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From Witch Hunts To Autoantibodies: Overcoming Psychogenic Stigma To Uncover The Molecular Cause Of Autoimmunity, Emma Hainstock 2019 Regis University

From Witch Hunts To Autoantibodies: Overcoming Psychogenic Stigma To Uncover The Molecular Cause Of Autoimmunity, Emma Hainstock

All Regis University Theses

Due to the frequency of misdiagnosis of autoimmune diseases and their disproportionate incidence in women, my thesis explores historical misconceptions about autoimmune conditions which could have lingered in society to impede their diagnoses today. Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome (APS) and Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis (ANRE) are the conditions I focused on, as both diseases can cause complex neurologic symptoms such as hallucinations and memory loss, which in combination with the fact that they are disproportionately suffered by women, have caused physicians in the past to misdiagnose patients as either hysteric or demonically possessed. I explore antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis ...


Monitoring Melanoma Recurrence With Circulating Tumor Dna: A Proof Of Concept From Three Case Studies, Ashleigh C. McEvoy, Michelle R. Pereira, Anna Reid, Robert Pearce, Lester Cowell, Zeyad Al-Ogaili, Muhammad A. Khattak, Michael Millward, Tarek M. Meniawy, Elin S. Gray, Melanie R. Ziman 2019 Edith Cowan University

Monitoring Melanoma Recurrence With Circulating Tumor Dna: A Proof Of Concept From Three Case Studies, Ashleigh C. Mcevoy, Michelle R. Pereira, Anna Reid, Robert Pearce, Lester Cowell, Zeyad Al-Ogaili, Muhammad A. Khattak, Michael Millward, Tarek M. Meniawy, Elin S. Gray, Melanie R. Ziman

ECU Publications Post 2013

Background: A significant number of melanoma patients experience recurrence to distant sites, despite having had surgical treatment of the primary lesion, with curative intent. Monitoring of patients for early evidence of disease recurrence would significantly improve management of the disease, allowing timely therapeutic intervention. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is becoming a well-recognized biomarker for monitoring malignancies and has, in a few studies, been shown to signify disease recurrence earlier than conventional methods.

Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of plasma ctDNA using droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) in 30 primary melanoma patients with tumors harboring BRAF, NRAS or TERT promoter mutations ...


Immunomagnetic-Enriched Subpopulations Of Melanoma Circulating Tumour Cells (Ctcs) Exhibit Distinct Transcriptome Profiles, Carlos Aya-Bonilla, Elin S. Gray, Jayapal Manikandan, James B. Freeman, Pauline Zaenker, Anna L. Reid, Muhammad A. Khattak, Markus H. Frank, Michael Millward, Mel Ziman 2019 Edith Cowan University

Immunomagnetic-Enriched Subpopulations Of Melanoma Circulating Tumour Cells (Ctcs) Exhibit Distinct Transcriptome Profiles, Carlos Aya-Bonilla, Elin S. Gray, Jayapal Manikandan, James B. Freeman, Pauline Zaenker, Anna L. Reid, Muhammad A. Khattak, Markus H. Frank, Michael Millward, Mel Ziman

ECU Publications Post 2013

Cutaneous melanoma circulating tumour cells (CTCs) are phenotypically and molecularly heterogeneous. We profiled the gene expression of CTC subpopulations immunomagnetic-captured by targeting either the melanoma-associated marker, MCSP, or the melanoma-initiating marker, ABCB5. Firstly, the expression of a subset of melanoma genes was investigated by RT-PCR in MCSP-enriched and ABCB5-enriched CTCs isolated from a total of 59 blood draws from 39 melanoma cases. Of these, 6 MCSP-and 6 ABCB5-enriched CTC fractions were further analysed using a genome-wide gene expression microarray. The transcriptional programs of both CTC subtypes included cell survival maintenance, cell proliferation, and migration pathways. ABCB5-enriched CTCs were specifically characterised ...


Utility Of Point-Of-Care Beta-Hydroxybutyrate Testing For Predicting Diabetic Ketoacidosis In The Pediatric Emergency Department, Michelle Knoll, Kelsee Halpin, Ryan McDonough 2019 Children's Mercy Hospital

Utility Of Point-Of-Care Beta-Hydroxybutyrate Testing For Predicting Diabetic Ketoacidosis In The Pediatric Emergency Department, Michelle Knoll, Kelsee Halpin, Ryan Mcdonough

Posters

The objective of our investigation was to describe the diagnostic characteristics of point-of-care capillary beta-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB) testing to predict diabetic ketoacidosis among pediatric patients presenting with hyperglycemia in the pediatric emergency department.


Evaluation Of Portable Colposcopy And Human Papillomavirus Testing For Screening Of Cervical Cancer In Rural China, Haley Newman, Jilin Hu, Xiao Li, Jing He, Leslie Bradford, Songmei Shan, Xiaomei Wu, Bin Zhu, Wenyang Yang, Bingqin Fu, Baosheng Zhu, Guangping Gao 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Evaluation Of Portable Colposcopy And Human Papillomavirus Testing For Screening Of Cervical Cancer In Rural China, Haley Newman, Jilin Hu, Xiao Li, Jing He, Leslie Bradford, Songmei Shan, Xiaomei Wu, Bin Zhu, Wenyang Yang, Bingqin Fu, Baosheng Zhu, Guangping Gao

Senior Scholars Program

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of a portable, rechargeable colposcope combined with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, as compared with HPV testing alone, for screening of cervical cancer and pre-cancerous lesions.

METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study among 488 women in Baoshan County, Yunnan. The women underwent HPV testing followed by Gynocular portable colposcopy with visual inspection with acetic acid. Obvious lesions were biopsied. If portable colposcopy testing was negative but HPV testing was positive, the women underwent follow-up testing with thin-prep cytology and traditional colposcopy. Cervical biopsies were performed for any abnormalities. Histopathology was followed up with diagnosis and treatment ...


Non-Human Animals Providing Rescue In Medical Emergencies, Rainer Spiegel 2019 University of Tuebingen (Germany), BG Trauma Hospital Tuebingen

Non-Human Animals Providing Rescue In Medical Emergencies, Rainer Spiegel

Animal Sentience

In their target article, Chapman & Huffman challenge the quotation of Sir William Osler that the desire to take medication distinguishes humans from non-human animals. They provide examples of self-medication in non-human animals. Based on these examples, it can be inferred that non-human animals practice at least some form of medicine for symptom control. I would like to extend this view by showing that non-human animals not only provide self-medication, but also rescue others facing emergencies.


Fasting Salivary Glucose Levels Is Not A Better Measure For Identifying Diabetes Mellitus Than Serum Or Capillary Blood Glucose Levels: Comparison In A Ghanaian Population, Richard K.D. Ephraim, Enoch Odame Anto, Emmanuel Acheampong, Linda Ahenkorah Fondjo, Richmond B. Barnie, Samuel Asamoah Sakyi, Ambrose Asare 2019 Edith Cowan University

Fasting Salivary Glucose Levels Is Not A Better Measure For Identifying Diabetes Mellitus Than Serum Or Capillary Blood Glucose Levels: Comparison In A Ghanaian Population, Richard K.D. Ephraim, Enoch Odame Anto, Emmanuel Acheampong, Linda Ahenkorah Fondjo, Richmond B. Barnie, Samuel Asamoah Sakyi, Ambrose Asare

ECU Publications Post 2013

Aims/introduction: We compared the diagnostic performance and correlation between salivary, serum and capillary blood glucose of diabetes and non-diabetes patients. Early detection of diabetes mellitus (DM) contributes to the prevention of complications and management. Materials and methods: This case-control study was conducted among a total of 138 participants comprising 79 newly diagnosed diabetes patients (cases) and 59 non-diabetes patients (controls). Fasting salivary glucose (FSLG), fasting serum glucose (FSEG) levels and fasting capillary whole blood glucose (FCWBG) level were assayed for each participant. Results: The mean FSLG, FSEG and FCWBG levels were significantly higher among the cases compared to controls ...


Pain, Severity, And Attentional Capacity Following Acute Musculoskeletal Injury, Rebekah F. Roessler 2019 Georgia Southern University

Pain, Severity, And Attentional Capacity Following Acute Musculoskeletal Injury, Rebekah F. Roessler

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: As recreational activities grow in popularity, there is a concurrent rise in musculoskeletal injury. Injury severity is determined through clinical evaluation and defined by a grading scale. Pain is included in the definition of each injury grade, despite the lack of any conclusive evidence relating injury severity and the associated pain. Additionally, previous studies report impairments in cognitive performance due to chronic and acute pain. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between the perceived pain intensity and the clinically diagnosed severity of an acute musculoskeletal injury, and to determine if attentional capacity is influenced by ...


Large-Scale Genome-Wide Meta-Analysis Of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Suggests Shared Genetic Architecture For Different Diagnosis Criteria, Felix Day, Tugce Karaderi, Michelle R. Jones, Cindy Meun, Chunyan He, Alex Drong, Peter Kraft, Nan Lin, Hongyan Huang, Linda Broer, Reedik Magi, Richa Saxena, Triin Laisk, Margrit Urbanek, M. Geoffrey Hayes, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Juan Fernandez-Tajes, Anubha Mahajan, Benjamin H. Mullin, Bronwyn G. A. Stuckey, Timothy D. Spector, Scott G. Wilson, Mark O. Goodarzi, Lea Davis, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch, André G. Uitterlinden, Verneri Anttila, Benjamin M. Neale, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin, Bart Fauser 2018 University of Cambridge, UK

Large-Scale Genome-Wide Meta-Analysis Of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Suggests Shared Genetic Architecture For Different Diagnosis Criteria, Felix Day, Tugce Karaderi, Michelle R. Jones, Cindy Meun, Chunyan He, Alex Drong, Peter Kraft, Nan Lin, Hongyan Huang, Linda Broer, Reedik Magi, Richa Saxena, Triin Laisk, Margrit Urbanek, M. Geoffrey Hayes, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Juan Fernandez-Tajes, Anubha Mahajan, Benjamin H. Mullin, Bronwyn G. A. Stuckey, Timothy D. Spector, Scott G. Wilson, Mark O. Goodarzi, Lea Davis, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch, André G. Uitterlinden, Verneri Anttila, Benjamin M. Neale, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin, Bart Fauser

Internal Medicine Faculty Publications

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction and polycystic ovarian morphology. Affected women frequently have metabolic disturbances including insulin resistance and dysregulation of glucose homeostasis. PCOS is diagnosed with two different sets of diagnostic criteria, resulting in a phenotypic spectrum of PCOS cases. The genetic similarities between cases diagnosed based on the two criteria have been largely unknown. Previous studies in Chinese and European subjects have identified 16 loci associated with risk of PCOS. We report a fixed-effect, inverse-weighted-variance meta-analysis from 10,074 PCOS cases and 103,164 controls of European ancestry and characterisation of ...


Community-Acquired Pneumonia In Adults: Diagnostic Reliability Of Physical Examination Techniques And Their Teaching In Academia, Amber Tordoff, Lauren A. Williams 2018 James Madison University

Community-Acquired Pneumonia In Adults: Diagnostic Reliability Of Physical Examination Techniques And Their Teaching In Academia, Amber Tordoff, Lauren A. Williams

Physician Assistant Capstones

Background: Chest physical examination techniques are taught in academia, but their usefulness in the evaluation and diagnosis of patients in the clinical setting is controversial. Objective: To investigate the accuracy of physical examination techniques and their reliability in diagnosing community acquired pneumonia (CAP) and suggest a modified teaching approach to be used in academia. Design: Systematic Literature Review. Methods: Database search of PubMed and Google Scholar using the search terms “prediction of pneumonia in adults” and “prediction rule for pulmonary infiltrates.” Filters were implemented to include articles that only dealt with human subjects and were full text. Articles were excluded ...


The Implementation Process For Pharmacogenomic Testing For Cancer-Targeted Therapies, Ann Chen Wu, Kathleen M. Mazor, Rachel Ceccarelli, Stephanie Loomer, Christine Y. Lu 2018 Harvard Medical School

The Implementation Process For Pharmacogenomic Testing For Cancer-Targeted Therapies, Ann Chen Wu, Kathleen M. Mazor, Rachel Ceccarelli, Stephanie Loomer, Christine Y. Lu

Kathleen M. Mazor

Recent advances in genomic medicine have led to the availability of genomic tests that have the potential to improve population health, yet the process for obtaining these tests and getting them reimbursed by insurers has not been described. The objective of this study was to describe the process of ordering pharmacogenomic tests by interviewing providers, patients, and laboratories about cancer-related pharmacogenomic tests. We interviewed patients who were prescribed, providers who prescribed medications that should be guided by pharmacogenomic testing, and individuals from diagnostic laboratories. A total of 10 providers, 16 patients, and eight diagnostic laboratories described logistical and insurance issues ...


Improving Efficiency In Neuroimaging Research Through Application Of Lean Principles, Alexandra Roy, Julia Colpitts, Kara Becker, Judson A. Brewer, Remko van Lutterveld 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Improving Efficiency In Neuroimaging Research Through Application Of Lean Principles, Alexandra Roy, Julia Colpitts, Kara Becker, Judson A. Brewer, Remko Van Lutterveld

Open Access Articles

INTRODUCTION: "Lean" is a set of management principles which focus on increasing value and efficiency by reducing or avoiding waste (e.g., overproduction, defects, inventory, transportation, waiting, motion, over processing). It has been applied to manufacturing, education, and health care, leading to optimized process flow, increased efficiency and increased team empowerment. However, to date, it has not been applied to neuroimaging research.

METHODS: Lean principles, such as Value stream mapping (e.g. a tool with which steps in the workflow can be identified on which to focus improvement efforts), 5S (e.g. an organizational method to boost workplace efficiency and ...


Computational Investigation Of The Interactions Between Bioactive Compounds And Biological Assemblies, Tye D. Martin 2018 University of New Mexico - Main Campus

Computational Investigation Of The Interactions Between Bioactive Compounds And Biological Assemblies, Tye D. Martin

Shared Knowledge Conference

Design of small molecules is an ongoing focus for developing agents against pathogenic viruses and bacteria that are threats to worldwide health. Viruses such as Zika feature assemblies of repeat peptide subunits or capsid proteins which are potential targets for antiviral compounds. Other protein assemblies are implicated in pathology of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and additional neurodegenerative diseases characterized by large assemblies of misfolded proteins such as amyloid-beta (Aβ) and tau. Recent studies on a class of conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs) with phenylene ethynylene moieties and charged functional groups have shown potential both as bioactive antimicrobials and theragnostic sensing agents for ...


Dual Use Of A Patient Portal And Clinical Video Telehealth By Veterans With Mental Health Diagnoses: Retrospective, Cross-Sectional Analysis, Erica A. Abel, Stephanie L. Shimada, Karen Wang, Christine Ramsey, Melissa Skanderson, Joseph Erdos, Linda Godleski, Thomas K. Houston, Cynthia A. Brandt 2018 Yale University

Dual Use Of A Patient Portal And Clinical Video Telehealth By Veterans With Mental Health Diagnoses: Retrospective, Cross-Sectional Analysis, Erica A. Abel, Stephanie L. Shimada, Karen Wang, Christine Ramsey, Melissa Skanderson, Joseph Erdos, Linda Godleski, Thomas K. Houston, Cynthia A. Brandt

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Access to mental health care is challenging. The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has been addressing these challenges through technological innovations including the implementation of Clinical Video Telehealth, two-way interactive and synchronous videoconferencing between a provider and a patient, and an electronic patient portal and personal health record, My HealtheVet.

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe early adoption and use of My HealtheVet and Clinical Video Telehealth among VHA users with mental health diagnoses.

METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of early My HealtheVet adoption and Clinical Video Telehealth engagement among veterans with one or more mental health diagnoses ...


Are We Missing The Elephant In The Room? A Case For Thyroid Cancer Overdiagnosis As The Etiology For Its Increasing Incidence In India, Janeesh Sekkath Veedu, Aju Mathew 2018 University of Kentucky

Are We Missing The Elephant In The Room? A Case For Thyroid Cancer Overdiagnosis As The Etiology For Its Increasing Incidence In India, Janeesh Sekkath Veedu, Aju Mathew

Internal Medicine Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Breathing New Life Into Interstitial Lung Disease In Rheumatoid Arthritis, Peter K. Gregersen, Ellen M. Gravallese 2018 Feinstein Institute for Medical Research

Breathing New Life Into Interstitial Lung Disease In Rheumatoid Arthritis, Peter K. Gregersen, Ellen M. Gravallese

Open Access Articles

Clinical heterogeneity is a hallmark of many autoimmune disorders, and clinical or subclinical pulmonary involvement is a common extraarticular feature of the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) phenotype. High-resolution computed tomography reveals evidence of pulmonary abnormalities in more than half of patients with RA, and clinically significant interstitial lung disease (ILD) will develop in approximately 10% of patients.It is currently difficult to identify these patients and to intervene early in the clinical course of their lung disease.


First Case Of Pleural Empyema Caused By Staphylococcus Simulans: Review Of The Literature, Amos Lal, Jamal Akhtar, Ashfaq Ullah, George Abraham 2018 Saint Vincent Hospital

First Case Of Pleural Empyema Caused By Staphylococcus Simulans: Review Of The Literature, Amos Lal, Jamal Akhtar, Ashfaq Ullah, George Abraham

Open Access Articles

Staphylococcus simulans is a coagulase-negative organism, mainly an animal pathogen. Reports of human infection have been infrequent, mainly in patients with repeated animal contact. We report the first case of pleural empyema in an elderly woman. S. simulans tends to cause more severe infection because of a biofilm layer which helps in adherence and colonization of smooth surfaces, especially prosthetic devices, shunts, and catheters. The challenging problem even after CoNS isolation and identification is the assessment of their clinical relevance. Major factors that inhibit the penetration of antibiotics is the large-sized effusions/empyema, thickness of pleura, and the nature of ...


Oxcarbazepine Overdose In A Polysubstance Related Suicide, Melissa Beals, Robert J. Krumsick, C. Clinton Frazee III, Lindsey J. Haldiman, Uttam Garg 2018 Children's Mercy Hospital

Oxcarbazepine Overdose In A Polysubstance Related Suicide, Melissa Beals, Robert J. Krumsick, C. Clinton Frazee Iii, Lindsey J. Haldiman, Uttam Garg

Posters

Introduction
Oxcarbazepine is a derivative of carbamazepine that is used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy, and experimentally as a mood-stabilizer in adjunctive therapy for the treatment of bipolar disorder. Oxcarbazepine is converted through oxidation to its pharmacologically active metabolite 10-OH-Carbazepine, which is thought to be responsible for most of the anticonvulsant action of the drug. Adverse effects of oxcarbazepine are generally dose-dependent and may include fatigue, somnolence, dizziness, diplopia, nystagmus, and ataxia. Additive sedative effects have been noted when oxcarbazepine is used in combination with other CNS depressionproducing medications. Furthermore, oxcarbazepine and 10-OH-Carbazepine are powerful CYP2C19 inhibitors, potentially increasing ...


Use Of Structural Equation Models To Predict Dengue Illness Phenotype, Sangshin Park, Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Siripen Kalayanarooj, Louis Macareo, Sharone Green, Jennifer F. Friedman, Alan L. Rothman 2018 Brown University

Use Of Structural Equation Models To Predict Dengue Illness Phenotype, Sangshin Park, Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Siripen Kalayanarooj, Louis Macareo, Sharone Green, Jennifer F. Friedman, Alan L. Rothman

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Early recognition of dengue, particularly patients at risk for plasma leakage, is important to clinical management. The objective of this study was to build predictive models for dengue, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) using structural equation modelling (SEM), a statistical method that evaluates mechanistic pathways.

METHODS/FINDINGS: We performed SEM using data from 257 Thai children enrolled within 72 h of febrile illness onset, 156 with dengue and 101 with non-dengue febrile illnesses. Models for dengue, DHF, and DSS were developed based on data obtained three and one day(s) prior to fever resolution (fever ...


The Implementation Process For Pharmacogenomic Testing For Cancer-Targeted Therapies, Ann Chen Wu, Kathleen M. Mazor, Rachel Ceccarelli, Stephanie Loomer, Christine Y. Lu 2018 Harvard Medical School

The Implementation Process For Pharmacogenomic Testing For Cancer-Targeted Therapies, Ann Chen Wu, Kathleen M. Mazor, Rachel Ceccarelli, Stephanie Loomer, Christine Y. Lu

Open Access Articles

Recent advances in genomic medicine have led to the availability of genomic tests that have the potential to improve population health, yet the process for obtaining these tests and getting them reimbursed by insurers has not been described. The objective of this study was to describe the process of ordering pharmacogenomic tests by interviewing providers, patients, and laboratories about cancer-related pharmacogenomic tests. We interviewed patients who were prescribed, providers who prescribed medications that should be guided by pharmacogenomic testing, and individuals from diagnostic laboratories. A total of 10 providers, 16 patients, and eight diagnostic laboratories described logistical and insurance issues ...


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