Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Animal Experimentation and Research Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

1,010 Full-Text Articles 1,752 Authors 250,259 Downloads 77 Institutions

All Articles in Animal Experimentation and Research

Faceted Search

1,010 full-text articles. Page 1 of 34.

Pets And Problems: Exploring Community Patterns In Calls For Animal Services, Paige DeJarnett 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Pets And Problems: Exploring Community Patterns In Calls For Animal Services, Paige Dejarnett

Sociology and Criminology Undergraduate Honors Theses

Pets have historically been viewed as family members, children, property, or economic resources. However, research surrounding animal maltreatment has expressed this issue as an individually-based problem, rather than a community-based phenomenon. Correlations have been found between animal cruelty, antisocial behaviors, and future interpersonal violence, whether this correlation be a predictive relationship, or a resultant relationship. Past research has also found correlations between animal treatment practices and the rural/urban differences of this behavior. However, there are many community-based indicators that have not been explored to understand the distribution of animal maltreatment. This study aims to explore these ideas by analyzing ...


Systematic Review Of Polyherbal Combinations Used In Metabolic Syndrome, Amber Hanif Palla, Faridah Amin, Bilqees Fatima, Arooj Shafiq, Najeeb Ur Rehman, Ikram Ul Haq, Anwar-Ul-Hassan Gilani 2021 Aga Khan University

Systematic Review Of Polyherbal Combinations Used In Metabolic Syndrome, Amber Hanif Palla, Faridah Amin, Bilqees Fatima, Arooj Shafiq, Najeeb Ur Rehman, Ikram Ul Haq, Anwar-Ul-Hassan Gilani

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a multifactorial disease, whose main stay of prevention and management is life-style modification which is difficult to attain. Combination of herbs have proven more efficacious in multi-targeted diseases, as compared to individual herbs owing to the "effect enhancing and side-effect neutralizing" properties of herbs, which forms the basis of polyherbal therapies This led us to review literature on the efficacy of herbal combinations in MetS.
Methods: Electronic search of literature was conducted by using Cinnahl, Pubmed central, Cochrane and Web of Science, whereas, Google scholar was used as secondary search tool. The key words used ...


Exogenous Surfactant As A Delivery Vehicle For Intrapulmonary Therapeutics, Brandon J. Baer 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Exogenous Surfactant As A Delivery Vehicle For Intrapulmonary Therapeutics, Brandon J. Baer

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

As an organ system, the lung has unique advantages and disadvantages for direct drug delivery. Its contact with the external environment allows for the airways to be easily accessible to intrapulmonary delivery. However, its complex structure, which divides into more narrow airways with each branch, can make direct delivery to the remote alveoli challenging. The objective of this thesis was to overcome this issue by using exogenous surfactant, a lipoprotein complex used to treat neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, as a carrier for pulmonary therapeutics. It was hypothesized that therapeutics administered with a surfactant vehicle would display enhanced delivery to the ...


Algae-Based Feed Ingredient Protects Intestinal Health During Eimeria Challenge And Alters Systemic Immune Responses With Differential Outcomes Observed During Acute Feed Restriction, K. Fries-Craft, M. M. Meyer, Elizabeth A. Bobeck 2021 Iowa State University

Algae-Based Feed Ingredient Protects Intestinal Health During Eimeria Challenge And Alters Systemic Immune Responses With Differential Outcomes Observed During Acute Feed Restriction, K. Fries-Craft, M. M. Meyer, Elizabeth A. Bobeck

Animal Science Publications

Compounds in microalgae-derived feed ingredients in poultry diets may improve intestinal physiology and immunity to protect against damage induced by physiological and pathogen challenges, but mechanisms are examined sparingly. The study objective was to evaluate changes to intestinal morphology, permeability, and systemic immunity in broilers fed a proprietary microalgae ingredient during 2 separate challenge studies. In study 1, two replicate 28 d battery cage trials used 200 Ross 308 broilers each (n = 400) fed a control diet ± 0.175% algae ingredient. Half of the birds were subjected to a 12 h feed restriction challenge and fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-D) intestinal ...


Anything For A Cheerio: Brown Capuchins (Sapajus [Cebus] Apella) Consistently Coordinate In An Assurance Game For Unequal Payoffs, Lauren M. Robinson, Mayte Martínez, Kelly L. Leverett, Mattea S. Rossettie, Bart J. Wilson, Sarah F. Brosnan 2021 University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna

Anything For A Cheerio: Brown Capuchins (Sapajus [Cebus] Apella) Consistently Coordinate In An Assurance Game For Unequal Payoffs, Lauren M. Robinson, Mayte Martínez, Kelly L. Leverett, Mattea S. Rossettie, Bart J. Wilson, Sarah F. Brosnan

ESI Publications

Unequal outcomes disrupt cooperation in some situations, but this has not been tested in the context of coordination in economic games. To explore this, we tested brown capuchins (Sapajus [Cebus] apella) on a manual version of the Stag Hunt (or Assurance) Game, in which individuals sequentially chose between two options, Stag or Hare, and were rewarded according to their choices and that of their partner. Typically, coordination on Stag results in an equal highest payout, whereas coordinating on Hare results in a guaranteed equal but lower payoff and uncoordinated play results in the lowest payoff when playing Stag. We varied ...


To Know The Land With Hands And Minds: Negotiating Agricultural Knowledge In Late-Nineteenth-Century New England And Westphalia, Justus Hillebrand 2021 University of Maine

To Know The Land With Hands And Minds: Negotiating Agricultural Knowledge In Late-Nineteenth-Century New England And Westphalia, Justus Hillebrand

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Ever since the eighteenth century, experts have tried to tell farmers how to farm. The agricultural enlightenment in Europe marked the beginning of a long arc of new experts aiming to change agricultural knowledge and practice. This dissertation analyzes the pivotal period in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century in Germany and the United States when scientists, improvers, and market agents began to develop comprehensive ways to communicate agricultural innovation to farmers. In a functional approach to analyzing the negotiation of agricultural knowledge through its communication in things, words, and practices, this dissertation argues that the process of change ...


Genome-Wide Association Study For Fatty Acid Composition In American Angus Cattle, Muhammad Dawood, Luke Matthew Kramer, Muhammad Imran Shabbir, James Mark Reecy 2021 International Islamic University

Genome-Wide Association Study For Fatty Acid Composition In American Angus Cattle, Muhammad Dawood, Luke Matthew Kramer, Muhammad Imran Shabbir, James Mark Reecy

Animal Science Publications

Livestock is an important commodity playing a major role in the global economy. Red meat plays an important role in human life, as it is a good source of animal protein and energy. The fatty acid content of beef has been shown to impact the eating experience and nutritional value of beef. Therefore, this study aimed to identify genomic regions which can account for genetic variation in meat fatty acid content. Genotypes imputed to the Illumina BovineHD 770K BeadChip were used in this study. Thirty-six 1-Mb genomic regions with a posterior probability of inclusion (PPI) greater than 0.90 were ...


Combination Of Oncolytic Adenoviruses, T-Cell Activation, And Blockade Of Ido Metabolic Circuitry For The Treatment Of Glioma, Teresa Nguyen 2021 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Combination Of Oncolytic Adenoviruses, T-Cell Activation, And Blockade Of Ido Metabolic Circuitry For The Treatment Of Glioma, Teresa Nguyen

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Glioblastoma is the most common malignant primary brain tumor in adults; the current aggressive treatment results in a 5% five-year survival rate. More effective therapies should be developed. One promising alternative is oncolytic adenovirus, Delta-24-RGD, which elicits cancer cell lysis and immunogenic cell death. In fact, Delta-24-RGD produced complete responses in 20% of recurrent glioblastoma patients through immune mechanisms that activate anti-tumor cytotoxic properties of T-cells. This cytolytic effect can further be enhanced by adding immune agonists, namely OX40L, which engages the OX40 receptor to co-stimulate activated T cells for enhanced proliferation. Hence, we produced the next generation of Delta-24-RGD ...


Circulating Biomarkers Associated With Pelvic Organ Prolapse Risk In Late Gestation Sows, Zoë E. Kiefer, Jamie M. Studer, Amanda L. Chipman, Malavika K. Adur, Christine Mainquist-Whigham, Nicholas K. Gabler, Aileen F. Keating, Jason W. Ross 2021 Iowa State University

Circulating Biomarkers Associated With Pelvic Organ Prolapse Risk In Late Gestation Sows, Zoë E. Kiefer, Jamie M. Studer, Amanda L. Chipman, Malavika K. Adur, Christine Mainquist-Whigham, Nicholas K. Gabler, Aileen F. Keating, Jason W. Ross

Animal Science Publications

Sow mortality, as the result of pelvic organ prolapse (POP), has been increasing in the last decade in the U.S. swine industry. The objective of this study was to identify potential biological markers associated with risk of POP in sows. We hypothesized that sows differing in perineal score (PS) from PS1–PS3 (PS1—a presumed low POP risk; PS2—a presumed moderate POP risk; and PS3—a presumed high POP risk) would differ in circulatory biomarkers of inflammation and hormonal profiles. On gestation week 15, 2,864 individual sows were assigned a PS, and subsequently, 1.0%, 2.7 ...


Modulation Of Glucose Homeostasis By Nucleotide P2y2 Receptor And Biological Sex, Hailee Anne Marino 2021 Missouri State University

Modulation Of Glucose Homeostasis By Nucleotide P2y2 Receptor And Biological Sex, Hailee Anne Marino

MSU Graduate Theses

Recent insights into the pathological role of Nucleotide P2Y2 receptor suggest P2Y2R involvement in high fat diet-induced obesity and potentiates insulin resistance. However, these recent insights do not demonstrate how P2Y2R modulates glucose homeostasis under physiological conditions. Further, it remains unknown how sex biological factors influence P2Y2R receptor signaling in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. The research objective for the present study is to elucidate the novel roles of P2Y2 in fasting blood glucose and glucose tolerance (basal insulin sensitivity) under resting conditions in males and females. We expected that under physiological ...


Developmental Environment Shapes Honeybee Worker Response To Virus Infection, Alexander Walton, Amy L. Toth, Adam G. Dolezal 2021 Iowa State University

Developmental Environment Shapes Honeybee Worker Response To Virus Infection, Alexander Walton, Amy L. Toth, Adam G. Dolezal

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

The consequences of early-life experiences are far reaching. In particular, the social and nutritional environments that developing animals experience can shape their adult phenotypes. In honeybees, larval nutrition determines the eventual social roles of adults as reproductive queens or sterile workers. However, little is known about the effects of developmental nutrition on important adult worker phenotypes such as disease resilience. In this study, we manipulated worker developmental nutrition in two distinct ways under semi-natural field conditions. In the first experiment, we restricted access to nutrition via social isolation by temporarily preventing alloparental care. In the second experiment, we altered the ...


21°C Is The Emerging Ideal Temperature For Kidney Preservation In The Presence Of Hydrogen Sulfide, Smriti Juriasingani 2021 The University of Western Ontario

21°C Is The Emerging Ideal Temperature For Kidney Preservation In The Presence Of Hydrogen Sulfide, Smriti Juriasingani

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage kidney disease. However, the shortage of transplantable kidneys has led to ever-increasing waiting lists. As a result, kidneys obtained via donation after cardiac death (DCD) are being used more frequently for transplantation. However, they exhibit poorer outcomes due to ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and cold preservation methods, such as static cold storage (SCS). Supplementing cold preservation solutions with hydrogen sulfide donors, such as AP39, has been shown to improve renal IRI and graft outcomes, but the injury associated with cold preservation remains. This thesis evaluates the effect of subnormothermic kidney ...


Obesity Alters The Ovarian Proteomic Response To Zearalenone Exposure, M. Estefanía González-Alvarez, Bailey C. McGuire, Aileen F. Keating 2021 Iowa State University

Obesity Alters The Ovarian Proteomic Response To Zearalenone Exposure, M. Estefanía González-Alvarez, Bailey C. Mcguire, Aileen F. Keating

Animal Science Publications

Zearalenone (ZEN), a nonsteroidal estrogenic mycotoxin, is detrimental to female reproduction. Altered chemical biotransformation, depleted primordial follicles and a blunted genotoxicant response have been discovered in obese female ovaries, thus, this study investigated the hypothesis that obesity would enhance ovarian sensitivity to ZEN exposure. Seven-week-old female wild-type nonagouti KK.Cg-a/a mice (lean) and agouti lethal yellow KK.Cg-Ay/J mice (obese) received food and water ad libitum, and either saline or ZEN (40 μg/kg) per os for 15 days. Body and organ weights, and estrous cyclicity were recorded, and ovaries collected posteuthanasia for protein analysis. Body and liver ...


Evaluation Of Increased Fiber, Decreased Amino Acids, Or Decreased Electrolyte Balance As Dietary Approaches To Slow Finishing Pig Growth Rates, Emma T. Helm, John F. Patience, Matthew R. Romoser, Colin D. Johnson, Jason W. Ross, Nicholas K. Gabler 2021 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of Increased Fiber, Decreased Amino Acids, Or Decreased Electrolyte Balance As Dietary Approaches To Slow Finishing Pig Growth Rates, Emma T. Helm, John F. Patience, Matthew R. Romoser, Colin D. Johnson, Jason W. Ross, Nicholas K. Gabler

Animal Science Publications

In swine production, pig movement restrictions or packing plant closures may create the need to slow growth rates of finishing pigs to ensure they remain at a marketable body weight when packing plant access is restored. Although dietary formulations can be successful at slowing pig growth, precision is needed regarding how to best formulate diets to achieve growth rate reductions. Thus, the objective was to evaluate three dietary experimental approaches aimed at slowing growth rates in finishing pigs. These approaches consisted of either increasing neutral detergent fiber (NDF), reducing essential amino acids, or reducing the dietary electrolyte balance through the ...


Directed Genome Evolution To Identify Genes For Macrophage Survival By Staphylococcus Agnetis, Sonali Lakshika Anne Lenaduwe Lokuge 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Directed Genome Evolution To Identify Genes For Macrophage Survival By Staphylococcus Agnetis, Sonali Lakshika Anne Lenaduwe Lokuge

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bacterial Chondronecrosis with Osteomyelitis (BCO) is a debilitating infection that negatively impacts animal welfare and costs the broiler industry billions of dollars annually. We have previously isolated Staphylococcus agnetis 908 from BCO samples obtained from broilers at the University of Arkansas research farm. This isolate can induce BCO lameness at greater than 50% in broilers exposed to the pathogen in drinking water. We found that S. agnetis 908 is capable of surviving and escaping macrophages compared to a closely related cattle isolate,1379. Through Directed Genome Evolution (DGE) we identified that this difference is at least partially associated with an ...


Clarification Of Human Blood Ilc Subtype Interrelatedness And Discovery Of Amphiregulin Production By Human Nk Cells Shed Light On Hiv-1 Pathogenesis [Preprint], Yetao Wang, Lawrence M. Lifshitz, Noah J. Silverstein, Esther Mintzer, Kevin Luk, Pamela St. Louis, Michael A. Brehm, Scot A. Wolfe, Steven G. Deeks, Jeremy Luban 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Clarification Of Human Blood Ilc Subtype Interrelatedness And Discovery Of Amphiregulin Production By Human Nk Cells Shed Light On Hiv-1 Pathogenesis [Preprint], Yetao Wang, Lawrence M. Lifshitz, Noah J. Silverstein, Esther Mintzer, Kevin Luk, Pamela St. Louis, Michael A. Brehm, Scot A. Wolfe, Steven G. Deeks, Jeremy Luban

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Human blood innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), which include ILCs and natural killer (NK) cells, derive from a common CD117+ILC precursor (ILCP). Yet, the relationship among the ILC subsets remains unclear. Bulk and single cell RNA-Seq and ATAC-Seq showed that blood ILC subsets cluster into ILC2s, ILCPs, a mixed cluster of CD56dim and CD56 NK cells, and a separate cluster of CD56hiNK cells that share features with both ILCs and CD56dimNK cells. In surprising contrast to mice, tissue repair protein amphiregulin was produced by human NK cells, with higher levels in CD56hiNK cells ...


The Effects Of Mapk Signaling On The Development Of Cerebellar Granule Cells, Kerry Morgan 2021 University of Connecticut

The Effects Of Mapk Signaling On The Development Of Cerebellar Granule Cells, Kerry Morgan

University Scholar Projects

The granule cells are the most abundant neuronal type in the human brain. Rapid proliferation of granule cell progenitors results in dramatic expansion and folding of the cerebellar cortex during postnatal development. Mis-regulation of this proliferation process causes medulloblastoma, the most prevalent childhood brain tumor. In the developing cerebellum, granule cells are derived from Atoh1-expressing cells, which arise from the upper rhombic lip (the interface between the roof plate and neuroepithelium). In addition to granule cells, the Atoh1 lineage also gives rise to different types of neurons including cerebellar nuclei neurons. In the current study, I have investigated the ...


The Effects Of Mapk Signaling On The Development Of Cerebellar Granule Cells, Kerry Morgan 2021 University of Connecticut

The Effects Of Mapk Signaling On The Development Of Cerebellar Granule Cells, Kerry Morgan

Honors Scholar Theses

The granule cells are the most abundant neuronal type in the human brain. Rapid proliferation of granule cell progenitors results in dramatic expansion and folding of the cerebellar cortex during postnatal development. Mis-regulation of this proliferation process causes medulloblastoma, the most prevalent childhood brain tumor. In the developing cerebellum, granule cells are derived from Atoh1-expressing cells, which arise from the upper rhombic lip (the interface between the roof plate and neuroepithelium). In addition to granule cells, the Atoh1 lineage also gives rise to different types of neurons including cerebellar nuclei neurons. In the current study, I have investigated the ...


Safety Of Silver Oxide Coated Biomaterials In Mice, Michael Klug, Darien L. Seidman, Rahyan Mahmoud, Destiny Morot, Lei Yu, Jeffrey D Hettinger, Renee M Demarest 2021 Rowan University

Safety Of Silver Oxide Coated Biomaterials In Mice, Michael Klug, Darien L. Seidman, Rahyan Mahmoud, Destiny Morot, Lei Yu, Jeffrey D Hettinger, Renee M Demarest

Stratford Campus Research Day

It has been demonstrated that silver oxide coatings designed by our collaborators are able to prevent E. coli and P. aeruginosa attachment to biomaterials in vivo. These findings demonstrate that such coatings show promise in preventing the development of biofilm on biodevices. However, it is unknown if the use of silver oxide in this fashion is toxic in vivo. The goal of this project was to determine whether our silver oxide coatings are safe to use in vivo. To assess the toxicity of our silver oxide formula, mice were implanted with either silver oxide coated titanium discs or uncoated titanium ...


Evaluation Of A Keratin 1 Targeting Peptide-Doxorubicin Conjugate In A Mouse Model Of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer, Azam Saghaeidehkordi, Shiuan Chen, Sun Yang, Kamaljit Kaur 2021 Chapman University

Evaluation Of A Keratin 1 Targeting Peptide-Doxorubicin Conjugate In A Mouse Model Of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer, Azam Saghaeidehkordi, Shiuan Chen, Sun Yang, Kamaljit Kaur

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Chemotherapy is the main treatment for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), a subtype of breast cancer that is aggressive with a poor prognosis. While chemotherapeutics are potent, these agents lack specificity and are equally toxic to cancer and nonmalignant cells and tissues. Targeted therapies for TNBC treatment could lead to more safe and efficacious drugs. We previously engineered a breast cancer cell targeting peptide 18-4 that specifically binds cell surface receptor keratin 1 (K1) on breast cancer cells. A conjugate of peptide 18-4 and doxorubicin (Dox) containing an acid-sensitive hydrazone linker showed specific toxicity toward TNBC cells. Here, we report the ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress