life scenario for both the patient and the patient’s loved ones. Though passive euthanasia is widely considered to be morally superior to active euthanasia, I argue that voluntary active euthanasia has the potential ...


Rethinking Animal Agriculture: A Principlist Approach, Miranda S. Eisen 3412335 2017 University of Puget Sound

Rethinking Animal Agriculture: A Principlist Approach, Miranda S. Eisen 3412335

Sound Decisions: An Undergraduate Bioethics Journal

Engrained in the mindless routines of our daily lives, we believe our consumer choices do not matter. But participating in the animal industrial complex through the purchase and consumption of meat, dairy and eggs generates significant bioethical issues that warrant exploration and discussion. This paper examines the moral rights of animals, poor ethical justification of animal consumption, and extreme ramifications of the animal agricultural system within the framework of principlism. By analyzing the moral position of animal consumption in the bioethical context of utility, autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence and justice, the corrupt nature of animal agribusiness is revealed and plant-based living ...


Translational Research: Ethical Considerations, Yiqing Dong 2017 University of Puget Sound

Translational Research: Ethical Considerations, Yiqing Dong

Sound Decisions: An Undergraduate Bioethics Journal

Translational research (TR) is a new categorization for the efforts of biomedical research and emphasizes efficiency in achieving population health improvements through the application of basic science knowledge in clinical practice. It will be argued that the current emphasis on speed and collaboration with industry established by national policies provides challenges to maintaining the integrity of scientific research. There is no agreed upon definition of TR and the current standard of judging the success of TR focuses on product production. I propose that the principles of beneficence and responsive justice should be used to inform the values of TR and ...


The ‘Undue Burden’ Of Restrictions On Abortion: A Feminist Bioethics Analysis, Samantha Scott 2017 University of Puget Sound

The ‘Undue Burden’ Of Restrictions On Abortion: A Feminist Bioethics Analysis, Samantha Scott

Sound Decisions: An Undergraduate Bioethics Journal

This paper examines the ethical issues of abortion from a framework of undue burden. The definition of undue burden of abortion is taken from Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey (1992) supreme court decision and states: “its purpose or effect is to place a substantial obstacle in the path of the woman seeking an abortion before the fetus attains viability.” Specifically, this paper argues that abortion restrictions waiting periods and parental involvement do in fact place an undue burden on individuals seeking abortion. This paper utilizes a feminist ethics lens by addressing issues that disproportionately impact women and considering ...


Psychometric Development Of The Research And Knowledge Scale, Lauren R. Powell, Elizabeth Ojukwu, Sharina D. Person, Jeroan J. Allison, Milagros C. Rosal, Stephenie C. Lemon 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Psychometric Development Of The Research And Knowledge Scale, Lauren R. Powell, Elizabeth Ojukwu, Sharina D. Person, Jeroan J. Allison, Milagros C. Rosal, Stephenie C. Lemon

Stephenie C. Lemon

BACKGROUND: Many research participants are misinformed about research terms, procedures, and goals; however, no validated instruments exist to assess individual's comprehension of health-related research information. We propose research literacy as a concept that incorporates understanding about the purpose and nature of research.

OBJECTIVES: We developed the Research and Knowledge Scale (RaKS) to measure research literacy in a culturally, literacy-sensitive manner. We describe its development and psychometric properties.

RESEARCH DESIGN: Qualitative methods were used to assess perspectives of research participants and researchers. Literature and informed consent reviews were conducted to develop initial items. These data were used to develop initial ...


Psychometric Development Of The Research And Knowledge Scale, Lauren R. Powell, Elizabeth Ojukwu, Sharina D. Person, Jeroan J. Allison, Milagros C. Rosal, Stephenie C. Lemon 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Psychometric Development Of The Research And Knowledge Scale, Lauren R. Powell, Elizabeth Ojukwu, Sharina D. Person, Jeroan J. Allison, Milagros C. Rosal, Stephenie C. Lemon

Milagros C. Rosal

BACKGROUND: Many research participants are misinformed about research terms, procedures, and goals; however, no validated instruments exist to assess individual's comprehension of health-related research information. We propose research literacy as a concept that incorporates understanding about the purpose and nature of research.

OBJECTIVES: We developed the Research and Knowledge Scale (RaKS) to measure research literacy in a culturally, literacy-sensitive manner. We describe its development and psychometric properties.

RESEARCH DESIGN: Qualitative methods were used to assess perspectives of research participants and researchers. Literature and informed consent reviews were conducted to develop initial items. These data were used to develop initial ...


Psychometric Development Of The Research And Knowledge Scale, Lauren R. Powell, Elizabeth Ojukwu, Sharina D. Person, Jeroan J. Allison, Milagros C. Rosal, Stephenie C. Lemon 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Psychometric Development Of The Research And Knowledge Scale, Lauren R. Powell, Elizabeth Ojukwu, Sharina D. Person, Jeroan J. Allison, Milagros C. Rosal, Stephenie C. Lemon

Jeroan J. Allison

BACKGROUND: Many research participants are misinformed about research terms, procedures, and goals; however, no validated instruments exist to assess individual's comprehension of health-related research information. We propose research literacy as a concept that incorporates understanding about the purpose and nature of research.

OBJECTIVES: We developed the Research and Knowledge Scale (RaKS) to measure research literacy in a culturally, literacy-sensitive manner. We describe its development and psychometric properties.

RESEARCH DESIGN: Qualitative methods were used to assess perspectives of research participants and researchers. Literature and informed consent reviews were conducted to develop initial items. These data were used to develop initial ...


Demographic Profile And Treatment Outcomes Of 100 Women With Obstetric Fistula In Niger, Alison A. Heller 2017 University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, MD

Demographic Profile And Treatment Outcomes Of 100 Women With Obstetric Fistula In Niger, Alison A. Heller

Proceedings in Obstetrics and Gynecology

Introduction: Due to high fertility rates, low access to emergency obstetric care, and the poor quality of that care, obstetric fistula is relatively widespread in Niger.

Methods: Mixed-methods research was carried out over a total of eighteen months with 100 women with fistula at four fistula centers in Niger, three in the capital of Niamey and outside the city of Maradi.

Results: The one hundred women who made up the research sample reflect marked diversity in ethnicity, age, marital situation, parity, length of time living with fistula, and surgical history and outcomes. At the time of initial interviews women ranged ...


Germ-Line Gene Editing And Congressional Reaction In Context: Learning From Almost 50 Years Of Congressional Reactions To Biomedical Breakthroughs, Russell A. Spivak, J.D., I. Glenn Cohen, J.D., Eli Y. Adashi, M.D., M.S. 2017 Harvard Law School

Germ-Line Gene Editing And Congressional Reaction In Context: Learning From Almost 50 Years Of Congressional Reactions To Biomedical Breakthroughs, Russell A. Spivak, J.D., I. Glenn Cohen, J.D., Eli Y. Adashi, M.D., M.S.

Journal of Law and Health

On December 18, 2015, President Obama signed into law a policy rider forestalling the therapeutic modification of the human germ line. The rider, motivated by the science’s potential unethical ends, is only the most recent instance in which the legislature cut short the ongoing national conversation on the acceptability of a developing science. This essay offers historical perspective on what bills were proposed and passed surrounding four other then-developing scientific breakthroughs—Recombinant DNA, in vitro fertilization, Cloning, Stem Cells—to better analyze how Congress is, and should, regulate this exciting and promising science.


Mid-Atlantic Ethics Committee Newsletter, Summer 2017, 2017 University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law

Mid-Atlantic Ethics Committee Newsletter, Summer 2017

Mid-Atlantic Ethics Committee Newsletter

No abstract provided.


Ethical Theories And Perspectives On End-Of-Life Decisions, Lauren Skelton 2017 Abilene Christian University

Ethical Theories And Perspectives On End-Of-Life Decisions, Lauren Skelton

Dialogue & Nexus

This paper approaches several different ethical theories to see how they interact with the issue of withdrawing and withholding life-sustaining care. After the theories of Utilitarianism, Kantian and Prima Facie Deontology, Virtue Ethics, and Evolutionary Ethics are explored at length, Deontological theories are proven to be the best decision-making guide from the perspective of both patients and those in policy-making positions. When used together, Kantian and Prima Facie Deontology offer the overall best combination of ethical instruction and personal freedom.


The Ethical Considerations Of Physician-Assisted Suicide, Madeline Jordan 2017 Abilene Christian University

The Ethical Considerations Of Physician-Assisted Suicide, Madeline Jordan

Dialogue & Nexus

With respect to physician-assisted suicide, several approaches to adjudicate an ethical position can be processed from the theories of utilitarianism, Kantian deontology, and virtue ethics. This paper will explore these three positions with respect to physician-assisted suicide and the pros and cons of each. In conclusion, based on my research and Christian beliefs, I will define why I reside with virtue ethics and why it leads me to a position that is against physician-assisted suicide at this particular point in my life.


Christian And Islamic Perspectives On The Ethical Dilemma Of In Vitro Fertilization (Ivf), Stephanie Sariles 2017 Abilene Christian University

Christian And Islamic Perspectives On The Ethical Dilemma Of In Vitro Fertilization (Ivf), Stephanie Sariles

Dialogue & Nexus

After defining IVF procedures and the associated biomedical ethics with each, I will compare and contrast Christian and Islamic perspectives on IVF. Christianity in general does not accept IVF, because it is an unnatural method of reproduction that can affect Christian traditions such as parenthood and marriage. Despite this view, Protestants, in particular, have opened up to IVF as a method for treating infertility. Islam fully accepts IVF provided the married couple follows Islamic law. Sunni Muslims do not accept gamete donation, but Shi’ite Muslims are more flexible with gamete donation and surrogacy.


Gadgets And Grieving: A Chronological Analysis On The Ways In Which Advancements In Medical Technologies Have Altered The Grieving Process, Grace McNair 2017 Abilene Christian University

Gadgets And Grieving: A Chronological Analysis On The Ways In Which Advancements In Medical Technologies Have Altered The Grieving Process, Grace Mcnair

Dialogue & Nexus

Since the 1940s, both end-of-life care and advancements in medical technologies have expanded exponentially. This article explores the advancements in medical technologies and how these have altered the way that Western society grieves death. With the capabilities to prolong life, the family, the patient, and the medical team, all grieve the end of life in different ways. This article provides a chronological analysis of palliative care, hospice care, and various medical advancements. These changes in medicine are then paralleled with alterations in the bereavement process. This article explores historical narratives of Western society’s transformation of grief through the lens ...


An Ethical Evaluation Of The Modern Pharmaceutical Industry, Kaitlyn Drennan 2017 Abilene Christian University

An Ethical Evaluation Of The Modern Pharmaceutical Industry, Kaitlyn Drennan

Dialogue & Nexus

Lack of transparency, wrongdoings, and unlawful promotion characterize the healthcare industry; these are especially prevalent within the pharmaceutical industry. Consequently, an investigation into the evidence of the corruption and the ethical infringement is needed. In this paper, I will evaluate the pharmaceutical industry’s adherence to the three major branches of ethics. The ever-increasing prices of pharmaceutical products, especially medications used for the combating of anaphylaxis and cancer, coupled with the compensatory-based medication promotion and research points to a major crisis in the realm of social justice. These examples, among many other current issues, lead to difficulties in individuals receiving ...


Putting Care Back Into "Health Care:" An Analysis Of The Place Of Community Health Workers Within The U.S. Health Care System, Megan Schowalter 2017 University of Puget Sound

Putting Care Back Into "Health Care:" An Analysis Of The Place Of Community Health Workers Within The U.S. Health Care System, Megan Schowalter

Honors Program Theses

This paper explores who a Community Health Worker (CHW) is and contextualizes the social, political, and historical factors that allowed for the growth of CHWs within the primary health care sector in the U.S. It analyzes how CHWs perceive their own roles and responsibilities within the U.S. health system as a means of highlighting the gap within health care services and the influence of Social Determinants of Health (SDH) on well-being. The second part of this paper relates CHWs to scholarship by medical anthropologist Paul Farmer and public health scholar Alicia Yamin concerning pathologies of power and the ...


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