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Why American Parents Circumcise Their Sons: An Integrative Review Of Literature, Lacy Lauber 2017 DePaul University

Why American Parents Circumcise Their Sons: An Integrative Review Of Literature, Lacy Lauber

Grace Peterson Nursing Research Colloquium

Background: Since medical evidence supports both pros and cons of routine neonatal male circumcision, expectant and new parents are left to make the decision to circumcise their sons on their own. There is limited research as to why American parents choose to circumcise their newborn sons.

Objectives: The purpose of this integrative literature review is to identify the reasons behind parental decision making in neonatal male circumcision in the United States. Understanding motivating factors in parental decision-making can highlight areas of prenatal education for expectant parents.

Method: An integrative literature review was conducted utilizing these online databases: PubMed, The Cumulative ...


Open Access In Health Sciences: Learning, Adapting, And Trying To Grow In Academic And Clinical Settings, Rachel K. Stark, Mickel Paris, Joy Rodriguez 2017 California State University, Sacramento

Open Access In Health Sciences: Learning, Adapting, And Trying To Grow In Academic And Clinical Settings, Rachel K. Stark, Mickel Paris, Joy Rodriguez

Open Access Conference

Increasingly clinical doctors desire and need to publish their research. As a result, the issue of open access is moving into the clinical setting. This presents unique challenges to Health Science Librarians. In addition to working alone and with very limited library budgets, Health Science Librarians must stretch their current role to include becoming an open access expert in order to educate hospital administrators and library users, while giving proper advice and guidance to authors within their institutions. Health Sciences Librarians in academic settings also face limited budgets and increasing requests for access to materials on generally smaller budgets. Issues ...


“First, Do No Harm”: Old And New Paradigms In Prehospital Resuscitation In The Aquatic Domain, John H. Pearn, Richard Charles Franklin 2017 Lady Cilento Children's Hospital, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

“First, Do No Harm”: Old And New Paradigms In Prehospital Resuscitation In The Aquatic Domain, John H. Pearn, Richard Charles Franklin

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

The balance between benefit and risk is central to the work of all those involved in aquatic services. The Hippocratic exhortation of Primum non nocere, “First, do no harm,” has a history of over 2000 years. Superficially, all would support this dictum, but harm can result from inaction. The balance between no or little intervention on the one hand and proactive intervention with iatrogenic risk on the other is complex and enduring. Risk implies that one does not have all the information available to know the exact likelihood of an outcome, a common situation involving rescue, first aid, and resuscitation ...


A Request For Non-Voluntary Euthanasia In Bangladesh: A Moral Assessment, Norman K. Swazo 2017 North South University

A Request For Non-Voluntary Euthanasia In Bangladesh: A Moral Assessment, Norman K. Swazo

Bioethics in Faith and Practice

Government authorities in Bangladesh recently were placed in an awkward and extraordinary position of having to make a presumably difficult decision: how to respond to a man’s request to have his two sons and grandson euthanized. This is an extraordinary request for a developing country’s health service authorities to consider, especially in the context of a Muslim-majority population where any appeal to the legitimacy of suicide (and, by extension, physician-assisted suicide) would be automatically rejected as contrary to Islamic moral and jurisprudential principles. Here the case is reviewed in the context of arguments that engage non-voluntary euthanasia and ...


Presumed Consent For Organ Donation: Principlism Opts Out, Ryan M. Marquardt 2017 Cedarville University

Presumed Consent For Organ Donation: Principlism Opts Out, Ryan M. Marquardt

Bioethics in Faith and Practice

The number of available organs for transplant each year falls woefully short of the number of patients in need of donated organs in the United States. While approval numbers are very high for organ donation, the number of registered donors is much smaller. A commonly proposed solution to increase the pool of organ donors is to replace the current explicit consent policy with a presumed consent system, where everyone is considered to have consented as a donor unless they have opted out by joining a non-donor registry or by some other method. This proposal raises many ethical questions that must ...


Mental Illness And The Grace Of God, Laura K. Sjoquist 2017 Cedarville University

Mental Illness And The Grace Of God, Laura K. Sjoquist

Bioethics in Faith and Practice

This paper will attempt to address God's grace towards those with mental illnesses. It also attempts to provide direction in response to historical church views towards this population. Through scripture, this paper seeks to emphasize the importance of seeing a person as more than what they physically appear capable of - seeing people through God's eyes.


Biblical Ethics And Assisted Suicide, Corbett Hall 2017 New York Institute of Technology - Arkansas State University

Biblical Ethics And Assisted Suicide, Corbett Hall

Bioethics in Faith and Practice

Physician-assisted suicide contradicts the traditional role of doctor as healer and undermines the empathetical relationship between physician and patient. Suicide is a tragedy of despair and the triumph of evil; Christian physicians should consider other means to alleviate the suffering of terminal patients.


Autonomy And Patient Care: To What Extent Should Children Make Their Own Decisions?, Heather G. Kuruvilla 2017 Cedarville University

Autonomy And Patient Care: To What Extent Should Children Make Their Own Decisions?, Heather G. Kuruvilla

Bioethics in Faith and Practice

On June 14, 2016, 5-year old Julianna Snow died at home, in accordance with her stated wishes not to return to the hospital. Julianna suffered from a severe form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, an inherited neurodegenerative disorder which, while not always lethal,1 had weakened her body to the extent that even a cold could be fatal.

Julianna’s case raises important questions about patient autonomy and end-of-life care for children. The child did not wish to return to the hospital, and was willing to go to heaven instead.6 Though her parents respected her autonomy and honored her decision, the ...


Senior Editor's Preview, Dennis Sullivan 2017 Cedarville University

Senior Editor's Preview, Dennis Sullivan

Bioethics in Faith and Practice

Senior Editor's Preview


Medical Ethics Is More Like Chess Than Checkers, Peter G. Holub 2017 Nova Southeastern University

Medical Ethics Is More Like Chess Than Checkers, Peter G. Holub

Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice

Some naysayers say, “Ethics can’t be taught and good character can’t be learned.” This belief is based on the notion that there is a small window of opportunity, sometime between birth and the teenage years, when a person either develops moral character or doesn’t. Parenting gets most of the credit…or all of the blame. If this perspective is true, then what’s the point of trying to teach ethics to medical, nursing and allied health students?


A Deliberate Departure: Making Physician-Assisted Suicide Comfortable For Vulnerable Patients, Browne C. Lewis 2017 Cleveland-Marshall College of Law, Cleveland State University

A Deliberate Departure: Making Physician-Assisted Suicide Comfortable For Vulnerable Patients, Browne C. Lewis

Browne C Lewis

This Article is divided into four parts. Part I discusses the history and evolution of the "right to die movement" in the United States. The current legal landscape in the United States is examined in Part II. In Part III, I analyze some of the relevant ethical concerns caused by the availability of physician-assisted suicide. My analysis primarily focuses on the Oregon statutes because it is the oldest physician-assisted suicide law in the United States and has served as a model for laws in the United States and abroad. For example, Lord Falconer's Bill, which was defeated by the ...


Corporate Social Responsibility In The Health Care Sector, Dina Siniora 2017 Duquesne University

Corporate Social Responsibility In The Health Care Sector, Dina Siniora

Graduate Student Research Symposium

The challenge for the health care sector is to continually explore ways to ensure that the welfares of individual patients remain the utmost primacy and simultaneously promote health care equity via corporate socially responsible activities (CSR). There is an essential need to truly embrace CSR and ethical principles that would promote equal distribution of health care resources. Relevant CSR activities would be achieved by making the most significant health problems in a given society a priority of health care organizations. CSR in health care applied to hospitals and pharmaceutical companies should promote shared values and common ethical principles in new ...


Clinicians’ Perspectives And Utilization Regarding Harm Reduction In Nursing Practice In Care Of Persons With Addiction: A Literature Review, Audrey Killarney 2017 DePaul University

Clinicians’ Perspectives And Utilization Regarding Harm Reduction In Nursing Practice In Care Of Persons With Addiction: A Literature Review, Audrey Killarney

Grace Peterson Nursing Research Colloquium

Clinicians’ perspectives and utilization regarding harm reduction in nursing practice in care of persons with addiction: A literature review

Audrey Killarney, BS

Prof. Michelle Neuman, MSN, APN, RN

NSG 598: Graduate Research Synthesis

18 August 2017

Introduction

Background & Significance

Harm reduction is a concept best described as the recognition that individuals will engage in unhealthy behaviors, and the goal is to minimize the associated potential harm. (Stockwell, Reist, Macdonald, Benoit, & Jansson, 2010). Classically, it was used an alternative model of care for treating smokers and controlling the spread of HIV and hepatitis B (Henwood, Padgett, & Tiderington, 2014). However, in the context of medicine, harm reduction allows the clinician to accept that the patient may continue a harmful behavior, and their duty as a clinician is to minimize the relative risks and harms associated with that behavior (Öztuna et al., 2014). Most recently, harm reduction has been introduced as a means to address treatment for persons with addiction (Aldridge, 2012). These patients carry complex medical and social histories, for which traditional “treatment first” approaches may not be appropriate (Henwood et al., 2014). For example, Draanen et al. (2013) found an associated mental disorder in over 1/3 of patients who abuse alcohol, and over half of patients who abuse drugs. This finding supports the hypothesis that patients with severe mental illness often self-medicate with drugs and/or alcohol to control their psychosis (Henwood et al., 2014).

Previous studies have consistently reported that patients with addiction are more likely to be immune-compromised and have poor nutritional status, which can greatly affect their response to medical treatment (Bartlett, Brown, Shattell, Wright, & Lewallen, 2013). These individuals are also more likely to delay seeking medical treatment for acute issues, resulting in hospital visits for far more severe and advanced illnesses (Ford, Bammer, & Becker, 2008). Harm reduction allows for clinicians to assess other aspects of a patient’s well-being, such as secure housing, employment, and social support, which may contribute to recovery and/or relapse (Henwood et al., 2014).

Harm reduction holds great significance in current nursing practice given the recent rise of substance abuse and overdose deaths in the United States. In 2014, it was estimated that abuse of tobacco, alcohol and drugs cost the United States over $700 billion in loss of productivity, healthcare, and crime (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2015). These numbers are significant, as harm reduction interventions in Canada have been able to alleviate hospital-based costs, reduce ED visits, as well as reduce overnight hospital stays (Draanen et al., 2013). A growing problem in the United States surrounds the epidemic of opioid overdose. Heroin overdoses account for the fastest growing group of overdose deaths, with a 6-fold rise over the period of 2001-2013 (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2015). In response to rising heroin overdose rates, overdose education and naloxone distribution (OEND) programs are increasing nationwide. These types of programs are commonly sponsored by the Harm Reduction Coalition, as they seek to reduce potential risks and mortality associated with drug use. This finding further supports the argument for inclusion of harm reduction in the care of persons with addiction (Lewis et al., 2016).

Nurses in particular, are positioned to experience situations in which harm reduction strategies may be appropriate. Nursing staff are frequently involved in patient education, and re-education, of hospitalized patients; while an individual may not be ready to receive treatment, nursing staff could be qualified to provide information regarding self-help groups (Bartlett et al., 2013). Additionally, nurses conduct many of the initial screenings during hospitalization; these screenings include alcohol and drug abuse questionnaires that provide a bridge to discussions regarding use and healthy use of alcohol, prescription drugs and illicit substances (Bartlett ...


Every Word, Every Gesture, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2017 Aurora University of Wisconsin Medical Group, Aurora Health Care

Every Word, Every Gesture, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Two nonverbal patients teach a novice clinician the power and often hidden impact of the physician-patient relationship.


Nietzsche’S Posthuman Imperative: On The Human, All Too Human Dream Of Transhumanism, Babette Babich 2017 Fordham University

Nietzsche’S Posthuman Imperative: On The Human, All Too Human Dream Of Transhumanism, Babette Babich

Articles and Chapters in Academic Book Collections

No abstract provided.


Considerations Regarding The Ethical Viability Of Voluntary Active Euthanasia, Grant Garcia 2017 University of Puget Sound

Considerations Regarding The Ethical Viability Of Voluntary Active Euthanasia, Grant Garcia

Sound Decisions: An Undergraduate Bioethics Journal

Issues regarding death are incredibly complicated and involve topics that are often difficult to discuss. In this essay, I will argue that active euthanasia is morally and ethically permissible in instances involving consenting terminally ill patients. Using an act-utilitarian approach, I contend that voluntary active euthanasia should be seen as a viable option due to its potential to reduce the total pain and suffering in an end-of-life scenario for both the patient and the patient’s loved ones. Though passive euthanasia is widely considered to be morally superior to active euthanasia, I argue that voluntary active euthanasia has the potential ...


Rethinking Animal Agriculture: A Principlist Approach, Miranda S. Eisen 3412335 2017 University of Puget Sound

Rethinking Animal Agriculture: A Principlist Approach, Miranda S. Eisen 3412335

Sound Decisions: An Undergraduate Bioethics Journal

Engrained in the mindless routines of our daily lives, we believe our consumer choices do not matter. But participating in the animal industrial complex through the purchase and consumption of meat, dairy and eggs generates significant bioethical issues that warrant exploration and discussion. This paper examines the moral rights of animals, poor ethical justification of animal consumption, and extreme ramifications of the animal agricultural system within the framework of principlism. By analyzing the moral position of animal consumption in the bioethical context of utility, autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence and justice, the corrupt nature of animal agribusiness is revealed and plant-based living ...


Translational Research: Ethical Considerations, Yiqing Dong 2017 University of Puget Sound

Translational Research: Ethical Considerations, Yiqing Dong

Sound Decisions: An Undergraduate Bioethics Journal

Translational research (TR) is a new categorization for the efforts of biomedical research and emphasizes efficiency in achieving population health improvements through the application of basic science knowledge in clinical practice. It will be argued that the current emphasis on speed and collaboration with industry established by national policies provides challenges to maintaining the integrity of scientific research. There is no agreed upon definition of TR and the current standard of judging the success of TR focuses on product production. I propose that the principles of beneficence and responsive justice should be used to inform the values of TR and ...


The ‘Undue Burden’ Of Restrictions On Abortion: A Feminist Bioethics Analysis, Samantha Scott 2017 University of Puget Sound

The ‘Undue Burden’ Of Restrictions On Abortion: A Feminist Bioethics Analysis, Samantha Scott

Sound Decisions: An Undergraduate Bioethics Journal

This paper examines the ethical issues of abortion from a framework of undue burden. The definition of undue burden of abortion is taken from Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey (1992) supreme court decision and states: “its purpose or effect is to place a substantial obstacle in the path of the woman seeking an abortion before the fetus attains viability.” Specifically, this paper argues that abortion restrictions waiting periods and parental involvement do in fact place an undue burden on individuals seeking abortion. This paper utilizes a feminist ethics lens by addressing issues that disproportionately impact women and considering ...


Psychometric Development Of The Research And Knowledge Scale, Lauren R. Powell, Elizabeth Ojukwu, Sharina D. Person, Jeroan J. Allison, Milagros C. Rosal, Stephenie C. Lemon 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Psychometric Development Of The Research And Knowledge Scale, Lauren R. Powell, Elizabeth Ojukwu, Sharina D. Person, Jeroan J. Allison, Milagros C. Rosal, Stephenie C. Lemon

Stephenie C. Lemon

BACKGROUND: Many research participants are misinformed about research terms, procedures, and goals; however, no validated instruments exist to assess individual's comprehension of health-related research information. We propose research literacy as a concept that incorporates understanding about the purpose and nature of research.

OBJECTIVES: We developed the Research and Knowledge Scale (RaKS) to measure research literacy in a culturally, literacy-sensitive manner. We describe its development and psychometric properties.

RESEARCH DESIGN: Qualitative methods were used to assess perspectives of research participants and researchers. Literature and informed consent reviews were conducted to develop initial items. These data were used to develop initial ...


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