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Quantifying Joint Coordination Variability In Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Reconstructed Individuals During Walking, Kylie Davis 2017 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Quantifying Joint Coordination Variability In Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Reconstructed Individuals During Walking, Kylie Davis

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

The knee is the second most common joint to sustain injury. An estimated 200,000 anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures occur each year in the United States alone, and about 100,000 ACL reconstruction (ACLR) surgeries are performed annually. There is a significant risk of developing osteoarthritis of the knee after incurring an ACL injury, and the incidence of ipsilateral or contralateral injury is six times greater in individuals who have a surgically repaired ACL. Past studies have analyzed kinetic and kinematic characteristics of individual lower extremity joints to reveal differences between subjects with and without ACLR. Despite reports of ...


Restriction Spectrum Imaging Improves Risk Stratification In Patients With Glioblastoma., A P Krishnan, R Karunamuni, K M Leyden, T M Seibert, R L Delfanti, J M Kuperman, H Bartsch, P Elbe, A Srikant, A M Dale, Santosh Kesari, D E Piccioni, J A Hattangadi-Gluth, N Farid, C R McDonald, N S White 2017 Department of Translational Neuro-Oncology and Neurotherapeutics, John Wayne Cancer Institute at Providence Saint John's Health Center

Restriction Spectrum Imaging Improves Risk Stratification In Patients With Glioblastoma., A P Krishnan, R Karunamuni, K M Leyden, T M Seibert, R L Delfanti, J M Kuperman, H Bartsch, P Elbe, A Srikant, A M Dale, Santosh Kesari, D E Piccioni, J A Hattangadi-Gluth, N Farid, C R Mcdonald, N S White

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: ADC as a marker of tumor cellularity has been promising for evaluating the response to therapy in patients with glioblastoma but does not successfully stratify patients according to outcomes, especially in the upfront setting. Here we investigate whether restriction spectrum imaging, an advanced diffusion imaging model, performed after an operation but before radiation therapy, could improve risk stratification in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma relative to ADC.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pre-radiation therapy diffusion-weighted and structural imaging of 40 patients with glioblastoma were examined retrospectively. Restriction spectrum imaging and ADC-based hypercellularity volume fraction (restriction spectrum imaging-FLAIR volume fraction ...


Value Of Circulating Cell-Free Dna Analysis As A Diagnostic Tool For Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis, Ziqiang Lin, James Neiswender, Bin Fang, Xuelei Ma, Jing Zhang, Xiuying Hu 2017 West China Medical School, China

Value Of Circulating Cell-Free Dna Analysis As A Diagnostic Tool For Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis, Ziqiang Lin, James Neiswender, Bin Fang, Xuelei Ma, Jing Zhang, Xiuying Hu

Open Access Articles

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the diagnostic value of cell free DNA (cfDNA) for breast cancer.

RESULTS: Among 308 candidate articles, 25 with relevant diagnostic screening qualified for final analysis. The mean sensitivity, specificity and area under the curve (AUC) of SROC plots for 24 studies that distinguished breast cancer patients from healthy controls were 0.70, 0.87, and 0.9314, yielding a DOR of 32.31. When analyzed in subgroups, the 14 quantitative studies produced sensitivity, specificity, AUC, and a DOR of 0.78, 0.83, 0.9116, and 24.40. The 10 ...


Keeping Weight Off: Study Protocol Of An Rct To Investigate Brain Changes Associated With Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Carl E. Fulwiler, Julia A. Siegel, Jeroan J. Allison, Milagros C. Rosal, Judson A. Brewer, Jean A. King 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Keeping Weight Off: Study Protocol Of An Rct To Investigate Brain Changes Associated With Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Carl E. Fulwiler, Julia A. Siegel, Jeroan J. Allison, Milagros C. Rosal, Judson A. Brewer, Jean A. King

Carl E. Fulwiler

INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a growing epidemic fuelled by unhealthy behaviours and associated with significant comorbidities and financial costs. While behavioural interventions produce clinically meaningful weight loss, weight loss maintenance is challenging. This may partially be due to failure to target stress and emotional reactivity. Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) reduces stress and emotional reactivity and may be a useful tool for behaviour change maintenance. This study seeks to provide a mechanistic understanding for clinical trials of the benefits of MBSR for weight loss maintenance by examining changes in functional connectivity (FC) and the association of these changes with clinical outcomes.

METHODS ...


Evaluating Evolving Leukocyte Populations In Peripheral Blood Circulation Post-Concussion In A Human Longitudinal Analysis Of Female Athletes, Kevin A. Blackney 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Evaluating Evolving Leukocyte Populations In Peripheral Blood Circulation Post-Concussion In A Human Longitudinal Analysis Of Female Athletes, Kevin A. Blackney

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Concussions are generating increasing concern due to potential long-term neurological consequences. Currently there is no universally recognized diagnostic approach for concussion. I hypothesize that a signature temporal response of biomarkers of inflammation in systemic circulation will provide an objective diagnosis of concussion and could also be used to track patient recovery. The Western University women’s rugby team underwent blood draws at pre-season and post-season as a baseline evaluation, and players determined to have sustained a concussion underwent repeat blood analysis post-concussion. Blood samples were analyzed by flow cytometry to profile immune cell populations alongside accepted concussion assessments, and complete ...


Evaluation Of Circulating Mirnas During Late Pregnancy In The Mare, Shavahn C. Loux, Kirsten E. Scoggin, Jason E. Bruemmer, Igor F. Canisso, Mats H. T. Troedsson, Edward L. Squires, Barry A. Ball 2017 University of Kentucky

Evaluation Of Circulating Mirnas During Late Pregnancy In The Mare, Shavahn C. Loux, Kirsten E. Scoggin, Jason E. Bruemmer, Igor F. Canisso, Mats H. T. Troedsson, Edward L. Squires, Barry A. Ball

Veterinary Science Faculty Publications

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs which are produced throughout the body. Individual tissues tend to have a specific expression profile and excrete many of these miRNAs into circulation. These circulating miRNAs may be diagnostically valuable biomarkers for assessing the presence of disease while minimizing invasive testing. In women, numerous circulating miRNAs have been identified which change significantly during pregnancy-related complications (e.g. chorioamnionitis, eclampsia, recurrent pregnancy loss); however, no prior work has been done in this area in the horse. To identify pregnancy-specific miRNAs, we collected serial whole blood samples in pregnant mares at 8, 9, 10 m of ...


A Novel Hybrid Imaging System To Aid In Surgical Decision Making, Lawrence Yip, Madeleine Van De Kleut, Ivan Kosik, Astrid Chamson-Reig, Jeffrey JL Carson 2017 Western University

A Novel Hybrid Imaging System To Aid In Surgical Decision Making, Lawrence Yip, Madeleine Van De Kleut, Ivan Kosik, Astrid Chamson-Reig, Jeffrey Jl Carson

Western Research Forum

Background:

Breast cancer accounts for 25% of all cancer cases among women. In breast-conserving surgery, a common treatment, the tumour is excised with a healthy tissue margin. However, detection of the margin can be difficult. Current techniques to guide excision are often insufficient, and re-excision can occur up to 25% of the time.

Methods:

Photoacoustic imaging is a hybrid imaging modality that combines the advantages of optical imaging and ultrasound while using safe non-ionizing light. This project involves the development of a novel imaging system with a new scanner design to overcome common limitations and provide images to aid in ...


Dosing Of Education For Patients Newly Diagnosed With Multiple Sclerosis, Laura K. Miller 2017 University of St. Augustine for Health Sciences

Dosing Of Education For Patients Newly Diagnosed With Multiple Sclerosis, Laura K. Miller

Student Dissertations

The value of patient education has been widely documented in various patient populations. The main focus of this study is to evaluate the timing of patient education in correlation with the time since diagnosis. The goal of this study is to make recommendations for the optimal time in which patient education should be delivered following a diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). This study evaluates self-advocacy using the Patient Self-Advocacy Scale (PSAS) which was completed pre and post educational programs. This data, combined with demographic data was analyzed for any relationships. Although no statistically significant findings were established, many important trends ...


Discovery Of Novel Diagnostic Biomarkers On Prostate Tumor Microparticles For Discriminating Between Low And High Risk Prostate Cancer And Improving Prostate Cancer Screening, Sabine Brett 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Discovery Of Novel Diagnostic Biomarkers On Prostate Tumor Microparticles For Discriminating Between Low And High Risk Prostate Cancer And Improving Prostate Cancer Screening, Sabine Brett

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

There are few protein-based biomarkers to accurately distinguish between patients with low risk prostate cancer from those with high risk disease in a non-invasive manner. Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is used for clinical follow-up of prostate cancer; however, it is not effective as a screening tool. As a result, many men with non-life threatening disease having to undergo unnecessary and painful biopsies. Therefore, there is a dire need for minimally invasive platforms for monitoring patients with clinically significant prostate cancer. Prostate cell microparticles (PCMPs) released by prostate epithelial cells into plasma are a potential source of biomarkers specific for prostate ...


Penetrance Estimates For Incidental Genomic Findings In Acmg-59, James A. Diao 2017 Yale University

Penetrance Estimates For Incidental Genomic Findings In Acmg-59, James A. Diao

Yale Day of Data

The dropping costs and rising popularity of next-generation sequencing has introduced the possibility of personalizing medical treatments and screening for genetic diseases. Still, the clinical community’s understanding remains incomplete, with limited consensus on the proper interpretation for many genetic variants. Thus, the standard procedure when returning sequencing results has been to report findings only in genes related to the diagnostic indication, and not incidental findings in other genes. To balance the threat of false positives with the medical benefits of true findings, the American College on Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) recommends an exception: that clinical sequencing laboratories seek ...


Longitudinal Measurement And Hierarchical Classification Framework For The Prediction Of Alzheimer's Disease, Meiyan Huang, Wei Yang, Qianjin Feng, Wufan Chen, Michael Weiner, Paul Aisen, Ronald Petersen, Clifford R. Jack Jr., William Jagust, John Trojanowki, Arthur W. Toga, Laurel Beckett, Robert C. Green, Andrew Saykin, John Morris, Leslie M. Shaw, Jeffrey Kaye, Joseph Quinn, Lisa Silbert, Betty Lind, Raina Carter, Sara Dolen, Lon S. Schneider, Sonia Pawluczyk, Mauricio Beccera, Liberty Teodoro, Bryan Spann, James Brewer, Helen Vanderswag, Adam Fleisher, Charles D. Smith, Greg A. Jicha, Peter A. Hardy, Partha Sinha, Elizabeth Oates, Gary Conrad 2017 Southern Medical University, China

Longitudinal Measurement And Hierarchical Classification Framework For The Prediction Of Alzheimer's Disease, Meiyan Huang, Wei Yang, Qianjin Feng, Wufan Chen, Michael Weiner, Paul Aisen, Ronald Petersen, Clifford R. Jack Jr., William Jagust, John Trojanowki, Arthur W. Toga, Laurel Beckett, Robert C. Green, Andrew Saykin, John Morris, Leslie M. Shaw, Jeffrey Kaye, Joseph Quinn, Lisa Silbert, Betty Lind, Raina Carter, Sara Dolen, Lon S. Schneider, Sonia Pawluczyk, Mauricio Beccera, Liberty Teodoro, Bryan Spann, James Brewer, Helen Vanderswag, Adam Fleisher, Charles D. Smith, Greg A. Jicha, Peter A. Hardy, Partha Sinha, Elizabeth Oates, Gary Conrad

Neurology Faculty Publications

Accurate prediction of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is important for the early diagnosis and treatment of this condition. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an early stage of AD. Therefore, patients with MCI who are at high risk of fully developing AD should be identified to accurately predict AD. However, the relationship between brain images and AD is difficult to construct because of the complex characteristics of neuroimaging data. To address this problem, we present a longitudinal measurement of MCI brain images and a hierarchical classification method for AD prediction. Longitudinal images obtained from individuals with MCI were investigated to acquire ...


Halo- And Solvato-Fluorochromic Polymer Nanoassemblies For Cancer Theranostics, Derek Alexander Reichel 2017 University of Kentucky

Halo- And Solvato-Fluorochromic Polymer Nanoassemblies For Cancer Theranostics, Derek Alexander Reichel

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacy

Theranostics is an emerging treatment approach that combines diagnostics with therapy in order to personalize treatment regimens for individual patients and decrease cancer mortality. Previously, nanoparticles entrapping conventional fluorescent dyes were developed for cancer theranostics, but fluorescent nanoparticles did not allow clinicians to significantly improve cancer treatments.

The use of fluorescent dyes that are sensitive to solvent acidity (halo-fluorochromism) and polarity (solvato-fluorochromism) may overcome the limitations of fluorescent nanoparticles and improve cancer therapy by enabling researchers to detect chemical properties within the nanoparticle core environment. The model halo- and solvato-fluorochromic dye Nile blue was attached to the core of nanoscale ...


Mri-Based Susceptibility Mapping For In-Vivo Iron And Blood Oximetry Measurements, Hannah Erdevig 2017 University of Colorado, Boulder

Mri-Based Susceptibility Mapping For In-Vivo Iron And Blood Oximetry Measurements, Hannah Erdevig

Undergraduate Honors Theses

MRI is increasingly used in mapping tissue susceptibility to identify cerebral microbleeds associated with traumatic brain injury and pathological iron deposits associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease [1,2]. Accurate measurement is important for determining oxygen and iron content in blood vessels and tissue in the brain, which are in turn used for noninvasive clinical diagnosis and treatment assessments. Magnetic field distortions with a resolution of a few parts per billion can be measured using MRI phase maps. The field distortion map can then be inverted to obtain a quantitative susceptibility map. The primary ...


Biomarkers Of Sepsis: A Retrospective Approach, Jose M. Roberts 2017 The University of Akron

Biomarkers Of Sepsis: A Retrospective Approach, Jose M. Roberts

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Background: Biomarkers are taking the spotlight in becoming the norm for early diagnoses. Sepsis is an inflammatory disease that increases metabolic rate in children. The first biomarker is hyponatremia. Hyponatremia is a frequent electrolyte imbalance in clinical practice, often observed in children with inflammatory disease and infection. Presence of hyponatremia is associated with electrical signaling imbalances, inflammation and renal dysfunction. The clinical value of hyponatremia in pediatric patients is unknown. The C-reactive protein is a second biomarker. Its presence signifies that necrotic cells and inflammation are present.

Objectives: To evaluate the use of biomarkers in children seen in the Emergency ...


Actionable Patient Safety Solution (Apss) #3c: Improve Prevention Of Severe Hypoglycemia, Jerika Lam, Steven Barker, Michael Ramsay, Ariana Longley, Joe Kiani 2017 Chapman University

Actionable Patient Safety Solution (Apss) #3c: Improve Prevention Of Severe Hypoglycemia, Jerika Lam, Steven Barker, Michael Ramsay, Ariana Longley, Joe Kiani

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

This report presents a plan of action for introducing a "program to reduce errors in the recognition and treatment of [severe hypoglycemia]".


Associations Between Modifiable Health-Risk Behaviors And Personality Types, Jon C. Schommer, Paul D. Tieger, Anthony W. Olson, Lawrence M. Brown 2017 University of Minnesota

Associations Between Modifiable Health-Risk Behaviors And Personality Types, Jon C. Schommer, Paul D. Tieger, Anthony W. Olson, Lawrence M. Brown

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Objectives: The first objective for this study was to explore if characteristics of personality type (using the Preferred Communication Style Questionnaire) are associated with the following modifiable health-risk behaviors: smoking, exercise, alcohol consumption, nutrition, sleep, depression-related stress, anxiety-related stress, healthcare professional usage, and self-discipline. The second objective for this study was to explore if characteristics of personality type are associated with (1) the quality of patient-physician relationships, (2) patient-physician communication, and (3) preferred method for receiving information.

Methods: Data were collected from 10,500 adult individuals residing in the United States via an on-line, self-administered survey coordinated by Qualtrics Panels ...


Enhanced Breast Cancer Classification With Automatic Thresholding Using Support Vector Machine And Harris Corner Detection, Mohammad Taheri 2017 South Dakota State University

Enhanced Breast Cancer Classification With Automatic Thresholding Using Support Vector Machine And Harris Corner Detection, Mohammad Taheri

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Image classification and extracting the characteristics of a tumor are the powerful tools in medical science. In case of breast cancer medical treatment, the breast cancer classification methods can be used to classify input images as benign and malignant classes for better diagnoses and earlier detection with breast tumors. However, classification process can be challenging because of the existence of noise in the images, and complicated structures of the image. Manual classification of the images is timeconsuming, and need to be done only by medical experts. Hence using an automated medical image classification tool is useful and necessary. In addition ...


A Randomized Study Comparing Digital Imaging To Traditional Glass Slide Microscopy For Breast Biopsy And Cancer Diagnosis., Joann G Elmore, Gary M Longton, Margaret S Pepe, Patricia A Carney, Heidi D Nelson, Kimberly H Allison, Berta M Geller, Tracy Onega, Anna N A Tosteson, Ezgi Mercan, Linda G Shapiro, Tad T Brunyé, Thomas R Morgan, Donald L Weaver 2017 Providence Cancer Center, Providence Health and Services, Portland, Oregon.

A Randomized Study Comparing Digital Imaging To Traditional Glass Slide Microscopy For Breast Biopsy And Cancer Diagnosis., Joann G Elmore, Gary M Longton, Margaret S Pepe, Patricia A Carney, Heidi D Nelson, Kimberly H Allison, Berta M Geller, Tracy Onega, Anna N A Tosteson, Ezgi Mercan, Linda G Shapiro, Tad T Brunyé, Thomas R Morgan, Donald L Weaver

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

BACKGROUND: Digital whole slide imaging may be useful for obtaining second opinions and is used in many countries. However, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration requires verification studies.

METHODS: Pathologists were randomized to interpret one of four sets of breast biopsy cases during two phases, separated by ≥9 months, using glass slides or digital format (sixty cases per set, one slide per case,

RESULTS: Sixty-five percent of responding pathologists were eligible, and 252 consented to randomization; 208 completed Phase I (115 glass, 93 digital); and 172 completed Phase II (86 glass, 86 digital). Accuracy was slightly higher using glass ...


Molecular Aspects Of Wound Healing And The Rise Of Venous Leg Ulceration: Omics Approaches To Enhance Knowledge And Aid Diagnostic Discovery, Daniel Broszczak, Elizabeth R. Sydes, Daniel Wallace, Tony Parker 2017 Australian Catholic University

Molecular Aspects Of Wound Healing And The Rise Of Venous Leg Ulceration: Omics Approaches To Enhance Knowledge And Aid Diagnostic Discovery, Daniel Broszczak, Elizabeth R. Sydes, Daniel Wallace, Tony Parker

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Chronic wounds, in particular venous leg ulcers (VLU), represent a substantial burden for economies, healthcare systems and societies worldwide. This burden is exacerbated by the recalcitrant nature of these wounds, despite best practice, evidence-based care, which substantially reduces the quality of life of patients. Furthermore, co-morbidities such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease within ageing populations further contribute to the increasing prevalence in developed countries. This review provides an overview of the literature concerning the cellular and molecular mechanisms of wound healing and aspects where this process fails, resulting in a chronic wound. VLU may arise from chronic venous disease, which ...


Concerns About Justification For Fetal Genome Sequencing, Leslie Francis 2016 S.J. Quinney College of Law, University of Utah

Concerns About Justification For Fetal Genome Sequencing, Leslie Francis

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

The proposal by Chen and Wasserman (2017) contributes to a long-standing debate about the scope of prenatal screening services. With realistic prospects of fetal genome-scale sequencing from noninvasive maternal blood sampling (NIPW), their framework is timely. However, we outline a number of concerns regarding this approach, ranging from the philosophical to the social and clinical. A key concern in this literature is that the framework lacks a clear philosophical foundation. Despite the long history of prenatal diagnosis (PND), a central question remains regarding the core justification for these services.


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