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Bioethics and Medical Ethics Commons

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Book Review, Mitchell M. Simon 2016 University of New Hampshire

Book Review, Mitchell M. Simon

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Review of: MARC A. RODWIN, MEDICINE, MONEY & MORALS: PHYSICIANS' CONFLICTS OF INTEREST. (Oxford University Press 1993). [430 pp.] Acknowledgements, acronyms, appendices, foreword, index, notes. LC: 92-49488; ISBN: 0-19-508096-3. [Cloth $25.00. 200 Madison Avenue, New York NY 10016.]


Book Review, Bradley J. Olson 2016 University of New Hampshire

Book Review, Bradley J. Olson

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Review of: JOHN HARRIS, WONDERWOMAN AND SUPERMAN: THE ETHICS OF HUMAN BIOTECHNOLOGY. (Oxford University Press 1992) [271 pp.] Acknowledgements, further reading, index, introduction, notes. LC 91-23939; ISBN 0-19-2177540-0. [$22.95 cloth. 200 Madison Avenue; New York NY 10016.]


Medicine Outside The Clinic: The Growing Need For Physicians In Sexual Education Policy, Zachary Sanford 2016 Marshall University

Medicine Outside The Clinic: The Growing Need For Physicians In Sexual Education Policy, Zachary Sanford

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Sex and sexuality are both topics of immense social and personal importance, owing their openness or constraint in large part to the society in which they are discussed. In homogenous groups it may be possible to reach firm consensus on what is, or is not, appropriate to consider a sexual norm and use an overarching set of religious or spiritual morals to reaffirm this decision. However, in western society and specifically in the United States, a theme of integration and amalgamation of wildly different cultures has presented an interesting case study in searching for common ground on basic social issues ...


Commentary: The Worst 4-Letter Word In Healthcare, Peter G. Holub 2016 Nova Southeastern University

Commentary: The Worst 4-Letter Word In Healthcare, Peter G. Holub

Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice

“Wait” is a four-letter word to patients who are rarely patient when it comes to waiting. What can caregivers do to help patients cope with waiting while their entire lives are put on hold?


Physician-Assisted Suicide: The Legal And Practical Contours, Anthony J. Dangelantonio 2016 University of New Hampshire

Physician-Assisted Suicide: The Legal And Practical Contours, Anthony J. Dangelantonio

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

This paper considers current medical and legal perspectives on patients' right to assistance in dying. In highlighting the competing policy objectives that must be resolved, it examines failed legislative initiatives in Washington and California. It also considers a pending New Hampshire proposal. The last shows the difficulty of simultaneously alleviating physician's objections and achieving proponents' goals.


Book Review, Bradley J. Olson 2016 University of New Hampshire

Book Review, Bradley J. Olson

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Review of the following: THE CODE OF CODES: SCIENTIFIC AND SOCIAL ISSUES IN THE HUMAN GENOME PROJECT. (Daniel J. Kevles & Leroy Hood, eds., Harvard University Press 1992) [397 pp.] Contributors, figures, index, notes, preface, selected bibliography, tables. LC 91-38477, ISBN 0- 674-13645-4. [Cloth $29.95. 79 Garden Street, Cambridge MA 02138.]


Moral Distress: Cowardly Lion To Courageous Action, Frances Johnson 2362973 2016 Southern Adventist University

Moral Distress: Cowardly Lion To Courageous Action, Frances Johnson 2362973

Faculty Works

Moral distress is a key issue in the healthcare work environment. This course will explore situations in which health care providers may find themselves that result in moral distress; situations can arise from patients, their families, co-workers, or the organization. Providing quality, evidence based practice is many times limited to doing what is allowed per protocols or payors, and not always what is best for that given situation. Included in this presentation are ways to affirm what is felt, assess sources of distress, contemplate risks and benefits of action, and prepare for action.


Mid-Atlantic Ethics Committee Newsletter, Fall 2016, 2016 University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law

Mid-Atlantic Ethics Committee Newsletter, Fall 2016

Mid-Atlantic Ethics Committee Newsletter

No abstract provided.


Book Review, Mitchell M. Simon 2016 University of New Hampshire School of Law

Book Review, Mitchell M. Simon

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Review of the book Codes of Professional Responsibility (Rena A. Gorlin, ed., BNA Books, 1990). This 555 page book includes 43 codes of conduct promulgated by the major professional associations in business, health, and law. Each code is preceded by a brief description of the relevant association, including its address and phone number, and information relating to implementation and enforcement. The book concludes with three helpful resource lists including: first, research centers, educational programs and governmental bodies dealing with ethical issues; second, journals and periodical services; and, third, bibliographies, databases and libraries with special ethics collections. The resource sections and ...


Federal Technology Transfer: Should We Build Subarus In Bethesda, Christopher J. Harnett 2016 University of New Hampshire

Federal Technology Transfer: Should We Build Subarus In Bethesda, Christopher J. Harnett

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

A critical examination of a policy designed to encourage commercial exploitation of federally funded biomedical research. The author argues that the implementation of this policy threatens the integrity of basic science in America.


All The Lonely People, John Brill 2016 Aurora Health Care

All The Lonely People, John Brill

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

A primary care physician laments the loneliness apparent in many underserved patients and seeks closure in the death of one patient in particular.


The Physiological Responses To Cycling Stress., Moriah Larsen 2016 Northern Arizona University

The Physiological Responses To Cycling Stress., Moriah Larsen

Skyline - The Big Sky Undergraduate Journal

Background: As the intensity of exercise increases, the risk of incidences for exertional heat illness (EHI) continues to climb. The National Athletic Trainers Association (NATA) has set an official position statement; stating a “gold standard” for obtaining core body temperature is via rectal thermometry. It has been reported that other field-expedient methods of obtaining core body temperature (oral, axillary, tympanic, temporal) are invalid or unreliable sources after intense exercise in hot temperature regions. Purpose: To determine if a relationship exists between rectal temperature measurements and tympanic temperature measurements during intensive long bouts of exercise. Design: Controlled Laboratory Study. Setting: Human ...


Fuzzy Logic In Health Care Settings: Moral Math For Value-Laden Choices, Sarah Voss 2016 Claremont Colleges

Fuzzy Logic In Health Care Settings: Moral Math For Value-Laden Choices, Sarah Voss

Journal of Humanistic Mathematics

This essay is intended as an example of “moral math”, i.e., ideas culled from mathematics which can positively impact social behavior. Specifically, it combines fuzzy logic with the ethical decisions which hospital staff and others are sometimes forced to make about health care (e.g., euthanasia issues following Hurricane Katrina). The assumption is that such decisions involve value-laden choices which lend themselves to “fuzzy” or “smart” protocols. The article discusses the history of fuzzy logic – what it is, how it is used, and how it might be even better-used as a support basis for making difficult choices in the ...


The Nagoya Protocol And Indigenous Peoples, Maria Yolanda Teran 2016 The University of New Mexico

The Nagoya Protocol And Indigenous Peoples, Maria Yolanda Teran

The International Indigenous Policy Journal

This article is about Indigenous peoples’ involvement in the Nagoya Protocol negotiations from 2006 to 2010, as well as in its implementation to stop biopiracy in order to protect Pachamama, Mother Earth, and to ensure our survival and the survival of coming generations. The Nagoya Protocol is an international instrument that was adopted in Nagoya, Japan in October 2010 by the Conference of Parties (COP 10) and ratified by 51 countries in Pyeongchang, South Korea in October 2014 at COP 12. This protocol governs access to genetic resources and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from their utilization ...


The Three Rs: The Way Forward, Michael Balls, Alan M. Goldberg, Julia H. Fentem, Caren L. Broadhead, Rex L. Burch, Michael F.W. Festing, John M. Frazier, Coenraad F.M. Hendriksen, Margaret Jennings, Margot D.O. van der Kamp, David B. Morton, Andrew N. Rowan, Claire Russell, William M.S. Russell, Horst Spielman, Martin L. Stephens, William S. Stokes, Donald W. Straughan, James D. Yager, Joanne Zurlo, Bert F.M. van Zutphen 2016 European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods

The Three Rs: The Way Forward, Michael Balls, Alan M. Goldberg, Julia H. Fentem, Caren L. Broadhead, Rex L. Burch, Michael F.W. Festing, John M. Frazier, Coenraad F.M. Hendriksen, Margaret Jennings, Margot D.O. Van Der Kamp, David B. Morton, Andrew N. Rowan, Claire Russell, William M.S. Russell, Horst Spielman, Martin L. Stephens, William S. Stokes, Donald W. Straughan, James D. Yager, Joanne Zurlo, Bert F.M. Van Zutphen

Martin Stephens, Ph.D.

This is the report of the eleventh of a series of workshops organised by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), which was established in 1991 by the European Commission. ECVAM's main goal, as defined in 1993 by its Scientific Advisory Committee, is to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods which are of importance to the biosciences and which reduce, refine or replace the use of laboratory animals. One of the first priorities set by ECVAM was the implementation of procedures which would enable it to become well-informed about the state-of-the-art of non-animal ...


The Significance Of Alternative Techniques In Biomedical Research: An Analysis Of Nobel Prize Awards, Martin Stephens 2016 The Humane Society of the United States

The Significance Of Alternative Techniques In Biomedical Research: An Analysis Of Nobel Prize Awards, Martin Stephens

Martin Stephens, Ph.D.

The "alternatives approach" consists of developing and employing methods specifically designed as alternatives. The aim of the approach is to determine the extent to which alternatives can replace traditional uses of animals. This aim has an ethical and compassionate appeal that is being bolstered by recent scientific advances in developing alternatives (Stephens 1986b).

The importance of alternative methods in the history of biomedical research can be inferred from Nobel Prize awards in medicine or physiology. These awards are generally believed to recognize research "of the highest caliber, the most enduring influence, and the most importance to biomedical science" according to ...


Report Of The Working Group On Animal Distress In The Laboratory, Marilyn Brown, Larry Carbone, Kathleen Conlee, Marian Dawkins, Ian J. Duncan, David Fraser, Gilly Griffin, Victoria A. Hampshire, Lesley A. Lambert, Joy A. Mench, David Morton, Jon Richmond, Bernard E. Rollin, Andrew N. Rowan, Martin L. Stephens, Hanno Würbel 2016 Charles River Laboratories Foundation

Report Of The Working Group On Animal Distress In The Laboratory, Marilyn Brown, Larry Carbone, Kathleen Conlee, Marian Dawkins, Ian J. Duncan, David Fraser, Gilly Griffin, Victoria A. Hampshire, Lesley A. Lambert, Joy A. Mench, David Morton, Jon Richmond, Bernard E. Rollin, Andrew N. Rowan, Martin L. Stephens, Hanno Würbel

Martin Stephens, Ph.D.

Finding ways to minimize pain and distress in research animals is a continuing goal in the laboratory animal research field. Pain and distress, however, are not synonymous, and often measures that alleviate one do not affect the other. Here, the authors provide a summary of a meeting held in February 2004 that focused on distress in laboratory animals. They discuss the difficulties associated with defining ‘distress,’ propose methods to aid in recognizing and alleviating distressful conditions, and provide recommendations for animal research conduct and oversight that would minimize distress experienced by laboratory animals.


Addressing Distress And Pain In Animal Research: The Veterinary, Research, Societal, Regulatory And Ethical Contexts For Moving Forward, Kathleen Conlee, Martin Stephens, Andrew N. Rowan 2016 The Humane Society of the United States

Addressing Distress And Pain In Animal Research: The Veterinary, Research, Societal, Regulatory And Ethical Contexts For Moving Forward, Kathleen Conlee, Martin Stephens, Andrew N. Rowan

Martin Stephens, Ph.D.

While most people recognize that biomedical scientists are searching for knowledge that will improve the health of humans and animals, the image of someone deliberately causing harm to an animal in order to produce data that may lead to some future benefit has always prompted an uncomfortable reaction outside the laboratory. However, proponents of animal research have usually justified the practice by reference to greater benefits (new knowledge and medical treatments) over lesser costs (in animal suffering and death). Given that one of the costs of animal research is the suffering experienced by the animals, the goal of eliminating distress ...


Bringing Toxicology Into The 21st Century: A Global Call To Action, Troy Seidle, Martin Stephens 2016 Humane Society International

Bringing Toxicology Into The 21st Century: A Global Call To Action, Troy Seidle, Martin Stephens

Martin Stephens, Ph.D.

Conventional toxicological testing methods are often decades old, costly and low-throughput, with questionable relevance to the human condition. Several of these factors have contributed to a backlog of chemicals that have been inadequately assessed for toxicity. Some authorities have responded to this challenge by implementing large-scale testing programmes. Others have concluded that a paradigm shift in toxicology is warranted. One such call came in 2007 from the United States National Research Council (NRC), which articulated a vision of ‘‘21st century toxicology” based predominantly on non-animal techniques. Potential advantages of such an approach include the capacity to examine a far greater ...


Utilitarianism Generalized To Include Animals, Yew-Kwang Ng 2016 Nanyang Technological University

Utilitarianism Generalized To Include Animals, Yew-Kwang Ng

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

In response to the seventeen commentaries to date on my target article on reducing animal suffering, I propose that the term “welfarism” (when used pejoratively by animal advocates) should be qualified as “anthropocentric welfarism” so as to leave “welfarism” simpliciter to be used in its generic sense of efforts to improve conditions for those who need it. Welfarism in this benign sense — even in its specific utilitarian form (maximizing the sum total of net welfare) with long-term future effects and effects on others (including animals) appropriately taken into account — should be unobjectionable (even if not considered sufficient by all advocates ...


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