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1834 full-text articles. Page 1 of 42.

The Nagoya Protocol And Indigenous Peoples, Maria Yolanda Teran 2016 The University of New Mexico

The Nagoya Protocol And Indigenous Peoples, Maria Yolanda Teran

The International Indigenous Policy Journal

This article is about Indigenous peoples’ involvement in the Nagoya Protocol negotiations from 2006 to 2010, as well as in its implementation to stop biopiracy in order to protect Pachamama, Mother Earth, and to ensure our survival and the survival of coming generations. The Nagoya Protocol is an international instrument that was adopted in Nagoya, Japan in October 2010 by the Conference of Parties (COP 10) and ratified by 51 countries in Pyeongchang, South Korea in October 2014 at COP 12. This protocol governs access to genetic resources and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from their utilization ...


The Three Rs: The Way Forward, Michael Balls, Alan M. Goldberg, Julia H. Fentem, Caren L. Broadhead, Rex L. Burch, Michael F.W. Festing, John M. Frazier, Coenraad F.M. Hendriksen, Margaret Jennings, Margot D.O. van der Kamp, David B. Morton, Andrew N. Rowan, Claire Russell, William M.S. Russell, Horst Spielman, Martin L. Stephens, William S. Stokes, Donald W. Straughan, James D. Yager, Joanne Zurlo, Bert F.M. van Zutphen 2016 European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods

The Three Rs: The Way Forward, Michael Balls, Alan M. Goldberg, Julia H. Fentem, Caren L. Broadhead, Rex L. Burch, Michael F.W. Festing, John M. Frazier, Coenraad F.M. Hendriksen, Margaret Jennings, Margot D.O. Van Der Kamp, David B. Morton, Andrew N. Rowan, Claire Russell, William M.S. Russell, Horst Spielman, Martin L. Stephens, William S. Stokes, Donald W. Straughan, James D. Yager, Joanne Zurlo, Bert F.M. Van Zutphen

Martin Stephens, Ph.D.

This is the report of the eleventh of a series of workshops organised by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), which was established in 1991 by the European Commission. ECVAM's main goal, as defined in 1993 by its Scientific Advisory Committee, is to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods which are of importance to the biosciences and which reduce, refine or replace the use of laboratory animals. One of the first priorities set by ECVAM was the implementation of procedures which would enable it to become well-informed about the state-of-the-art of non-animal ...


The Significance Of Alternative Techniques In Biomedical Research: An Analysis Of Nobel Prize Awards, Martin Stephens 2016 The Humane Society of the United States

The Significance Of Alternative Techniques In Biomedical Research: An Analysis Of Nobel Prize Awards, Martin Stephens

Martin Stephens, Ph.D.

The "alternatives approach" consists of developing and employing methods specifically designed as alternatives. The aim of the approach is to determine the extent to which alternatives can replace traditional uses of animals. This aim has an ethical and compassionate appeal that is being bolstered by recent scientific advances in developing alternatives (Stephens 1986b).

The importance of alternative methods in the history of biomedical research can be inferred from Nobel Prize awards in medicine or physiology. These awards are generally believed to recognize research "of the highest caliber, the most enduring influence, and the most importance to biomedical science" according to ...


Report Of The Working Group On Animal Distress In The Laboratory, Marilyn Brown, Larry Carbone, Kathleen Conlee, Marian Dawkins, Ian J. Duncan, David Fraser, Gilly Griffin, Victoria A. Hampshire, Lesley A. Lambert, Joy A. Mench, David Morton, Jon Richmond, Bernard E. Rollin, Andrew N. Rowan, Martin L. Stephens, Hanno Würbel 2016 Charles River Laboratories Foundation

Report Of The Working Group On Animal Distress In The Laboratory, Marilyn Brown, Larry Carbone, Kathleen Conlee, Marian Dawkins, Ian J. Duncan, David Fraser, Gilly Griffin, Victoria A. Hampshire, Lesley A. Lambert, Joy A. Mench, David Morton, Jon Richmond, Bernard E. Rollin, Andrew N. Rowan, Martin L. Stephens, Hanno Würbel

Martin Stephens, Ph.D.

Finding ways to minimize pain and distress in research animals is a continuing goal in the laboratory animal research field. Pain and distress, however, are not synonymous, and often measures that alleviate one do not affect the other. Here, the authors provide a summary of a meeting held in February 2004 that focused on distress in laboratory animals. They discuss the difficulties associated with defining ‘distress,’ propose methods to aid in recognizing and alleviating distressful conditions, and provide recommendations for animal research conduct and oversight that would minimize distress experienced by laboratory animals.


Addressing Distress And Pain In Animal Research: The Veterinary, Research, Societal, Regulatory And Ethical Contexts For Moving Forward, Kathleen Conlee, Martin Stephens, Andrew N. Rowan 2016 The Humane Society of the United States

Addressing Distress And Pain In Animal Research: The Veterinary, Research, Societal, Regulatory And Ethical Contexts For Moving Forward, Kathleen Conlee, Martin Stephens, Andrew N. Rowan

Martin Stephens, Ph.D.

While most people recognize that biomedical scientists are searching for knowledge that will improve the health of humans and animals, the image of someone deliberately causing harm to an animal in order to produce data that may lead to some future benefit has always prompted an uncomfortable reaction outside the laboratory. However, proponents of animal research have usually justified the practice by reference to greater benefits (new knowledge and medical treatments) over lesser costs (in animal suffering and death). Given that one of the costs of animal research is the suffering experienced by the animals, the goal of eliminating distress ...


Bringing Toxicology Into The 21st Century: A Global Call To Action, Troy Seidle, Martin Stephens 2016 Humane Society International

Bringing Toxicology Into The 21st Century: A Global Call To Action, Troy Seidle, Martin Stephens

Martin Stephens, Ph.D.

Conventional toxicological testing methods are often decades old, costly and low-throughput, with questionable relevance to the human condition. Several of these factors have contributed to a backlog of chemicals that have been inadequately assessed for toxicity. Some authorities have responded to this challenge by implementing large-scale testing programmes. Others have concluded that a paradigm shift in toxicology is warranted. One such call came in 2007 from the United States National Research Council (NRC), which articulated a vision of ‘‘21st century toxicology” based predominantly on non-animal techniques. Potential advantages of such an approach include the capacity to examine a far greater ...


Utilitarianism Generalized To Include Animals, Yew-Kwang Ng 2016 Nanyang Technological University

Utilitarianism Generalized To Include Animals, Yew-Kwang Ng

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

In response to the seventeen commentaries to date on my target article on reducing animal suffering, I propose that the term “welfarism” (when used pejoratively by animal advocates) should be qualified as “anthropocentric welfarism” so as to leave “welfarism” simpliciter to be used in its generic sense of efforts to improve conditions for those who need it. Welfarism in this benign sense — even in its specific utilitarian form (maximizing the sum total of net welfare) with long-term future effects and effects on others (including animals) appropriately taken into account — should be unobjectionable (even if not considered sufficient by all advocates ...


Addressing The Ethical, Legal, And Social Issues Raised By Voting By Persons With Dementia, Jason H. Karlawish, Richard J. Bonnie, Paul S. Appelbaum, Constantine Lyketsos, Bryan James, David Knopman, Christopher Patusky, Rosalie A. Kane, Pamela S. Karlan 2016 University of Pennsylvania

Addressing The Ethical, Legal, And Social Issues Raised By Voting By Persons With Dementia, Jason H. Karlawish, Richard J. Bonnie, Paul S. Appelbaum, Constantine Lyketsos, Bryan James, David Knopman, Christopher Patusky, Rosalie A. Kane, Pamela S. Karlan

Bryan G Kane MD

This article addresses an emerging policy problem in the United States participation in the electoral process by citizens with dementia. At present, health care professionals, family caregivers, and long-term care staff lack adequate guidance to decide whether individuals with dementia should be precluded from or assisted in casting a ballot. Voting by persons with dementia raises a series of important questions about the autonomy of individuals with dementia, the integrity of the electoral process, and the prevention of fraud. Three subsidiary issues warrant special attention: development of a method to assess capacity to vote; identification of appropriate kinds of assistance ...


Commentary: There Are Medical Dilemmas And Then There Are Firearms, Peter G. Holub 2016 Nova Southeastern University

Commentary: There Are Medical Dilemmas And Then There Are Firearms, Peter G. Holub

Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice

When faced with a medical dilemma, the right decision depends on how the relevant ethical principles are prioritized. Prioritization of ethical principles in a medical dilemma often depends on contextual features, such as the patient’s age, economic impact, and public safety. Firearms should be as much a part of medical research and patient education as alcohol and tobacco, seat belts and car seats, safe sex and condoms. The problem with firearm research and patient education is twofold: a). government funded research on gun violence is currently prohibited by Congress1 and b). states and wellness programs actually prohibit doctors ...


Impeding Access To Quality Patient Care And Patient Rights: How Myriad Genetics' Gene Patents Are Unknowingly Killing Cancer Patients And How To Calm The Ripple Effect, Marisa Noelle Pins 2016 University of Georgia School of Law

Impeding Access To Quality Patient Care And Patient Rights: How Myriad Genetics' Gene Patents Are Unknowingly Killing Cancer Patients And How To Calm The Ripple Effect, Marisa Noelle Pins

Journal of Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


It Does Matter What You Believe: A Critique Of Moral Relativism, Lisa Simpson 2016 Cedarville University

It Does Matter What You Believe: A Critique Of Moral Relativism, Lisa Simpson

CedarEthics: A Journal of Critical Thinking in Bioethics

No abstract provided.


A Christian Perspective On Stem Cell Research, Katherine Steingass 2016 Cedarville University

A Christian Perspective On Stem Cell Research, Katherine Steingass

CedarEthics: A Journal of Critical Thinking in Bioethics

No abstract provided.


Ethical Philosophies And The Hippocratic Physician, Jason Elwell 2016 Cedarville University

Ethical Philosophies And The Hippocratic Physician, Jason Elwell

CedarEthics: A Journal of Critical Thinking in Bioethics

No abstract provided.


The Art Of Dying, Mellisa Pogirski 2016 Cedarville University

The Art Of Dying, Mellisa Pogirski

CedarEthics: A Journal of Critical Thinking in Bioethics

No abstract provided.


Reflections On Feminist Views Of Abortion And Motherhood, Callie Edgington 2016 Cedarville University

Reflections On Feminist Views Of Abortion And Motherhood, Callie Edgington

CedarEthics: A Journal of Critical Thinking in Bioethics

No abstract provided.


Sentience As A Reason To Ban Partial-Birth Abortion, Carrie Ziegenfuss 2016 Cedarville University

Sentience As A Reason To Ban Partial-Birth Abortion, Carrie Ziegenfuss

CedarEthics: A Journal of Critical Thinking in Bioethics

No abstract provided.


Ethical Choices: A Case For Hierarchicalism, Nathan Ramsey 2016 Cedarville University

Ethical Choices: A Case For Hierarchicalism, Nathan Ramsey

CedarEthics: A Journal of Critical Thinking in Bioethics

No abstract provided.


Pure And Undefiled Religion, Katherine Hekel 2016 Cedarville University

Pure And Undefiled Religion, Katherine Hekel

CedarEthics: A Journal of Critical Thinking in Bioethics

No abstract provided.


Child Sacrifice In The Western World, David Miedema 2016 Cedarville University

Child Sacrifice In The Western World, David Miedema

CedarEthics: A Journal of Critical Thinking in Bioethics

In my recent studies of history and anthropology I have found reference in many cultures to child sacrifice. These cultures include many far-flung groups that are distinct in geography, worldview, and mythology. A few examples include the Mayans, Incas, and Aztecs of South America. On the other side of the world, examples are found in several cultures of the Middle East, such as the Canaanites, the Edomites, and occasionally the Hebrews. These cultures performed child sacrifice to placate or pacify a deity in exchange for continued services, such as keeping the sun in the sky or bringing rain for the ...


Homo Sapiens - The Human Animal, Paul Round 2016 Cedarville University

Homo Sapiens - The Human Animal, Paul Round

CedarEthics: A Journal of Critical Thinking in Bioethics

No abstract provided.


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