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End Of Life Ethics: Hospice And Advance Directives, Thomas Kehr 2014 Cedarville University

End Of Life Ethics: Hospice And Advance Directives, Thomas Kehr

CedarEthics: A Journal of Critical Thinking in Bioethics

It has been said, “Everybody will die, but very few people want to be reminded of that fact” (Handler, 2000, p.28). Perhaps this is the reason so few adults have advanced directives. Even after the 2005 public debate over the Terry Schiavo case, it has been calculated that two-thirds of Americans adults have not completed advance directives (Morhaim & Pollack, 2013).

Americans are united in desiring that their wishes be honored. Sister Nancy, a senior Catholic Nun, had completed her living will. After a medical episode and hospitalization she was furious that hospital emergency physicians had not honored her advanced directives. Yes, her life was saved; but the sacred trust of patient and physician was broken. It is this sacred trust we all count on.

This paper will provide an ethical overview of advance directives, hospital care, hospice services, and physician roles and essential responsibilities. It will ...


Why Christians Are Afraid Of Removing Artificial Nutrition And Hydration, Lynley G. Turkelson 2014 Cedarville University

Why Christians Are Afraid Of Removing Artificial Nutrition And Hydration, Lynley G. Turkelson

CedarEthics: A Journal of Critical Thinking in Bioethics

On 31 March 2005, Terri Schiavo passed away, amidst the grief, consternation, and outrage of many Americans. In our desire to live forever and “be like God” (Genesis 3:5), human beings have created death-defying technologies. However, these technologies have led to many ethical dilemmas, in part because bioethics has been influenced insidiously by a cultural transhumanism that denies our fundamental human nature and mortality. Many Christians have embraced a transhumanist view of technology, leading to an unhealthy vitalism at the end of life. In this paper, I will demonstrate this flawed view, using the persistent vegetative states (PVS) as ...


Ethical Duties In Ectopic Pregnancy, Josephine Hein 2014 Cedarville University

Ethical Duties In Ectopic Pregnancy, Josephine Hein

CedarEthics: A Journal of Critical Thinking in Bioethics

Ectopic pregnancy is occurring at an increasing frequency in the United States due to a rise in sexually transmitted disease, fertility treatments such as in vitro fertilization, smoking, stress, and drug use. An ectopic pregnancy (EP), from Latin roots meaning “out of place,” is a pregnancy that does not correctly implant into its normal location in the endometrium of the uterus. Instead, the developing embryo implants in the fallopian tube, the cervix, the ovaries, or the abdominal or pelvic cavity. EPs today constitute about 2% of all pregnancies, of which 97% implant in the fallopian tube. A ruptured EP can ...


Mid-Atlantic Ethics Committee Newsletter, Fall 2014, 2014 University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law

Mid-Atlantic Ethics Committee Newsletter, Fall 2014

Mid-Atlantic Ethics Committee Newsletter

No abstract provided.


Annotated Bibliography: Attitudes Toward Animal Research (1998-2013), Erich Yahner 2014 Humane Society Institute for Science and Policy

Annotated Bibliography: Attitudes Toward Animal Research (1998-2013), Erich Yahner

Humane Education

No abstract provided.


Regulating The Placebo Effect In Clinical Practice, Tracey E. Chan 2014 SelectedWorks

Regulating The Placebo Effect In Clinical Practice, Tracey E. Chan

Tracey E Chan

Recent research and ethical analysis have forced a clinical and ethical reappraisal of the utility of placebos in medical practice. The main concern of ethics and law is that using placebos in health care involves deception, which is antithetical to patient autonomy and trust in the physician-patient relationship. This paper reviews the various, more nuanced scientific conceptions of the placebo effect, and evaluates the ethical and legal objections to deploying placebos in clinical practice. It argues that the placebo effect may be legitimately accommodated on the basis that it does not engage the requirement for material or quasi-fiduciary disclosures of ...


Marx V. Flanigan: A Discussion On Abortion, James Fallin 2014 Cedarville University

Marx V. Flanigan: A Discussion On Abortion, James Fallin

CedarEthics: A Journal of Critical Thinking in Bioethics

Dr. Richard Flanigan looked up from the magazine he had been perusing. Several cancellations at the women’s center that afternoon left him with some free time before his next appointment. Flanigan felt disgust for the young women who had called that morning to say they had a change of heart about the procedure. Oh well! So what if a few easily swayed teens fell for the pro-life rhetoric? With the free time, he sat down at the receptionist’s desk, preparing to while away the hour with some light reading. An older man, with a bushy beard and dressed ...


Defending Unborn Orphans: Embryo Adoption, Krisitn Colman 2014 Cedarville University

Defending Unborn Orphans: Embryo Adoption, Krisitn Colman

CedarEthics: A Journal of Critical Thinking in Bioethics

When parents have a baby, they are required by law and social precedent to care for the baby and provide it with a good home; unless their baby is an excess embryo produced from in vitro fertilization (IVF). Then the embryo can be abandoned to indefinite freezing. However, some families are choosing to adopt these embryos fixed in cryogenic limbo. In this article, I will look at the history and legality of embryo adoption, explain what is involved in embryo adoption, and finally expound on the ethical ramifications of choosing embryo adoption.


Realizing Potential: A Pragmatic Look At Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research, Mark Bentley 2014 Cedarville University

Realizing Potential: A Pragmatic Look At Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research, Mark Bentley

CedarEthics: A Journal of Critical Thinking in Bioethics

In the United States, there are over 400,000 cryogenically frozen embryos (Hoffman, et al., 2003). These frozen embryos are almost exclusively produced from in vitro fertilization (IVF) and related treatments. Much debate centers on the fate of these embryos. Among the current options available to the parents of leftover embryos are embryo adoption, keeping the embryos frozen for future use, destroying them, faux-implantations to let the embryos „naturally‟ die (Grady, 2008), and donating them for human embryonic stem cell (hES cell) research. While not all of the embryos are destroyed, many are, and it is wasteful for those embryos ...


Third-Party Gametes And The Christian, Emily Valji 2014 Cedarville University

Third-Party Gametes And The Christian, Emily Valji

CedarEthics: A Journal of Critical Thinking in Bioethics

As more assisted reproductive technologies (ART) become available, Christians will find themselves grappling with thorny questions about which ones are ethical and acceptable for use by Christ-followers. Many ART technologies have already been widely accepted by the community of faith, while the appropriateness of others is controversial, due to religious convictions regarding marriage and the sanctity of life. One of the most controversial types of ART (especially among Christians) is third-party gamete donation in the context of in vitro fertilization (IVF). Infertile couples consider third-party gamete donation when one or both partners are unable to produce viable gametes. In such ...


Virtue Ethics For Christians, Benjamin Kilian 2014 Cedarville University

Virtue Ethics For Christians, Benjamin Kilian

CedarEthics: A Journal of Critical Thinking in Bioethics

If one would tackle any major problem in life it is helpful to observe the comprehensive nature of the thing from an external vantage point before diving into the gritty details. This is also described as grasping the “big picture” or getting a birds-eye-view on the problem. I think that this holistic approach is helpful when dealing with ethical issues as well. In this paper I will first define the common approaches to normative ethics and then point out reasons that one approach in particular is a superior ethical framework from which Christians should work.


Of Violinists And Fetuses, Dylan Black 2014 Cedarville University

Of Violinists And Fetuses, Dylan Black

CedarEthics: A Journal of Critical Thinking in Bioethics

In debating abortion, the focus is typically on whether or not a fetus is a person. It is generally thought that if a fetus is a person, it has a right to life and killing it would be wrong. However, Judith Jarvis Thomson (1971) changed the focal point of the argument. She was willing to grant personhood to the fetus, yet still argued that the mother’s right to decide how her body should be used outweighs a fetal right to life, since it is dependent on the mother’s body. She brilliantly illustrates this with a scenario involving a ...


Altered Nuclear Transfer Violates Natural Law Ethics, Thomas Bertagnoli 2014 Cedarville University

Altered Nuclear Transfer Violates Natural Law Ethics, Thomas Bertagnoli

CedarEthics: A Journal of Critical Thinking in Bioethics

Medical researchers have promised that embryonic stem cells (ES cells) hold the secret to discovering cures for Parkinson’s disease, neurological damage, and other unsolved medical problems, yet President George W. Bush blocked government funding for embryo destructive research, claiming that such research is unethical. Many people hold that human embryos are living human persons, so they gladly accepted a decision they believe protects the lives of the unborn. President Obama overturned the former president’s decision and granted National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding to ES cell research, supporting those who see this as a cure for many debilitating ...


Safeguarding Genetic Privacy, Anna-Marie Struble, Emily Valji, Jennifer Lilly 2014 Cedarville University

Safeguarding Genetic Privacy, Anna-Marie Struble, Emily Valji, Jennifer Lilly

CedarEthics: A Journal of Critical Thinking in Bioethics

Since the completion in 2003 of the Human Genome Project’s initial goal to map all the genes and discover the complete nucleotide sequence in the human genome, opportunities for many significant medical advances have opened up to us, including gene therapies for various genetically-linked medical disorders, the ability to create “custom-made” drugs, and early, reliable diagnosis of genetic predispositions to disease. Genetic testing, the inspection of a person’s DNA to identify mutated sequences, is medically relevant for individuals. However, along with the undeniable benefits this knowledge brings, serious questions have arisen concerning how this knowledge should be handled ...


The Nazi Research Data: Should We Use It?, Sarah Wilson 2014 Cedarville University

The Nazi Research Data: Should We Use It?, Sarah Wilson

CedarEthics: A Journal of Critical Thinking in Bioethics

White rats in labs often give their lives to test drugs and diseases so that humans may live. Sadly, during the Holocaust era, the white rats were Jewish people. Many Nazi doctors conducted experiments on Jews so that others, especially Nazi forces fighting in the war, would have more information on dangers such as high altitude and hypothermia. The Nazi doctors infected Jewish children with different diseases to watch the progression of the disease on the human body (Kor, 1992). The Nazi experiments produced valuable data that could save lives today, but the ethical questions associated with using the data ...


Informed Consent, Psychotropic Medications, And A Prescribing Physician’S Duty To Disclose Safer Alternative Treatments, Rita F. Barnett Ms. 2014 Chapman University Dale E. Fowler School of Law

Informed Consent, Psychotropic Medications, And A Prescribing Physician’S Duty To Disclose Safer Alternative Treatments, Rita F. Barnett Ms.

Rita Barnett

INFORMED CONSENT, PSYCHOTROPIC MEDICATIONS, AND A PRESCRIBING PHYSICIAN’S DUTY TO DISCLOSE SAFER ALTERNATIVE TREATMENTS

The use of psychotropic medication to treat any presumed mental health disorder always involves serious risks of harm. Accordingly, before prescribing psychotropic medication to control the behaviors associated with a presumed mental health disorder, prescribing physicians are required, under various medical ethical guidelines and informed consent laws, to first disclose information regarding available alternative treatment options, and the risks and benefits of such alternative treatment options. Indeed, because psychotropic medications are themselves experimental treatments due to the concededly unknown etiology of most mental health disorders ...


Let Them Be Heroes, Christina Kinch 2014 Cedarville University

Let Them Be Heroes, Christina Kinch

CedarEthics: A Journal of Critical Thinking in Bioethics

Since 1978, there is now a population of unique human entities unlike the world has ever seen before. This group numbers at more than 500,000 individuals (Grabill, 2007). Some are brand new, created only days ago; others have been around for decades. Yet these entities, all comprised of human embryos, are all developmentally the same age. They are five to six days old, frozen in liquid nitrogen until their fate is decided.

And so a debate rages in our society. What should be done with all the frozen embryos? These are the excess or “left-over” embryos resulting from reproductive ...


The Tao And The Art Of Feminine Beauty, Tia Zirkle 2014 Cedarville University

The Tao And The Art Of Feminine Beauty, Tia Zirkle

CedarEthics: A Journal of Critical Thinking in Bioethics

I first encountered Elizabeth Elliot’s work somewhere between my Junior and Senior years of High School. Her timeless classic Passion and Purity shaped my opinions of relationships, femininity, and above all, pursuing holiness. My personal copy of this book sits on my shelf, dog-eared and underlined, with scribbled notes throughout. Time and again, it has been a source of wisdom in my life. Recently, when I was when attempting to consider the application side of ethical theory, I saw a link between her thoughts and those of C.S. Lewis, in The Abolition of Man. Lewis’ natural law theory ...


Killing And Letting Die: The Irrelevant Distinction, Sarah Beth Shaw 2014 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Killing And Letting Die: The Irrelevant Distinction, Sarah Beth Shaw

Theses

The object of this essay is to explain why the distinctions made in euthanasia between killing vs. letting die and willingness to kill vs. unwillingness to kill are not relevant to real life euthanasia cases. The specific purpose of the research is to isolate the relevant factor for debate when discussing the morality of euthanasia. It begins with a brief examination of some vocabulary that is commonly used when discussing euthanasia. Following this is a quick overview of what the word euthanasia meant in the ancient Greco-Roman world compared to what it means in the modern vernacular. I use an ...


Brain Death In Medical Ethics, Katherine R. Guffey 2014 Cedarville University

Brain Death In Medical Ethics, Katherine R. Guffey

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Researchers are continually discovering new medicinal therapies. Technology is advancing at an unprecedented rate, and modern medicine has turned into an expansive multi-trillion dollar enterprise. New tools such as ventilators and feeding tubes give doctors the ability to extend a person’s life beyond its natural limits. Conditions which used to kill 100% of victims no longer cause as many deaths per year. While these medical technologies bring about the benefit of longer human lives, they have created a new realm of ethical dilemmas. As the old adage goes, “With great power comes great responsibility.” If we have so much ...


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