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823 full-text articles. Page 26 of 26.

Dynamics Of The Rapsyn Scaffolding Protein At The Neuromuscular Junction Of Live Mice, Emile Bruneau, Mohammed Akaaboune 2010 University of Pennsylvania

Dynamics Of The Rapsyn Scaffolding Protein At The Neuromuscular Junction Of Live Mice, Emile Bruneau, Mohammed Akaaboune

Departmental Papers (ASC)

The efficacy of synaptic transmission depends on the maintenance of a high density of neurotransmitter receptors and their associated scaffold proteins in the postsynaptic membrane. While the dynamics of receptors has been extensively studied, the dynamics of the intracellular scaffold proteins that make up the postsynaptic density are largely unknown in vivo. Here, we focused on the dynamics of rapsyn, a protein required for the clustering and maintenance of acetylcholine receptor (AChR) density at postsynaptic sites. Using time-lapse imaging, we demonstrated that rapsyn is remarkably dynamic compared to AChRs at functional synapses, turning over 4–6 times more rapidly than ...


Quantifying Corn Nitrogen Deficiency And Application Rate With Active Canopy Sensors, J. E. Sawyer, D. W. Barker 2010 Iowa State University

Quantifying Corn Nitrogen Deficiency And Application Rate With Active Canopy Sensors, J. E. Sawyer, D. W. Barker

Agronomy Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Precision agriculture technologies are an integral part of many crop production operations. However, implementation for N application has lagged, primarily due to lack of a viable system for variable N rate decisions. Active canopy sensors have been developed as a tool to determine plant N stress deficiency and provide an on-the-go decision for implementing variable rate. Two general approaches could be implemented. One is to plan on conducting canopy sensing each year, with a reduced N rate applied preplant, at planting, or early sidedress and then sensing conducted at mid-vegetative growth to determine additional application need. A second is to ...


Efficacy And Safety Of Mitomycin C As An Agent To Treat Corneal Scarring In Horses Using An In Vitro Model, Dylan G. Buss, Ajay Sharma, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Rajiv R. Mohan 2010 Harry S. Truman Memorial Veterans' Hospital

Efficacy And Safety Of Mitomycin C As An Agent To Treat Corneal Scarring In Horses Using An In Vitro Model, Dylan G. Buss, Ajay Sharma, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Rajiv R. Mohan

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Objective—Mitomycin C (MMC) is used clinically to treat corneal scarring in human patients. We investigated the safety and efficacy of MMC to treat corneal scarring in horses by examining its effects at the early and late stages of disease using an in-vitro model.

Procedure—An in-vitro model of equine corneal fibroblast (ECF) developed was used. The equine corneal fibroblast or myofibroblast cultures were produced by growing primary ECF in the presence or absence of transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFβ1) under serum-free conditions. The MMC dose for the equine cornea was defined with dose-dependent trypan blue exclusion and MTT [(3-4 ...


Toward Genuine Rodent Welfare: Response To Reviewer Comments, Jonathan P. Balcombe 2010 Independent Scientist and Author

Toward Genuine Rodent Welfare: Response To Reviewer Comments, Jonathan P. Balcombe

Laboratory Experiments Collection

I’m grateful to the editors for soliciting critiques of my commentary and for the opportunity to respond. Because one of the respondents (Patterson-Kane, 2010/this issue) does not take issue with the main points of my article, whereas the other (Blanchard, 2010/this issue) does, I focus my remarks here mostly on Blanchard’s critique.


Laboratory Rodent Welfare: Thinking Outside The Cage, Jonathan P. Balcombe 2010 Independent Scientist and Author

Laboratory Rodent Welfare: Thinking Outside The Cage, Jonathan P. Balcombe

Laboratory Experiments Collection

This commentary presents the case against housing rats and mice in laboratory cages; the commentary bases its case on their sentience, natural history, and the varied detriments of laboratory conditions. The commentary gives 5 arguments to support this position: (a) rats and mice have a high degree of sentience and can suffer, (b) laboratory environments cause suffering, (c) rats and mice in the wild have discrete behavioral needs, (d) rats and mice bred for many generations in the laboratory retain these needs, and (e) these needs are not met in laboratory cages.


Gene Delivery In The Equine Cornea: A Novel Therapeutic Strategy, Dylan G. Buss, Ajay Sharma, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Rajiv R. Mohan 2010 University of Missouri, Columbia

Gene Delivery In The Equine Cornea: A Novel Therapeutic Strategy, Dylan G. Buss, Ajay Sharma, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Rajiv R. Mohan

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Objective—To determine if hybrid adeno-associated virus serotype 2/5 (AAV5) vector can effectively deliver foreign genes into the equine cornea without causing adverse side effects. The aims of this study were to: (i) evaluate efficacy of AAV5 to deliver therapeutic genes into equine corneal fibroblasts (ECFs) using enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) marker gene and (ii) establish the safety of AAV5 vector for equine corneal gene therapy.

Animal Material—Primary ECF cultures were harvested from healthy donor equine corneas. Cultures were maintained at 370C in humidified atmosphere with 5% CO2.

Procedure—AAV5 vector expressing EGFP under control of hybrid ...


Isolation And Cultivation Of Equine Corneal Keratocytes, Fibroblasts And Myofibroblasts, Dylan G. Buss, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Ajay Sharma, Rajiv R. Mohan 2010 University of Missouri, Columbia

Isolation And Cultivation Of Equine Corneal Keratocytes, Fibroblasts And Myofibroblasts, Dylan G. Buss, Elizabeth A. Giuliano, Ajay Sharma, Rajiv R. Mohan

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Objective—To establish an in vitro model for the investigation of equine corneal wound healing. To accomplish this goal, a protocol to isolate and culture equine corneal keratocytes, fibroblasts and myofibroblasts was developed.

Animal material—Equine corneal buttons were aseptically harvested from healthy research horses undergoing humane euthanasia for reasons unrelated to this study. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy was performed prior to euthanasia by a board-certified veterinary ophthalmologist to ensure that all samples were harvested from horses free of anterior segment disease.

Procedure—Equine corneal stroma was isolated using mechanical techniques and stromal subsections were then cultured. Customized media at different culture ...


Localization Of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme In Rabbit Cornea And Its Role In Controlling Corneal Angiogenesis In Vivo, Ajay Sharma, Daniel I. Bettis, John W. Cowden, Rajiv R. Mohan 2010 Chapman University

Localization Of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme In Rabbit Cornea And Its Role In Controlling Corneal Angiogenesis In Vivo, Ajay Sharma, Daniel I. Bettis, John W. Cowden, Rajiv R. Mohan

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Purpose: The renin angiotensin system (RAS) has been shown to modulate vascular endothelial growth factor and angiogenesis. In this study we investigated (i) the existence of the RAS components angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin II receptors (AT1 and AT2) in the rabbit cornea using in vitro and ex vivo models and (ii) the effect of enalapril, an ACE inhibitor, to inhibit angiogenesis in rabbit cornea in vivo.

Methods: New Zealand White rabbits were used. Cultured corneal fibroblasts and corneal epithelial cells were used for RNA isolation and cDNA preparation using standard molecular biology techniques. PCR was performed to detect ...


Aav Serotype Influences Gene Transfer In Corneal Stroma In Vivo, Ajay Sharma, Jonathan C. K. Tovey, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Rajiv R. Mohan 2010 Chapman University

Aav Serotype Influences Gene Transfer In Corneal Stroma In Vivo, Ajay Sharma, Jonathan C. K. Tovey, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Rajiv R. Mohan

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

This study evaluated the cellular tropism and relative transduction efficiency of three AAV serotypes, AAV6, AAV8 and AAV9, for corneal gene delivery using mouse cornea in vivo and donor human cornea ex vivo. The AAV6, AAV8 and AAV9 serotypes having AAV2 plasmid encoding for alkaline phosphatase (AP) gene were generated by transfecting HEK293 cell line with pHelper, pARAP4 and pRep/Cap plasmids. Viral vectors (109 vg/μl) were topically applied onto mouse cornea in vivo and human cornea ex vivo after removing the epithelium. Human corneas were processed for transgene delivery at day 5 after viral vector application. Mouse corneas ...


The Current Scientific And Legal Status Of Alternative Methods To The Ld50 Test For Botulinum Neurotoxin Potency Testing, Sarah Adler, Gerd Bicker, Hans Bigalke, Christopher Bishop, Jörg Blümel, Dirk Dressler, Joan Fitzgerald, Frank Gessler, Heide Heuschen, Birgit Kegel, Andreas Luch, Catherine Milne, Andrew Pickett, Heidemarie Ratsch, Irmela Ruhdel, Dorothea Sesardic, Martin Stephens, Gerhard Stiens, Peter D. Thornton, René Thürmer, Martin Vey, Horst Spielmann, Barbara Grune, Manfred Liebsch 2010 Centre for Documentation and Evaluation of Alternatives to Animal Experiments (ZEBET)

The Current Scientific And Legal Status Of Alternative Methods To The Ld50 Test For Botulinum Neurotoxin Potency Testing, Sarah Adler, Gerd Bicker, Hans Bigalke, Christopher Bishop, Jörg Blümel, Dirk Dressler, Joan Fitzgerald, Frank Gessler, Heide Heuschen, Birgit Kegel, Andreas Luch, Catherine Milne, Andrew Pickett, Heidemarie Ratsch, Irmela Ruhdel, Dorothea Sesardic, Martin Stephens, Gerhard Stiens, Peter D. Thornton, René Thürmer, Martin Vey, Horst Spielmann, Barbara Grune, Manfred Liebsch

Experimentation Collection

No abstract provided.


Noncompliance With Public Health Service (Phs) Policy On Humane Care And Use Of Laboratory Animals: An Exploratory Analysis, Leah M. Gomez, Kathleen Conlee, Martin Stephens 2010 The Humane Society of the United States

Noncompliance With Public Health Service (Phs) Policy On Humane Care And Use Of Laboratory Animals: An Exploratory Analysis, Leah M. Gomez, Kathleen Conlee, Martin Stephens

Laboratory Experiments Collection

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is a major biomedical research-funding body in the United States. Approximately 40% of NIH-funded research involves experimentation on nonhuman animals (Monastersky, 2008). Institutions that conduct animal research with NIH funds must adhere to the Public Health Service (PHS) care and use standards of the Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW, 2002a). Institutions deviating significantly from the PHS’s animal care and use standards must report these incidents to the NIH’s OLAW. This study is an exploratory analysis of all the significant deviations reported by animal-research facilities to OLAW during a 3-month period. The ...


Introduction: Knowing The Wild, Etienne S. Benson 2010 University of Pennsylvania

Introduction: Knowing The Wild, Etienne S. Benson

Departmental Papers (HSS)

The argument that wildlife conservation and the science that supports it are contentious and politicized is, of course, not new. American wildlife managers and biologists have been complaining about "biopolitics"—understood as political interference into decisions properly left to experts—since at least as far back as the 1930s, when they first established the journals, conferences, professional associations, degree programs, and financial supporters that allowed them to lay claim to the status of an autonomous, self-accrediting profession. Conservation activists have regularly protested the manipulation of policy by (other) special interests. New administrations in Washington have brought sudden reversals in supposedly ...


Non-Invasive Methods Of Identifying And Tracking Wild Squid, Ruth A. Byrne, James B. Wood, Roland C. Anderson, Ulrike Griebel, Jennifer A. Mather 2010 Medical University of Vienna

Non-Invasive Methods Of Identifying And Tracking Wild Squid, Ruth A. Byrne, James B. Wood, Roland C. Anderson, Ulrike Griebel, Jennifer A. Mather

Morality and Ethics of Animal Experimentation Collection

The ability to identify individual free-living animals in the field is an important method for studying their behavior. Apart from invasive external or internal tags, which may cause injury or abnormal behavior, most cephalopods cannot be tagged, as their skin is too soft and delicate for tag retention. Additionally, cephalopods remove many types of tags. However, body markings have been successfully used as a non invasive method to identify individuals of many different species of animals, including whale sharks, grey whales, seals, and zebras. We developed methods to sex and individually identify Caribbean reef squid, Sepiotheuthis sepioidea. Males showed distinct ...


Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda 2010 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Letter From The Dean, Michael Vayda

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

No abstract provided.


Vector Delivery Technique Affects Gene Transfer In The Cornea In Vivo, Rajiv R. Mohan, Ajay Sharma, Tyler C. Cebulko, Ashish Tandon 2010 University of Missouri-Columbia

Vector Delivery Technique Affects Gene Transfer In The Cornea In Vivo, Rajiv R. Mohan, Ajay Sharma, Tyler C. Cebulko, Ashish Tandon

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Purpose: This study tested whether controlled drying of the cornea increases vector absorption in mouse and rabbit corneas in vivo and human cornea ex vivo, and studied the effects of corneal drying on gene transfer, structure and inflammatory reaction in the mouse cornea in vivo.

Methods: Female C57 black mice and New Zealand White rabbits were used for in vivo studies. Donor human corneas were used for ex vivo experiments. A hair dryer was used for drying the corneas after removing corneal epithelium by gentle scraping. The corneas received no, once, twice, thrice, or five times warm air for 10 ...


Practical Considerations In Regenerative Medicine Research: Iacucs, Ethics, And The Use Of Animals In Stem Cell Studies, Susan VandeWoude, Bernard E. Rollin 2010 Colorado State University - Fort Collins

Practical Considerations In Regenerative Medicine Research: Iacucs, Ethics, And The Use Of Animals In Stem Cell Studies, Susan Vandewoude, Bernard E. Rollin

Biomedicine and Animal Models in Research Collection

The intent of US federal laws mandating IACUC review of animal-related activities was to satisfy contemporary socioethical concerns by introducing deliberations about ethics and animal welfare into the research process when animals are used. These laws and the system they chartered have worked well for the most part in providing opportunities for consideration of animal welfare as a vital part of animal research. As a result, investigators today are far less naïve about the ethical issues raised by research on animals and typically more sympathetic about the need for such consideration. As evidence of this growing awareness, the literature on ...


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