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Engaging Maori In Biobanking And Genetic Research: Legal, Ethical, And Policy Challenges, Angela Beaton, Barry Smith, Valmaine Toki, Kim Southey, Maui Hudson 2015 Te Tari Hauora me Te Tari Tikanga-ā-Hapori, Centre for Health and Social Practice, Waikato Institute of Technology

Engaging Maori In Biobanking And Genetic Research: Legal, Ethical, And Policy Challenges, Angela Beaton, Barry Smith, Valmaine Toki, Kim Southey, Maui Hudson

The International Indigenous Policy Journal

Publically funded biobanking initiatives and genetic research should contribute towards reducing inequalities in health by reducing the prevalence and burden of disease. It is essential that Maori and other Indigenous populations share in health gains derived from these activities. The Health Research Council of New Zealand has funded a research project (2012-2015) to identify Maori perspectives on biobanking and genetic research, and to develop cultural guidelines for ethical biobanking and genetic research involving biospecimens. This review describes relevant values and ethics embedded in Maori indigenous knowledge, and how they may be applied to culturally safe interactions between biobanks, researchers, individual ...


Neural Correlates Of Post-Conventional Moral Reasoning: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study, Kristin Prehn, Marc Korczykowski, Hengyi Rao, Zhuo Fang, John A. Detre, Diana C. Robertson 2015 University of Pennsylvania

Neural Correlates Of Post-Conventional Moral Reasoning: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study, Kristin Prehn, Marc Korczykowski, Hengyi Rao, Zhuo Fang, John A. Detre, Diana C. Robertson

Neuroethics Publications

Going back to Kohlberg, moral development research affirms that people progress through different stages of moral reasoning as cognitive abilities mature. Individuals at a lower level of moral reasoning judge moral issues mainly based on self-interest (personal interests schema) or based on adherence to laws and rules (maintaining norms schema), whereas individuals at the post-conventional level judge moral issues based on deeper principles and shared ideals. However, the extent to which moral development is reflected in structural brain architecture remains unknown. To investigate this question, we used voxel-based morphometry and examined the brain structure in a sample of 67 Master ...


Factors Associated With Belief In Conspiracies About Hiv/Aids Among Hiv-Positive African-American Patients, Andrew A. Zekeri, Youssouf Diabate 2015 Tuskegee University

Factors Associated With Belief In Conspiracies About Hiv/Aids Among Hiv-Positive African-American Patients, Andrew A. Zekeri, Youssouf Diabate

Professional Agricultural Workers Journal

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to examine factors associated with belief in conspiracies about HIV/AIDS among HIV-Positive African American patients. Survey data were collected from 256 African American patients living with HIV/AIDS attending two HIV clinics in Montgomery and Dothan, Alabama. The study used multiple regression analysis to examine how sociodemographic factors contribute to belief in conspiracies about HIV/AIDS. Education and age were significantly related to belief in conspiracies about HIV/AIDS among men and women. Beliefs in conspiracies about HIV/AIDS may be a barrier to HIV prevention among African Americans. Public health officials ...


Reproductive Genetics: Desired Genes, Gendered Ethics, And Eugenic Echoes, MaryKate K. Bodnar 2015 Western Michigan University

Reproductive Genetics: Desired Genes, Gendered Ethics, And Eugenic Echoes, Marykate K. Bodnar

The Hilltop Review

Present knowledge of genetics and assisted reproduction make fertile ground for a new type of eugenics: reproductive genetics. Proponents of reproductive genetics aim to separate these techniques from the problematic and negative connotations associated with historical eugenic policies by claiming them as part of the liberal eugenic movement. In-vitro fertilization (IVF), the market for sperm and eggs, and prenatal genetic testing allow conscious decision-making regarding the potential genetic make-up of children. Decisions are made in a gendered and politicized environment, shaping understandings of genes, eggs, and sperm around stereotypes and ideal social norms. In choosing “desirable” characteristics, whatever they may ...


Exploring The Relationships Of Power, Attitudes Regarding Intermittent Fetal Monitoring, And Perceived Barriers To Research Utilization With A Labor And Delivery Nurse's Attitude Toward Patient Advocacy, Lisa Heelan 2015 Seton Hall University

Exploring The Relationships Of Power, Attitudes Regarding Intermittent Fetal Monitoring, And Perceived Barriers To Research Utilization With A Labor And Delivery Nurse's Attitude Toward Patient Advocacy, Lisa Heelan

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

A problem identified in nursing practice was the routine use of continuous fetal monitoring (CEFM) with low risk laboring women. CEFM is associated with worsened outcomes for the low risk laboring woman with no benefit to the newborn. In addition, this routine practice does not allow most laboring women the right to make an informed choice regarding treatment options. Nursing includes the role of patient advocacy. There was a need to better understand what is associated with a labor and delivery nurse’s attitude toward patient advocacy.

This descriptive correlational research design examined the relationships of power as knowing participation ...


Euthyphro’S Dilemma And Divine Command Ethics, Charis Steffel 2015 Cedarville University

Euthyphro’S Dilemma And Divine Command Ethics, Charis Steffel

CedarEthics: A Journal of Critical Thinking in Bioethics

Euthyphro, one of the Greek philosopher Plato’s earliest dialogues (about 380 B.C.), presents a dilemma that has troubled philosophers and theologians for centuries. The quandary is provoked by an assertion Euthyphro makes about piety in conversation with Socrates. Euthyphro is planning to prosecute his father for an unintentional murder to avoid being associated with him. He hopes that this will help his standing with the gods. Socrates shows great surprise at Euthyphro’s apparent knowledge of “religion and things pious and impious.” This leads to a discussion concerning the nature of piety, where Euthyphro proposes that whatever is ...


Pope Paul Vi And The Pill, Sara White 2015 Cedarville University

Pope Paul Vi And The Pill, Sara White

CedarEthics: A Journal of Critical Thinking in Bioethics

The Roman Catholic Church has strong moral rules opposing the use of oral contraceptives. The Church still holds the view that a “sexual union must always allow for the possibility of procreation” (Sullivan, 2006, p.1). Pope Paul VI, in his encyclical Humanae Vitae in 1968, stated that that the use of contraceptives was a sin against God. In this paper, I will present the views of Pope Paul VI from this encyclical, then present arguments against his claim that using them violates God’s law.


Abortion And The Link To Breast Cancer, Jennifer Heiden 2015 Cedarville University

Abortion And The Link To Breast Cancer, Jennifer Heiden

CedarEthics: A Journal of Critical Thinking in Bioethics

“It is only reasonable to conclude, from all extant evidence, that induced abortion is indeed a risk factor for breast cancer, despite the strong and pervasive bias in the recent literature in the direction of viewing abortion as safe for women.” So states Joel Brind, in a landmark review of the evidence for the abortion - breast cancer (ABC) link (2005, p. 110). Over the last forty years, this issue has been an intriguing topic of research, for both scientific and ideological reasons. But what can we conclude from the published studies currently available? According to a comprehensive meta-analysis by Beral ...


If Kevorkian Could Meet Hippocrates, Scott Van Dyke 2015 Cedarville University

If Kevorkian Could Meet Hippocrates, Scott Van Dyke

CedarEthics: A Journal of Critical Thinking in Bioethics

No abstract provided.


The Pro-Child Movement: Adopting A Compassionate Strategy, Jessica Seman 2015 Cedarville University

The Pro-Child Movement: Adopting A Compassionate Strategy, Jessica Seman

CedarEthics: A Journal of Critical Thinking in Bioethics

In vitro fertilization (IVF) has become the most common assisted reproductive technique in the United States, accounting for 48,000 births in one recent year alone. This has also given birth to a silent generation of over 500,000 human embryos, waiting in cryopreservation for their chance at birth (Grabill, 2006). For the Christian who believes that conception marks the beginning of human life, the fact of half a million frozen persons creates an ethical challenge of enormous proportion. Besides the obvious solution of not contributing to the problem (by freezing or discarding one’s own embryos), embryo adoption is ...


Roe V. House: A Dialogue On Abortion, Katie Condit 2015 Cedarville University

Roe V. House: A Dialogue On Abortion, Katie Condit

CedarEthics: A Journal of Critical Thinking in Bioethics

No abstract provided.


Substance, Nature, And Human Personhood, John Wildman 2015 Cedarville University

Substance, Nature, And Human Personhood, John Wildman

CedarEthics: A Journal of Critical Thinking in Bioethics

What is a person? The answer to this foundational question may seem intuitive at the first glance. Many would respond, without much thought, that a person is a human being. However, proponents of empirical functionalist philosophy contend that personhood is based on the ability to perform certain actions in actual, not potential, form. They would therefore claim that some members of species homo sapiens may not actually be persons (Singer, 1985). To understand when personhood begins, it is first necessary to understand what a person is. This paper will apply the Aristotelian concepts of substance and nature to define person ...


Embryo Adoption: An Opportunity For Life, Carla Gaines 2015 Cedarville University

Embryo Adoption: An Opportunity For Life, Carla Gaines

CedarEthics: A Journal of Critical Thinking in Bioethics

The world began a new revolution during the second half of the twentieth century. This revolution centered not on industry, but on biotechnology. Researchers unlocked the mysteries of procreation and genetics. The promise of science seduced common sense about the value of human life. Postmodern pluralism embraced the modernist idea of utopia through technology at the cost of the helpless.

Yet civilization is no closer to utopia than it was 50 years ago. Instead, we debate a whole host of new ethical dilemmas. Several debates focus on the creation, storage and eventual destiny of millions of human embryos. Hundreds of ...


The Logic Of Birth Control: A Look At The Numbers, Lydia Wong 2015 Cedarville University

The Logic Of Birth Control: A Look At The Numbers, Lydia Wong

CedarEthics: A Journal of Critical Thinking in Bioethics

If personhood begins at the moment of conception, the failure of an embryo to implant results in the death of a person. Therefore, many in the pro-life community worry about the ethics of using oral contraceptives, if such hormonal birth control actually interferes with implantation (a so-called “abortifacient” effect). Obviously killing is wrong, and death should be avoided. However, even if contraceptives occasionally prevent implantation, a very good case can still be made in favor of their use. This paper seeks to show how contraceptives, even if they cause implantation failure, can be used with a clear conscience.

Life is ...


Human Personhood From A Kantian Perspective, Jennifer Nelson 2015 Cedarville University

Human Personhood From A Kantian Perspective, Jennifer Nelson

CedarEthics: A Journal of Critical Thinking in Bioethics

What sets humans apart from all other creatures? If you were to approach a biological Homo sapiens with the question “what makes you human?” how would they respond? Do we have value simply as humans, or are we nothing more than what we offer the world? Philosophers have discussed these questions for centuries and it seems that there have been a few concrete conclusions. These conclusions depend on how one views ethical theory.

Ethical theory and personhood go hand-in-hand. Immanuel Kant, one of the greatest philosophers of the 18th Century, developed his moral philosophy in what is now known as ...


An Internal Ethical Revolution, Hillary Jones 2015 Cedarville University

An Internal Ethical Revolution, Hillary Jones

CedarEthics: A Journal of Critical Thinking in Bioethics

Despite legislation to protect individuals from slavery and forced prostitution, many continue treating people as property. The Fourteenth Amendment states that persons have the right to “life, liberty, and property,” and U.S. society has never regarded persons as property. Unfortunately, some ethics do not consider all human beings as persons. Personhood denotes being a member of the “moral community.” I base personhood on an ontological perspective, meaning that all human beings are human persons. I also believe that there is no such thing as a “potential person” or a “human non-person” regardless of disability, race, ethnicity, gender or any ...


Tubman Versus Hodgson: A Conversation About Abortion, Nicole Brewin 2015 Cedarville University

Tubman Versus Hodgson: A Conversation About Abortion, Nicole Brewin

CedarEthics: A Journal of Critical Thinking in Bioethics

No abstract provided.


A Consideration Of International Surrogacy Under Act-Utilitarian Ethics, Rosa Dale-Moore 2015 University of Puget Sound

A Consideration Of International Surrogacy Under Act-Utilitarian Ethics, Rosa Dale-Moore

Sound Decisions: An Undergraduate Bioethics Journal

Surrogacy is the practice of a woman who gestates a fetus for another person or couple. Through a contracted agreement, the surrogate gives up the child to this person or couple, who then adopt the baby. Surrogacy companies in other countries than the United States, especially India, has become very prevalent and successful. The surrogates conceivably earn much more money than they ever could at their permanent jobs, as well as often receiving housing and healthcare during and/or after their pregnancy. From a utilitarian point of view, international surrogacy is generally morally permissible because there are many more benefits ...


Protecting Patients’ Autonomy: Supporting The “Right To Die”, Nick Lyon 2015 University of Puget Sound

Protecting Patients’ Autonomy: Supporting The “Right To Die”, Nick Lyon

Sound Decisions: An Undergraduate Bioethics Journal

Due to the intrinsically subjective nature of such complaints from a patient, the critical factor to be considered in the ethics of requests to die will be how the patient views their suffering and quality of life, not the observations of third parties. In this essay I will argue that if a patient makes a considered request to die rather than suffer prolonged physical or mental agony, then those who have the capability to do so should honor that request. I further argue that such an action is entirely morally justifiable. For the purposes of this essay I will use ...


Who’S Still Missing: Arguments For The Inclusion Of Undocumented Immigrants In Universal Healthcare, Alix Melton 2015 University of Puget Sound

Who’S Still Missing: Arguments For The Inclusion Of Undocumented Immigrants In Universal Healthcare, Alix Melton

Sound Decisions: An Undergraduate Bioethics Journal

There are many arguments that have been deployed to argue for the inclusion of immigrants in the Affordable Care Act. The first, the “effortful immigrant frame,” argues that immigrants generally come to the United States for work and often take up employment in hard labor jobs with unsafe working conditions—jobs that most U.S. citizens do not in fact want. Based on their contributions to society, proponents of this viewpoint offer, they ought to qualify for health benefits. A second, and similar, frame is the injustice frame, which offers that undocumented immigrants are a victimized group and should be ...


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