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Cannabidiol Is Beneficial In Management Of Drug-Resistant Dravet Syndrome, Nikita Desai 2019 Wayne State University School of Medicine

Cannabidiol Is Beneficial In Management Of Drug-Resistant Dravet Syndrome, Nikita Desai

Clinical Research in Practice: The Journal of Team Hippocrates

A critical appraisal and clinical application of Devinsky O, Cross H, Laux L, et al. Trial of Cannabidiol for Drug-Resistant Seizures in the Dravet Syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2017;376(21):2011-2020. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1611618.


Influence Of Gut Microbiome On Obesity In Western-Style Dietary Practices Versus Other Diets: A Systematic Review, Keely A. Niemeyer, Doris I. Buezo, Loren Landeros, Karina Corral 2019 California State University San Bernardino

Influence Of Gut Microbiome On Obesity In Western-Style Dietary Practices Versus Other Diets: A Systematic Review, Keely A. Niemeyer, Doris I. Buezo, Loren Landeros, Karina Corral

OSR Journal of Student Research

BACKGROUND: The human gut is home to a microbiome that has a complex relationship to human health. Like the human genome project, microbiome is catching the attention of researchers who seek new methods to combat obesity and negative health outcomes associated with it.

OBJECTIVES: This systematic review aims to distinguish the impact of a Western diet on gut health verses a plant-based diet.

DATA SOURCES: EBSCOHost library databases inclusive of CINAHL plus, ScienceDirect, and PubMed using keywords to better understand the correlation of dietary practices and microbiome balance.

STUDY ELIGIBILITY: Criteria that include diet, current research, and scholarly peer reviewed ...


Chemical Epitope Targeting: Review Of A Novel Screening Technology, Qurrat Ul-Ain, Rene Kandler, Dylan Gillespie, Arundhati Nag 2019 Clark University

Chemical Epitope Targeting: Review Of A Novel Screening Technology, Qurrat Ul-Ain, Rene Kandler, Dylan Gillespie, Arundhati Nag

Scholarly Undergraduate Research Journal at Clark

Chemical Epitope Targeting is a novel technology developed for designing peptide ligands with high affinity and specificity against specific regions of a protein that may be inaccessible to small molecules or antibodies. In this review, we summarize the key steps and significant applications of this technology. Operating on the same principles as antibody-antigen interactions, this technique involves chemically synthesizing the region of interest on the protein, called the epitope, as a polypeptide with a biotin detection tag and a strategically placed alkyne or azide presenting amino acid. The constructed epitope is screened against a comprehensive linear or cyclic One Bead ...


The Brazilian Private Pharmaceutical Market After The First Ten Years Of The Generics Law, Andrea Damaso Bertoldi, Anita K. Wagner, Isabel Emmerick, Luisa Arueira Chaves, Peter Stephens, Dennis Ross-Degnan 2019 Federal University of Pelotas

The Brazilian Private Pharmaceutical Market After The First Ten Years Of The Generics Law, Andrea Damaso Bertoldi, Anita K. Wagner, Isabel Emmerick, Luisa Arueira Chaves, Peter Stephens, Dennis Ross-Degnan

Open Access Articles

Objectives: To describe changes in the private market for selected originators, branded generics ('similares'), and generic products during the 10 years following passage of the Brazilian Generics Law.

Methods: We analyzed longitudinal data collected by IQVIA(R) on quarterly sales by wholesalers to retail pharmacies in Brazil from 1998 through 2010, grouped by originators, branded generics, and generic products in three therapeutic classes (antibiotics, antidiabetics, and antihypertensives). Outcomes included market share (proportion of the total private market volume), sales volume per capita, prices and number of manufacturers by group.

Results: In the private market share, generics became dominant in each ...


Proton Pump Inhibitors Increase The Severity Of Hepatic Encephalopathy In Cirrhotic Patients, Matthew J. Fasullo, Prashanth Rau, Dong-Qi Liu, Erik Holzwanger, Jomol Mathew, Yurima Guilarte-Walker, Gyongyi Szabo 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Proton Pump Inhibitors Increase The Severity Of Hepatic Encephalopathy In Cirrhotic Patients, Matthew J. Fasullo, Prashanth Rau, Dong-Qi Liu, Erik Holzwanger, Jomol Mathew, Yurima Guilarte-Walker, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

BACKGROUND: Liver cirrhosis is the late stage of hepatic fibrosis and is characterized by portal hypertension that can clinically lead to decompensation in the form of ascites, esophageal/gastric varices or encephalopathy. The most common sequelae associated with liver cirrhosis are neurologic and neuropsychiatric impairments labeled as hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Well established triggers for HE include infection, gastrointestinal bleeding, constipation, and medications. Alterations to the gut microbiome is one of the leading ammonia producers in the body, and therefore may make patients more susceptible to HE.

AIM: To investigate the relationship between the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and ...


Enhanced Baseline Activity In The Left Ventromedial Putamen Predicts Individual Treatment Response In Drug-Naive, First-Episode Schizophrenia: Results From Two Independent Study Samples, Huabing Li, Wenbin Guo, Feng Liu, Jindong Chen, Qinji Su, Zhikun Zhang, Xiaoduo Fan, Jingping Zhao 2019 The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University

Enhanced Baseline Activity In The Left Ventromedial Putamen Predicts Individual Treatment Response In Drug-Naive, First-Episode Schizophrenia: Results From Two Independent Study Samples, Huabing Li, Wenbin Guo, Feng Liu, Jindong Chen, Qinji Su, Zhikun Zhang, Xiaoduo Fan, Jingping Zhao

Psychiatry Publications and Presentations

BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic medications are the common treatment for schizophrenia. However, reliable biomarkers that can predict individual treatment response are still lacking. The present study aimed to examine whether baseline putamen activity can predict individual treatment response in schizophrenia.

METHODS: Two independent samples of patients with drug-naive, first-episode schizophrenia (32 patients in sample 1 and 44 in sample 2) and matched healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at baseline. Patients were treated with olanzapine for 8 weeks; symptom severity was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) at baseline and week 8. Fractional amplitude of low ...


Non-Viral Transfection Efficiencies For The Advancement Of Car-T Therapy., Emily M Murphy 2019 University of Louisville

Non-Viral Transfection Efficiencies For The Advancement Of Car-T Therapy., Emily M Murphy

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Leukemias are the most common form of childhood cancer making up 30% of total pediatric oncological cases, and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) makes up a significant portion (12%) of the total pediatric cancer diagnoses. In 2017, the FDA approved a successful immunotherapy called CAR-T therapy for the treatment of pediatric B-cell ALL. This therapy includes a CAR (chimeric antigen receptor) that is loaded into the T-cell and expressed. Currently, the loading of the CAR utilizes viral transduction, but consistency issues lead to adverse symptoms in the patients. Better methods of transduction/transfection are being studied in order to improve these ...


Preferences, Use Of And Satisfaction With Mental Health Services Among A Sample Of Puerto Rican Cancer Patients, Eida M. Castro-Figueroa, Normarie Torres-Blasco, Milagros C. Rosal, Wallesca P. Castro, Marilis E. Gonzalez-Lorenzo, Hector Velez, Rosario Costas-Muniz, Julio C. Jimenez 2019 Ponce Health Sciences University

Preferences, Use Of And Satisfaction With Mental Health Services Among A Sample Of Puerto Rican Cancer Patients, Eida M. Castro-Figueroa, Normarie Torres-Blasco, Milagros C. Rosal, Wallesca P. Castro, Marilis E. Gonzalez-Lorenzo, Hector Velez, Rosario Costas-Muniz, Julio C. Jimenez

Open Access Articles

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe the preferences, the use, satisfaction of mental health services (MHS) among a sample of Puerto Rican patients with cancer undergoing oncology treatment.

METHODS: A convenience sample of 120 patients diagnosed with cancer was recruited. Self-report questionnaires assessed socio-demographic and background questions, and the Mental Health Service Preference, Utilization and Satisfaction Questionnaire (MHSPUS). The Socio-demographic and Background Questionnaire inquired about participants' demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, and included questions such as history of psychiatric diagnosis and spiritual practices. Univariate and Chi square analyses were used for descriptive purposes. Logistic regressions were used to ...


Changes In Anticoagulant Utilization Among United States Nursing Home Residents With Atrial Fibrillation From 2011 To 2016, Matthew Alcusky, David D. McManus, Anne L. Hume, Marc Fisher, Jennifer Tjia, Kate L. Lapane 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Changes In Anticoagulant Utilization Among United States Nursing Home Residents With Atrial Fibrillation From 2011 To 2016, Matthew Alcusky, David D. Mcmanus, Anne L. Hume, Marc Fisher, Jennifer Tjia, Kate L. Lapane

Jennifer Tjia

Background: Nursing home residents with atrial fibrillation are at high risk for ischemic stroke and bleeding events. The most recent national estimate (2004) indicated less than one third of this high-risk population was anticoagulated. Whether direct-acting oral anticoagulant ( DOAC ) use has disseminated into nursing homes and increased anticoagulant use is unknown.

Methods and Results: A repeated cross-sectional design was used to estimate the point prevalence of oral anticoagulant use on July 1 and December 31 of calendar years 2011 to 2016 among Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries with atrial fibrillation residing in long-stay nursing homes. Nursing home residence was determined using Minimum ...


Bone-Targeting Aav-Mediated Silencing Of Schnurri-3 Prevents Bone Loss In Osteoporosis, Yeon-Suk Yang, Jun Xie, Dan Wang, Jung-Min Kim, Phillip W. L. Tai, Ellen M. Gravallese, Guangping Gao, Jae-Hyuck Shim 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Bone-Targeting Aav-Mediated Silencing Of Schnurri-3 Prevents Bone Loss In Osteoporosis, Yeon-Suk Yang, Jun Xie, Dan Wang, Jung-Min Kim, Phillip W. L. Tai, Ellen M. Gravallese, Guangping Gao, Jae-Hyuck Shim

Open Access Articles

RNAi-based bone anabolic gene therapy has demonstrated initial success, but many practical challenges are still unmet. Here, we demonstrate that a recombinant adeno-associated virus 9 (rAAV9) is highly effective for transducing osteoblast lineage cells in the bone. The adaptor protein Schnurri-3 (SHN3) is a promising therapeutic target for osteoporosis, as deletion of shn3 prevents bone loss in osteoporotic mice and short-term inhibition of shn3 in adult mice increases bone mass. Accordingly, systemic and direct joint administration of an rAAV9 vector carrying an artificial-microRNA that targets shn3 (rAAV9-amiR-shn3) in mice markedly enhanced bone formation via augmented osteoblast activity. Additionally, systemic delivery ...


Consensus Statement From The International Consensus Meeting On The Role Of Decompressive Craniectomy In The Management Of Traumatic Brain Injury : Consensus Statement, Peter J. Hutchinson, Susanne Muehlschlegel 2019 University of Cambridge

Consensus Statement From The International Consensus Meeting On The Role Of Decompressive Craniectomy In The Management Of Traumatic Brain Injury : Consensus Statement, Peter J. Hutchinson, Susanne Muehlschlegel

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Two randomised trials assessing the effectiveness of decompressive craniectomy (DC) following traumatic brain injury (TBI) were published in recent years: DECRA in 2011 and RESCUEicp in 2016. As the results have generated debate amongst clinicians and researchers working in the field of TBI worldwide, it was felt necessary to provide general guidance on the use of DC following TBI and identify areas of ongoing uncertainty via a consensus-based approach.

METHODS: The International Consensus Meeting on the Role of Decompressive Craniectomy in the Management of Traumatic Brain Injury took place in Cambridge, UK, on the 28th and 29th September 2017 ...


Elbow Injury Prevention In Youth Dominican Baseball Players: A Training Intervention Pilot Study, Chelsey Erbaugh Franz, Dawn Hall-Bibb, Myra Stockdale, Aliya Thompson, Bailey Biggs 2019 Bellarmine University, Louisville

Elbow Injury Prevention In Youth Dominican Baseball Players: A Training Intervention Pilot Study, Chelsey Erbaugh Franz, Dawn Hall-Bibb, Myra Stockdale, Aliya Thompson, Bailey Biggs

Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice

Background: Research suggests deficits in shoulder and elbow strength and flexibility may explain the role of elbow injuries in overhead athletes, specifically ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injury in baseball players. Significant damage to this ligament typically requires operative care for continued activity in the sport. Several studies have demonstrated the success of rehabilitation programs post-surgery; however, few studies have examined the role of UCL injury prevention programs. A recognized upper extremity (UE) injury prevention method is the Thrower’s Ten Program. This program may create elbow stability when pitching and throwing, theoretically reducing the risk of UCL injury. Purpose: The ...


The Wet Bridge Transfer System: An Novel In Vitro Tool For Assessing Exogenous Surfactant As A Pulmonary Drug Delivery Vehicle, Brandon J. Baer 2019 University of Western Ontario

The Wet Bridge Transfer System: An Novel In Vitro Tool For Assessing Exogenous Surfactant As A Pulmonary Drug Delivery Vehicle, Brandon J. Baer

Western Research Forum

Background:

Due to its complex branching structure, direct drug delivery to the remote areas of the lung is a major challenge. Consequently, most therapies, such as those treating pulmonary infection and inflammation, must utilize large systemic dosing, with the potential for adverse side effects. A novel alternative strategy is to use exogenous surfactant, a material capable of distributing throughout the lung, as a pulmonary drug delivery vehicle.

Objective:

Utilize an in vitro transferring system to assess exogenous surfactant (BLES) as a pulmonary delivery vehicle for different therapeutics.

Methods:

An in vitro technique was developed to simultaneously study surfactant delivery and ...


Proton Pump Inhibitors Increase The Severity Of Hepatic Encephalopathy In Cirrhotic Patients, Matthew J. Fasullo, Prashanth Rau, Dong-Qi Liu, Erik Holzwanger, Jomol Mathew, Yurima Guilarte-Walker, Gyongyi Szabo 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Proton Pump Inhibitors Increase The Severity Of Hepatic Encephalopathy In Cirrhotic Patients, Matthew J. Fasullo, Prashanth Rau, Dong-Qi Liu, Erik Holzwanger, Jomol Mathew, Yurima Guilarte-Walker, Gyongyi Szabo

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Liver cirrhosis is the late stage of hepatic fibrosis and is characterized by portal hypertension that can clinically lead to decompensation in the form of ascites, esophageal/gastric varices or encephalopathy. The most common sequelae associated with liver cirrhosis are neurologic and neuropsychiatric impairments labeled as hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Well established triggers for HE include infection, gastrointestinal bleeding, constipation, and medications. Alterations to the gut microbiome is one of the leading ammonia producers in the body, and therefore may make patients more susceptible to HE.

AIM: To investigate the relationship between the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and ...


Management Of Patients With Brain Metastases From Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer And Adverse Prognostic Features: Multi-National Radiation Treatment Recommendations Are Heterogeneous, Minesh Mehta 2019 Baptist Health Medical Group; Miami Cancer Institute

Management Of Patients With Brain Metastases From Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer And Adverse Prognostic Features: Multi-National Radiation Treatment Recommendations Are Heterogeneous, Minesh Mehta

Minesh Mehta

No abstract provided.


Identification Of Small Molecule Enzyme Inhibitors As Broad-Spectrum Anthelmintics, Rahul Tyagi, Elfawal A. Mostafa, Scott A. Wildman, Jon Helander, Christina A. Bulman, Judy Sakanari, Bruce A. Rosa, Paul J. Brindley, James W. Janetka, Raffi V. Aroian, Makedonka Mitreva 2019 Washington University in St. Louis

Identification Of Small Molecule Enzyme Inhibitors As Broad-Spectrum Anthelmintics, Rahul Tyagi, Elfawal A. Mostafa, Scott A. Wildman, Jon Helander, Christina A. Bulman, Judy Sakanari, Bruce A. Rosa, Paul J. Brindley, James W. Janetka, Raffi V. Aroian, Makedonka Mitreva

Open Access Articles

Targeting chokepoint enzymes in metabolic pathways has led to new drugs for cancers, autoimmune disorders and infectious diseases. This is also a cornerstone approach for discovery and development of anthelmintics against nematode and flatworm parasites. Here, we performed omics-driven knowledge-based identification of chokepoint enzymes as anthelmintic targets. We prioritized 10 of 186 phylogenetically conserved chokepoint enzymes and undertook a target class repurposing approach to test and identify new small molecules with broad spectrum anthelmintic activity. First, we identified and tested 94 commercially available compounds using an in vitro phenotypic assay, and discovered 11 hits that inhibited nematode motility. Based on ...


A Comprehensive Review Of Pegvaliase, An Enzyme Substitution Therapy For The Treatment Of Phenylketonuria, Tasmina Hydery, Valerie Azzopardi Coppenrath 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Comprehensive Review Of Pegvaliase, An Enzyme Substitution Therapy For The Treatment Of Phenylketonuria, Tasmina Hydery, Valerie Azzopardi Coppenrath

Open Access Articles

Objective: To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety, and place in therapy of a phenylalanine-metabolizing enzyme indicated to reduce blood phenylalanine concentrations, pegvaliase injection.

Data Sources: Searches of MEDLINE (1946-September 1, 2018) were conducted using the terms pegvaliase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL). Additional data were obtained from the prescribing information, the product dossier obtained from the manufacturer, and Clinicaltrials.gov.

Study Selection and Data Extraction: All English language articles related to pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, or safety of the combination therapy in human subjects were reviewed.

Data Synthesis: Pegvaliase is a pegylated PAL enzyme that converts phenylalanine to ammonia and ...


Proton Pump Inhibitors And 180-Day Mortality In The Elderly After Clostridium Difficile Treatment, Evan S. Bradley, Emily Howe, Xun Wu, John P. Haran 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Proton Pump Inhibitors And 180-Day Mortality In The Elderly After Clostridium Difficile Treatment, Evan S. Bradley, Emily Howe, Xun Wu, John P. Haran

Open Access Articles

Background: There is a reported association between proton pump inhibitor (PPI) exposure and increased risk of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), but less is known about how this class of medications taken during treatment might influence mortality after CDI. Here we examine 180-day mortality rates in a cohort of CDI elders and its association with exposure to PPIs. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of elderly patients ( > 65 years of age) diagnosed and treated for CDI in the years 2014-2016 (n = 874) in the Umass Memorial Health Care system, which represents both academic and community healthcare. Patient characteristics and medication use ...


Association Between Alcohol Use Disorders And Outcomes Of Patients Hospitalized With Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Niyati M. Gupta, Peter K. Lindenauer, Pei-Chun Yu, Peter B. Imrey, Sarah Haessler, Abhishek Deshpande, Thomas L. Higgins, Michael B. Rothberg 2019 Cleveland Clinic

Association Between Alcohol Use Disorders And Outcomes Of Patients Hospitalized With Community-Acquired Pneumonia, Niyati M. Gupta, Peter K. Lindenauer, Pei-Chun Yu, Peter B. Imrey, Sarah Haessler, Abhishek Deshpande, Thomas L. Higgins, Michael B. Rothberg

Open Access Articles

Importance: Patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) are at elevated risk of developing pneumonia, but few studies have assessed the outcomes of pneumonia in patients with AUD.

Objectives: To compare the causes, treatment, and outcomes of pneumonia in patients with and without AUD and to understand the associations of comorbid illnesses, alcohol withdrawal, and any residual effects due to alcohol itself with patient outcomes.

Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 137496 patients 18 years or older with pneumonia who were admitted to 177 US hospitals participating in the Premier Healthcare Database from July 1, 2010 ...


Generation Of Functional Human Adipose Tissue In Mice From Primed Progenitor Cells, Raziel Rojas-Rodriguez, Jorge Lujan-Hernandez, So Yun Min, Tiffany DeSouza, Patrick Teebagy, Anand Desai, Heather Tessier, Robert Slamin, Leah Siegel-Reamer, Cara Berg, Angel Baez, Janice F. Lalikos, Silvia Corvera 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Generation Of Functional Human Adipose Tissue In Mice From Primed Progenitor Cells, Raziel Rojas-Rodriguez, Jorge Lujan-Hernandez, So Yun Min, Tiffany Desouza, Patrick Teebagy, Anand Desai, Heather Tessier, Robert Slamin, Leah Siegel-Reamer, Cara Berg, Angel Baez, Janice F. Lalikos, Silvia Corvera

Senior Scholars Program

Adipose tissue (AT) is used extensively in reconstructive and regenerative therapies, but transplanted fat often undergoes cell death, leading to inflammation, calcification, and requirement for further revision surgery. Previously, we have found that mesenchymal progenitor cells within human AT can proliferate in three-dimensional culture under proangiogenic conditions. These cells (primed ADipose progenitor cells, PADS) robustly differentiate into adipocytes in vitro (ad-PADS). The goal of this study is to determine whether ad-PADS can form structured AT in vivo, with potential for use in surgical applications. Grafts formed from ad-PADS were compared to grafts formed from AT obtained by liposuction after implantation ...


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