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Cell-Free Dna Release During Programmed Cell Death In Ischemia Reperfusion Injury, Alexander Dionne, Anthony M. Jevnikar, Zhu-Xu Zhang 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Cell-Free Dna Release During Programmed Cell Death In Ischemia Reperfusion Injury, Alexander Dionne, Anthony M. Jevnikar, Zhu-Xu Zhang

Western Research Forum

Transplantation is invariably associated with acute allograft injury caused by ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). This injury causes cells of the allograft to undergo various forms of programmed cell death including apoptosis and necroptosis. During programmed cell death, immunogenic molecules are released from cells, one of which is cell-free DNA (cfDNA). We hypothesize that cfDNA is released by microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs) during programmed cell death of IRI and that cfDNA acts as both a biomarker for cellular injury as well as a biologically active molecule capable of amplifying inflammation and organ injury.

Our results indicate that cfDNA is released by ...


Design And Preliminary Findings From A New Electronic Cohort Embedded In The Framingham Heart Study, David D. McManus, Ludovic Trinquart, Emelia J. Benjamin, Emily S. Manders, Kelsey Fusco, Lindsey S. Jung, Nicole L. Spartano, Vik Kheterpal, Christopher Nowak, Mayank Sardana, Joanne M. Murabito 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Design And Preliminary Findings From A New Electronic Cohort Embedded In The Framingham Heart Study, David D. Mcmanus, Ludovic Trinquart, Emelia J. Benjamin, Emily S. Manders, Kelsey Fusco, Lindsey S. Jung, Nicole L. Spartano, Vik Kheterpal, Christopher Nowak, Mayank Sardana, Joanne M. Murabito

David D. McManus

BACKGROUND: New models of scalable population-based data collection that integrate digital and mobile health (mHealth) data are necessary.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe a cardiovascular digital and mHealth electronic cohort (e-cohort) embedded in a traditional longitudinal cohort study, the Framingham Heart Study (FHS).

METHODS: We invited eligible and consenting FHS Generation 3 and Omni participants to download the electronic Framingham Heart Study (eFHS) app onto their mobile phones and co-deployed a digital blood pressure (BP) cuff. Thereafter, participants were also offered a smartwatch (Apple Watch). Participants are invited to complete surveys through the eFHS app, to ...


Proteome Of The Central Apparatus Of A Ciliary Axoneme, Lei Zhao, Yuqing Hou, Tyler Picariello, Branch Craige, George B. Witman 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Proteome Of The Central Apparatus Of A Ciliary Axoneme, Lei Zhao, Yuqing Hou, Tyler Picariello, Branch Craige, George B. Witman

Radiology Publications and Presentations

Nearly all motile cilia have a "9+2" axoneme containing a central apparatus (CA), consisting of two central microtubules with projections, that is essential for motility. To date, only 22 proteins are known to be CA components. To identify new candidate CA proteins, we used mass spectrometry to compare axonemes of wild-type Chlamydomonas and a CA-less mutant. We identified 44 novel candidate CA proteins, of which 13 are conserved in humans. Five of the latter were studied more closely, and all five localized to the CA; therefore, most of the other candidates are likely to also be CA components. Our ...


Crystal Structure Of Zymonic Acid And A Redetermination Of Its Precursor, Pyruvic Acid, Dominik Heger, Alexis J. Eugene, Sean R. Parkin, Marcelo I. Guzman 2019 University of Kentucky

Crystal Structure Of Zymonic Acid And A Redetermination Of Its Precursor, Pyruvic Acid, Dominik Heger, Alexis J. Eugene, Sean R. Parkin, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The structure of zymonic acid (systematic name: 4-hy­droxy-2-methyl-5-oxo-2,5-di­hydro­furan-2-carb­oxy­lic acid), C6H6O5, which had previously eluded crystallographic determination, is presented here for the first time. It forms by intra­molecular condensation of parapyruvic acid, which is the product of aldol condensation of pyruvic acid. A redetermination of the crystal structure of pyruvic acid (systematic name: 2-oxo­propanoic acid), C3H4O3, at low temperature (90 K) and with increased precision, is also presented [for the previous structure, see: Harata et al. (1977). Acta Cryst. B33, 210–212 ...


Scintillation Event Localization In Novel Hemi-Ellipsoid Detector For Spect, Hanif R. Soysal 2019 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Scintillation Event Localization In Novel Hemi-Ellipsoid Detector For Spect, Hanif R. Soysal

LSU Master's Theses

A high sensitivity Cardiac SPECT system using hemi-ellipsoid crystals with pinhole collimation was previously proposed by Dey et al. To investigate detector resolution for this design, the scintillation light spread on a monolithic hemi-ellipsoidal CsI crystal was simulated using Geant4 Monte Carlo. The expected distribution of scintillation light on the outer surface of the crystal from photoelectric absorption events was obtained from the simulations for selected points inside the crystal. Two sets of simulations were performed. For the first set, a look-up table (LUT) of 12 points was created and each point mapped to its expected light distribution—four points ...


An Observational Study With The Janssen Autism Knowledge Engine (Jake((R))) In Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Seth L. Ness, Jean A. Frazier 2019 Janssen Research & Development

An Observational Study With The Janssen Autism Knowledge Engine (Jake((R))) In Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Seth L. Ness, Jean A. Frazier

Jean A. Frazier

Objective: The Janssen Autism Knowledge Engine (JAKE(R)) is a clinical research outcomes assessment system developed to more sensitively measure treatment outcomes and identify subpopulations in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here we describe JAKE and present results from its digital phenotyping (My JAKE) and biosensor (JAKE Sense) components.

Methods: An observational, non-interventional, prospective study of JAKE in children and adults with ASD was conducted at nine sites in the United States. Feedback on JAKE usability was obtained from caregivers. JAKE Sense included electroencephalography, eye tracking, electrocardiography, electrodermal activity, facial affect analysis, and actigraphy. Caregivers of individuals with ASD reported behaviors ...


Provider Education And Rapid Antigen Detection Test Use In An Academic Pediatric Clinic, Steven Dahl 2019 Children's Mercy Hospital

Provider Education And Rapid Antigen Detection Test Use In An Academic Pediatric Clinic, Steven Dahl

Research Days

No abstract provided.


Plasma Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Activity As A Potential Biomarker For Early Diagnosis Of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis In Tuberculosis Patients, Wen Shi, Juan Wu, Qi Tan, Chun-Mei Hu, Xia Zhang, Hong-Qiu Pan, Zhen Yang, Meng-Yu He, Min Yu, Bo Zhang, Wei-Ping Xie, Hong Wang 2019 The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University

Plasma Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Activity As A Potential Biomarker For Early Diagnosis Of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis In Tuberculosis Patients, Wen Shi, Juan Wu, Qi Tan, Chun-Mei Hu, Xia Zhang, Hong-Qiu Pan, Zhen Yang, Meng-Yu He, Min Yu, Bo Zhang, Wei-Ping Xie, Hong Wang

Open Access Articles

Purpose: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) remains a challenge of global TB control, with difficulty in early detection of drug-sensitive tuberculosis (DS-TB). We investigate the diagnostic significance of IDO as a potential biomarker to discriminate MDR patients among the TB patients.

Patients and methods: Plasma indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) was measured by the ratio of kynurenine (Kyn) to tryptophan (Trp) concentrations, using high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Chest computed tomography (CT) imaging signs from TB patients were collected and analyzed in 18 DS-TB patients, 16 MDR-TB patients, 6 lung cancer (LC) patients, and 11 healthy individuals. Lung imaging signs from ...


Circulating Micrornas Mir-331 And Mir-195 Differentiate Local Luminal A From Metastatic Breast Cancer, Peter McAnena, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Catherine Curran, K. Gilligan, Jane E. Freedman, James A. L. Brown, Michael J. Kerin 2019 National University of Ireland, Galway

Circulating Micrornas Mir-331 And Mir-195 Differentiate Local Luminal A From Metastatic Breast Cancer, Peter Mcanena, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Catherine Curran, K. Gilligan, Jane E. Freedman, James A. L. Brown, Michael J. Kerin

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer related death in women, with metastasis the principle cause of mortality. New non-invasive prognostic markers are needed for the early detection of metastasis, facilitating treatment decision optimisation. MicroRNA (miRNA) are small, non-coding RNAs regulating gene expression and involved in many cellular processes, including metastasis. As biomarkers, circulating miRNAs (in blood) hold great promise for informing diagnosis or monitoring treatment responses.

METHODS: Plasma extracted RNA from age matched local Luminal A (n = 4) or metastatic disease (n = 4) were profiled using Next Generation Sequencing. Selected differentially expressed miRNA were validated on a ...


Differential Estimation Of Audiograms Using Gaussian Process Active Model Selection, Trevor Larsen 2019 Washington University in St. Louis

Differential Estimation Of Audiograms Using Gaussian Process Active Model Selection, Trevor Larsen

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Classical methods for psychometric function estimation either require excessive resources to perform, as in the method of constants, or produce only a low resolution approximation of the target psychometric function, as in adaptive staircase or up-down procedures. This thesis makes two primary contributions to the estimation of the audiogram, a clinically relevant psychometric function estimated by querying a patient’s for audibility of a collection of tones. First, it covers the implementation of a Gaussian process model for learning an audiogram using another audiogram as a prior belief to speed up the learning procedure. Second, it implements a use case ...


Simulating Alternative Tuberculosis Diagnosis Methods In Underdeveloped Countries, Luke Turner 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Simulating Alternative Tuberculosis Diagnosis Methods In Underdeveloped Countries, Luke Turner

Industrial Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Tuberculosis is the deadliest infectious disease in the world; it is especially rampant in underdeveloped countries because they do not have the infrastructure, technology, or funding to properly combat the infection. However, the development of portable point-of-care diagnosis machines can reverse this epidemic as they far surpass conventional laboratory identification. The question now is where to place these machines, which is a difficult decision with a lack of data. Therefore, a flexible simulation model is created to test the implementation of these machines with different countries and configurations. The simulation tests the baseline model and three proposed implementations of the ...


Quality Improvement: Implementing A Foot Exam To Improve Care For Patients With Diabetes Mellitus, Emily Paprocki, Ryan McDonough, Tiffany Musick, Joseph Cernich 2019 Children's Mercy Kansas City

Quality Improvement: Implementing A Foot Exam To Improve Care For Patients With Diabetes Mellitus, Emily Paprocki, Ryan Mcdonough, Tiffany Musick, Joseph Cernich

Posters

The American Diabetes Association guidelines recommend an annual foot exam in patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes who are ten years old or older and who have been diagnosed with diabetes at least five years. Quality improvement tools were used to improve the care provided to our patients by implementing an annual food exam.


Utilization Of The Validated Psoriasis Epidemiology Screening Tool To Identify Signs And Symptoms Of Psoriatic Arthritis Among Those With Psoriasis: A Cross-Sectional Analysis From The Us-Based Corrona Psoriasis Registry, P. J. Mease, J. B. Palmer, P. Hur, B. E. Strober, M. Lebwohl, C. Karki, G. W. Reed, C. J. Etzel, J. D. Greenberg, P. S. Helliwell 2019 University of Washington

Utilization Of The Validated Psoriasis Epidemiology Screening Tool To Identify Signs And Symptoms Of Psoriatic Arthritis Among Those With Psoriasis: A Cross-Sectional Analysis From The Us-Based Corrona Psoriasis Registry, P. J. Mease, J. B. Palmer, P. Hur, B. E. Strober, M. Lebwohl, C. Karki, G. W. Reed, C. J. Etzel, J. D. Greenberg, P. S. Helliwell

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Despite increasing awareness of the disease, rates of undiagnosed psoriatic arthritis (PsA) are high in patients with psoriasis (PsO). The validated Psoriasis Epidemiology Screening Tool (PEST) is a five-item questionnaire developed to help identify PsA at an early stage.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the risk of possible undiagnosed PsA among patients with PsO and characterize patients based on PEST scores.

METHODS: This study included all patients enrolled in the Corrona PsO Registry with data on all five PEST questions. Demographics, clinical characteristics and patient-reported outcomes were compared in Corrona PsO Registry patients with PEST scores > /=3 and < 3 using t-tests for continuous variables and chi-squared tests for categorical variables; scores > /=3 may indicate ...


Seeing Eye To Eye: A Machine Learning Approach To Automated Saccade Analysis, Maigh Attre 2019 University of Connecticut

Seeing Eye To Eye: A Machine Learning Approach To Automated Saccade Analysis, Maigh Attre

Honors Scholar Theses

Abnormal ocular motility is a common manifestation of many underlying pathologies particularly those that are neurological. Dynamics of saccades, when the eye rapidly changes its point of fixation, have been characterized for many neurological disorders including concussions, traumatic brain injuries (TBI), and Parkinson’s disease. However, widespread saccade analysis for diagnostic and research purposes requires the recognition of certain eye movement parameters. Key information such as velocity and duration must be determined from data based on a wide set of patients’ characteristics that may range in eye shapes and iris, hair and skin pigmentation [36]. Previous work on saccade analysis ...


Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia: A Case Study Correlating Cytogenetic Abnormality With Prognosis, Alyssa Lamond, Theresa Tellier-Castellone 2019 University of Rhode Island

Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia: A Case Study Correlating Cytogenetic Abnormality With Prognosis, Alyssa Lamond, Theresa Tellier-Castellone

Senior Honors Projects

Advancements in medical technology today have positively impacted the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of cancers. Particularly acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has completely improved from having the poorest prognosis to one of the best. Acute promyelocytic leukemia is a malignant disease of hematopoietic tissue classified by WHO as leukemia with >20% blasts from the myeloid lineage, specifically promyelocytes. Determined in 1976, FAB classified AML subtypes M1-M7, with APL being M3. Specific characteristics classify the subtype of AML, with each resulting from a different genetic abnormality. The focus of APL diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis occurs around the known PML-RARα fusion gene. Flow ...


Novel Mechanisms And Biomarkers In Alcohol-Induced Organ Injury., Christine E. Dolin 2019 University of Louisville

Novel Mechanisms And Biomarkers In Alcohol-Induced Organ Injury., Christine E. Dolin

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background. Ethanol (EtOH) consumption is known to affect multiple organs; this is unsurprising, as the concentration of EtOH in the blood at relevant doses reaches the millimolar range. The overarching goal of this dissertation was to elucidate mechanisms of alcohol-induced organ injury, specifically the effects of alcohol on the hepatic extracellular matrix (ECM) proteome, the alcoholic hepatitis (AH) plasma peptidome, and the effects of alcohol on the renal cortex proteome and transcriptome. Methods. Mice were pair-fed ethanol-containing liquid diet chronically, and then some mice were administered lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Liver sections from these mice were processed in a series of increasingly ...


Suffering In Silence: Is Gastroparesis Underdiagnosed?, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2019 Aurora UW Medical Group, Aurora Health Care

Suffering In Silence: Is Gastroparesis Underdiagnosed?, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

In this introduction to Volume 6, Issue 2, the editor-in-chief of the Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews offers additional comment to the clinical review of diabetic gastroparesis authored by Farmer and colleagues (p. 148), regarding the problem of undiagnosed disease. Increased awareness of this entity and appropriate questioning regarding symptoms of diabetic gastroparesis in the primary care setting may prevent the “suffering in silence” experienced by many patients with this complication.


Learning To Detect And Understand Drug Discontinuation Events From Clinical Narratives, Feifan Liu, Richeek Pradhan, Emily Druhl, Elaine Freund, Weisong Liu, Brian C. Sauer, Fran Cunningham, Adam J. Gordon, Celena B. Peters, Hong Yu 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Learning To Detect And Understand Drug Discontinuation Events From Clinical Narratives, Feifan Liu, Richeek Pradhan, Emily Druhl, Elaine Freund, Weisong Liu, Brian C. Sauer, Fran Cunningham, Adam J. Gordon, Celena B. Peters, Hong Yu

Population and Quantitative Health Sciences Publications

OBJECTIVE: Identifying drug discontinuation (DDC) events and understanding their reasons are important for medication management and drug safety surveillance. Structured data resources are often incomplete and lack reason information. In this article, we assessed the ability of natural language processing (NLP) systems to unlock DDC information from clinical narratives automatically.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collected 1867 de-identified providers' notes from the University of Massachusetts Medical School hospital electronic health record system. Then 2 human experts chart reviewed those clinical notes to annotate DDC events and their reasons. Using the annotated data, we developed and evaluated NLP systems to automatically identify ...


A Cross-Sectional Analysis Of Factors Associated With Detection Of Oncogenic Human Papillomavirus In Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected And Uninfected Kenyan Women, A. Ermel, P. Tonui, M. Titus, Y. Tong, N. Wong, J. Ong'echa, K. Muthoka, S. Kiptoo, Ann M. Moormann, J. Hogan, A. Mwangi, S. Cu-Uvin, P. J. Loehrer, O. Orang'o, D. Brown 2019 Indiana University

A Cross-Sectional Analysis Of Factors Associated With Detection Of Oncogenic Human Papillomavirus In Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected And Uninfected Kenyan Women, A. Ermel, P. Tonui, M. Titus, Y. Tong, N. Wong, J. Ong'echa, K. Muthoka, S. Kiptoo, Ann M. Moormann, J. Hogan, A. Mwangi, S. Cu-Uvin, P. J. Loehrer, O. Orang'o, D. Brown

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is caused by oncogenic human papillomaviruses (HPV) and is one of the most common malignancies in women living in sub-Saharan Africa. Women infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have a higher incidence of cervical cancer, but the full impact on HPV detection is not well understood, and associations of biological and behavioral factors with oncogenic HPV detection have not been fully examined. Therefore, a study was initiated to investigate factors that are associated with oncogenic HPV detection in Kenyan women.

METHODS: Women without cervical dysplasia were enrolled in a longitudinal study. Data from enrollment are presented ...


Synthesis Of A Zn(Ii)-Responsive Paracest Mri Agent For Improved Diagnosis Of Prostate Cancer, Megan Martin, Holly Clancy 2019 The University of San Francisco

Synthesis Of A Zn(Ii)-Responsive Paracest Mri Agent For Improved Diagnosis Of Prostate Cancer, Megan Martin, Holly Clancy

Creative Activity and Research Day - CARD

In the United States, prostate cancer is the leading type of cancer diagnosed in men. Prostate cancer is currently diagnosed with the Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) test; however, it leads to many false positives and therefore unneeded biopsies. Previous studies have shown that cancerous prostates have a much lower concentration of zinc than healthy prostates. The goal of this project is to create an MRI contrast agent capable of non-invasively quantifying zinc in the human prostate. Five out of the eight synthetic steps have been successfully completed so far, and the identities of these intermediate products have been verified by 1 ...


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