Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Plant Pathology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

4,432 Full-Text Articles 11,930 Authors 752,811 Downloads 89 Institutions

All Articles in Plant Pathology

Faceted Search

4,432 full-text articles. Page 2 of 169.

Sulphur And Phosphorus Responses Of Russell Lupin In Rangeland, P Jarvis, R J. Lucas, J.G. H. White 2024 Lincoln University

Sulphur And Phosphorus Responses Of Russell Lupin In Rangeland, P Jarvis, R J. Lucas, J.G. H. White

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Russell lupin (Lupinus polyphyllus) was established by oversowing into low fertility, depleted tussock rangeland in 1990. The soil was low in phosphorus (P) and sulphur (S). P, (O, 12.5, 25 or 50 kg P /ha) and S (0 or 60 kg S/ha) were applied at sowing. In May 1994, a further 0 or 60 kg S /ha was applied as a sub-plot treatment. Lupin and grass dry matter (DM) was assessed in December 1995. Lupin did not grow in the absence of S. Lupin and grass responded to the additional S giving a maximum of 4.2 and 4.9 …


Raster Map For Prediction Of Heading Date Of Timothy By Nonparametric Dvr Method, T Saigusa, K Nakashima, N Noshiro, M Tsutsumi 2024 Hokkaido National Agricultural Experiment Station

Raster Map For Prediction Of Heading Date Of Timothy By Nonparametric Dvr Method, T Saigusa, K Nakashima, N Noshiro, M Tsutsumi

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

A system for making a raster map for predicting the heading date of timothy (Phleum pratense L.) at first cutting for every 1km2 plot was developed to supply information for smooth harvest of forage of good quality in a dairy farming area of Hokkaido. Daily mean air temperature for every 1km2 plot was estimated with data from a network of meteorological observatories and data base of the Japan Meteorological Agency. Day length could be calculated from latitude and calendar day. Using these two environmental factors, heading date of timothy at first cutting for each area was predicted by nonparametric DVR …


Long-Term Effects Of Co2 Enrichment And Temperate Increase On Forage Quality In A Temperate Grass, J F. Soussana, J M. Besle, I Chabaux, P Loiseau, P C. de Faccio Carvalho 2024 SRNH, INRA

Long-Term Effects Of Co2 Enrichment And Temperate Increase On Forage Quality In A Temperate Grass, J F. Soussana, J M. Besle, I Chabaux, P Loiseau, P C. De Faccio Carvalho

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Perennial ryegrass swards were grown during two years at two N fertilizer supplies in elevated (700 ppm) or ambient atmospheric CO2 concentration at outdoor temperature and at + 3°C in elevated CO2. Elevated CO2 and temperature increase had only minor impacts on the digestibility and on the fiber composition of the cut material. On average, the water soluble carbohydrate concentration of the leaf laminae was doubled in elevated CO2, whereas a 3°C temperature increase reduced this concentration by 25 %.


Co2 Enrichment And Temperature Effects On Productivity Of Field-Grown Phalaris And Subterranean Clover, J M. Lilley, T P. Bolger, R M. Gifford 2024 CSIRO

Co2 Enrichment And Temperature Effects On Productivity Of Field-Grown Phalaris And Subterranean Clover, J M. Lilley, T P. Bolger, R M. Gifford

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Pure and mixed swards of Phalaris aquatica and Trifolium subterraneum were exposed to cool (ambient) and warm (cool +3oC) temperatures, at both 380 and 690 ppm CO2 concentrations in field temperature gradient tunnels for 5 months. In general, clover and the mixture had similar forage productivity in each treatment, while phalaris was less productive. Elevated CO2 increased clover production 40% in the monoculture and the mixture. Higher temperatures reduced clover regrowth at ambient CO2 and reduced the response to elevated CO2 in the monoculture but not in the mixture. In contrast, phalaris regrowth in the monoculture was not increased by …


Growth Response Of Australian Temperate Pasture Species To Co2 Enrichment, T P. Bolger, J M. Lilley, R M. Gifford, J R. Donnelly 2024 CSIRO

Growth Response Of Australian Temperate Pasture Species To Co2 Enrichment, T P. Bolger, J M. Lilley, R M. Gifford, J R. Donnelly

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Growth responses to a doubling of the atmospheric CO2 concentration for 15 species represented in temperate pastures of southern Australia were investigated in a glasshouse experiment. The final dry weight increase due to CO2 enrichment averaged 34% across species but varied widely. The variation in CO2 response was greater among species within botanical groups than it was among groups. The CO2 response of a number of ‘desirable’, but also a number of ‘undesirable’ species was greater than the mean response, suggesting that these species may increase their proportion in pastures as atmospheric CO2 rises. Our results do not support the …


Co2 Gas Fluxes In Grazing Pasture, T Oku, S Shibata, S Takahashi, M Shibayama 2024 National Grassland Research Institute, Japan

Co2 Gas Fluxes In Grazing Pasture, T Oku, S Shibata, S Takahashi, M Shibayama

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

CO2 gas fluxes in grazing pastures were measured directly by the eddy correlation method to determine whether grasslands function as carbon sinks or sources. Observations revealed daytime CO2 absorption fluxes to grassland and nighttime CO2 emission fluxes to atmosphere. In 1993, the daily amounts of CO2 absorbed by grassland were larger than those of CO2 emitted to the atmosphere during the measuring period in spite of a cool summer and consequently lower level of solar radiation. In 1994, we obtained reverse carbon budgets especially on very hot days, which resulted from a different fluctuation pattern of the CO2 gas fluxes. …


Elevated Co2 And Temperature Effects On Paspalum And Arachis Forages, K J. Boote, F B. Fritschi 2024 University of Florida

Elevated Co2 And Temperature Effects On Paspalum And Arachis Forages, K J. Boote, F B. Fritschi

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Long-term effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and elevated temperature on growth processes of bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge) and rhizoma peanut (Arachis glabrata Benth.) were evaluated. Forages were established and grown in 27-m long temperature-gradient greenhouses constructed over a natural field soil. Treatments were two CO2 levels, 350 or 700 vpm CO2, and four temperature sectors (0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 °C above ambient). Shoot emergence, ground cover, leaf and canopy assimilation, rate of leaf appearance, and dry matter accumulation were measured. Increasing temperature accelerated plant establishment and increased early plant dry matter accumulation, leaf area, and leaf appearance rate. …


Productivity Of Orchardgrass In Japan Estimated By The Neural Network Method And The Effect Of An Increase In Co2 And A Rise In Temperature, H Sasaki, T Suyama, M Fukuyama 2024 National Grassland Research Institute, Japan

Productivity Of Orchardgrass In Japan Estimated By The Neural Network Method And The Effect Of An Increase In Co2 And A Rise In Temperature, H Sasaki, T Suyama, M Fukuyama

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

The purpose of this study is to estimate changes in the productivity of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) resulting from an anticipated increase in CO2 and a rise in temperature. Productivity of orchardgrass is primarily determined by mean temperature and solar radiation. Accordingly, a growth model was established on this basis by using the neural network method. Maps of areas where productivity is depressed in the summertime were drawn based on calculations applying anticipated climatic changes to this model. The direct influence of the increase in CO2 density was also considered in making these maps. As a result, it was concluded …


Growth And Physiology Respond Differently To Elevated Co2 In Nad-Me And Nadp-Me C4 Grasses, D R. LeCain, J A. Morgan 2024 USDA, Agricultural Research Service

Growth And Physiology Respond Differently To Elevated Co2 In Nad-Me And Nadp-Me C4 Grasses, D R. Lecain, J A. Morgan

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Plants with C4 photosynthesis have one of three decarboxylation enzymes in their bundle sheath cells. Reports suggest that bundle sheath leakiness to CO2 is highest in the NAD-ME group, lowest in the NADP-ME group and intermediate in the PCK group. We investigated the hypothesis that growth and photosynthesis of three NADME grasses would respond more to elevated CO2 than three NADPME grasses. Contrary to our hypothesis, growth of NADP-ME grasses was greater under elevated CO2, while none of the NADME grasses had a significant response. Increased leaf non-structural carbohydrates were associated with greater growth responses of NADP-ME grasses, while none …


Nitrogen And Co2 Effects On Remobilization Of Root And Crown Reserves For Regrowth Following Defoliation, R H. Skinner, J A. Morgan, J D. Hanson 2024 USDA, Agricultural Research Service

Nitrogen And Co2 Effects On Remobilization Of Root And Crown Reserves For Regrowth Following Defoliation, R H. Skinner, J A. Morgan, J D. Hanson

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

The effect of carbohydrate and nitrogen reserve remobilization during the first 4 d following defoliation on subsequent regrowth was studied under different soil nitrogen and atmospheric CO2 conditions. On a structural dry matter basis, elevated CO2 increased carbohydrate concentration without affecting total nitrogen in roots and crowns. High soil nitrogen had the opposite effect, increasing nitrogen concentration with no effect on nonstructural carbohydrates. Regrowth was significantly correlated with total nitrogen concentration at the time of defoliation. Carbohydrate concentration was not related to subsequent regrowth, nor was there a consistent correlation between carbohydrate or nitrogen remobilization and regrowth. No nitrogen remobilization …


Methane Production By Steers On Pasture, W P. McCaughey, K Wittenberg, D Corrigan 2024 Agriculture & AgriFood Canada

Methane Production By Steers On Pasture, W P. Mccaughey, K Wittenberg, D Corrigan

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Grazing system, stocking rate and monensin controlled release capsule (CRC) administration were investigated to determine impacts on methane (CH4) production by steers grazing alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)/meadow bromegrass (Bromus biebersteinii Roem & Schult.)/Russian wildrye (Psathyrostachys juncea (Fisch.) Nevski) pastures. Pasture treatments consisted of 2 replications each of two grazing systems (continuous stocking or 10-paddock rotational stocking) at each of two stocking rates (low, 1.1 steer ha-1 or high, 2.2 steers ha-1). Half of the animals in each pasture were administered a monensin CRC while untreated animals served as controls. During the grazing season, 1 steer per treatment …


How Will Plant Diseases Impact On Pasture Production Under Climate Change: A Case Study Of Stylosanthes Anthracnose, Sukumar Chakraborty 2024 CSIRO Division of Tropical Crops and Pastures

How Will Plant Diseases Impact On Pasture Production Under Climate Change: A Case Study Of Stylosanthes Anthracnose, Sukumar Chakraborty

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Impact of climate change on plant diseases is poorly understood due to the paucity of studies in this area. A process-based approach to quantify the impact on pathogen/disease cycle is potentially the most useful in defining impact of factors like elevated CO2 on plant diseases. This study establishes the influence of twice-ambient CO2 on components of the anthracnose disease cycle caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in the tropical pasture legume Stylosanthes scabra. Compared to ambient CO2, at 700 ppm, time between inoculation and symptom appearance (incubation period) and percentage leaf area diseased were significantly reduced in the two cultivars Fitzroy and …


Carbon Sequestration By Grassland And Woodland Soils Of Different Climate Zones As Revealed By (Thin) Layer Wise Carbon-14 Dating, H W. Scharpenseeland, P Becker-Heidmann 2024 University of Hamburg

Carbon Sequestration By Grassland And Woodland Soils Of Different Climate Zones As Revealed By (Thin) Layer Wise Carbon-14 Dating, H W. Scharpenseeland, P Becker-Heidmann

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Estimates are, that grassland sequesters on ca 3.2 bil ha about 50 Pg C in the biomass, 300-350 Pg C in SOM (soil organic matter).,woodland analog on some 4.2 bil ha 360 Pg in the biomass ,785 Pg in the SOM. The SOM-C in grassland is comparable in quantity of C.m-2 with C in tropical rain forests´ living biomass (Whittaker & Likens,1973). C14-dating of soils reveals a tendency of higher C-residence time in grassland and former grasslandcropland soils, compared with adjacent woodland soils of about same climate and geomorphology. In (sub)tropical soils C-residence time proved higher in upland soils than …


Effects Of Climate Change On Grassland Production In Switzerland, J Fuhrer, M Riedo 2024 IUL Liebefeld

Effects Of Climate Change On Grassland Production In Switzerland, J Fuhrer, M Riedo

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

A mechanistic model for productive grassland was used to simulate annual dry matter yield in relation to fluxes of C, N, and water, and to test the sensitivity to climate change and to elevated [CO2] (2xCO2). Local weather scenarios were derived from the results of two General Circulation Models (GCM) by statistical down-scaling. Annual yield increased by a maximum of 10% without 2xCO2 effects, by 1-16% in response to 2xCO2, and by 6-24% with the combination of climate change and 2xCO2. Decreased evapotranspiration and increased water use efficiency in response to 2xCO2 were partially offset by climate change. The simulations …


Silage Production Possibility Of Sorghum Vulgare, S. Sudanense And Their Hybrid On The Second Crop Conditions Of Tokat-Turkey, U Büyükburç, Y Karadag, M Yildirim 2024 University of Gaziosmanpasa

Silage Production Possibility Of Sorghum Vulgare, S. Sudanense And Their Hybrid On The Second Crop Conditions Of Tokat-Turkey, U Büyükburç, Y Karadag, M Yildirim

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

The objective of the work was to determine biological characters of some fodder grasses (Sorghum, Sudangrass and their hybrid) under second crop condition of Tokat-Turkey with different N levels. The grasses were sown on 20-21 July 1994-1995 after harvesting the main crop of wheat, harvested at the end of October 28-29. Application of 40 - 80 - 120 kg/ha N fertilizer increased the plant height, fresh fodder, DM yield, CP contents in all plants. The hybrid showed the highest fresh and dry fodder yield (100.7 - 23.4 Mg/ha) at the high level of N. Leaf rate declined with use of …


Pfra Community Pastures- The Canadian Communal Grazing Experience And Multiple Values Of Public Grasslands, H R. Cook 2024 Agriculture and AgriFood Canada

Pfra Community Pastures- The Canadian Communal Grazing Experience And Multiple Values Of Public Grasslands, H R. Cook

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

The Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration (PFRA) Community Pastures origins are rooted in a climate catastrophe response that assembled initial areas of overgrazed native range and severely eroded cereal cropland in the Palliser Triangle into community pastures as a public conservation mechanism. Today this conservation system has grown to encompass 929,000 hectares in total that serve a multiple set of area objectives with important social, economic and ecological benefits. Management of these pastures has expanded considerably, necessitating close cooperation between local livestock producers, government agency staff and other users of the resource. Over the last half century a unique communal grazing …


Improving The Ruminal Degradation Of Low-Quality Tropical Grasses, J C. Ku-Vera 2024 Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan

Improving The Ruminal Degradation Of Low-Quality Tropical Grasses, J C. Ku-Vera

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

Rumen cannulated cattle and sheep were used to study the effect of supplementation with several nitrogen sources on rumen digestion of tropical grasses. Supplementation of cattle grazing guinea grass (Panicum maximum) with dehydrated poultry excreta had no effect on rumen DM disappearance of the grass consumed. On the other hand, supplementation with fish meal increased rumen digestion of DM of pangola (Digitaria decumbens) and buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris) grass above that found when soyabean meal was given. DM intake was significantly increased when fish meal was given in relation to that found when soyabean meal was supplied. Supplementing sheep with the …


Degradability And Fermentescibility According To Fiber Content In Low Quality Forages, A Dieng, A Buldgen, Ph Lecomte, K G. Toussaint 2024 ENSA

Degradability And Fermentescibility According To Fiber Content In Low Quality Forages, A Dieng, A Buldgen, Ph Lecomte, K G. Toussaint

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

The nylon bag technique and the gas-test method were compared with 6 different roughages representing a wide range of fiber contents in samples collected in the Senegalese Groundnut Basin. The results showed high correlation coefficients and low residual standard errors between the chemical composition of the roughages (mainly the acid detergent fiber fraction) and their degradability or fermentescibility. Reliable relationships between the two methods were also identified.


The Effects Of Two Levels Of Concentrates Supplying The Same Amount Of Protein On Silage Intake And Milk Production In Cows Given Two Grass Silages, H Khalili, P Huhtanen, K Rinne, M Suvitie 2024 Agricultural Research Centre of Finland

The Effects Of Two Levels Of Concentrates Supplying The Same Amount Of Protein On Silage Intake And Milk Production In Cows Given Two Grass Silages, H Khalili, P Huhtanen, K Rinne, M Suvitie

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

The objective of this trial was to investigate the effects of two levels of concentrate (5 and 10 kg) supplying the same amount of protein on feed intake, milk production and rumen fermentation in cows given two different grass silages. The silages were ensiled either with a formic acid based additive (F) or with a mixture of acids and lignosulphonates (L). Fermentation quality and digestibility were better in F silage than in L silage. There were no significant differences between the silages in feed intake, milk yield and milk composition. Feeding F silage increased rumen ammonia concentration and molar proportion …


A Comparison Of Preservation Methods Of Roughages From Grassland In Poland, J Zastawny, B Paluch, H Jankowski-Huglejt 2024 Institute for Land Reclamation and Grassland Farming at Falenty

A Comparison Of Preservation Methods Of Roughages From Grassland In Poland, J Zastawny, B Paluch, H Jankowski-Huglejt

IGC Proceedings (1997-2023)

The objective of this study was to determine whether the preservation method has an influence on the nutritive value of roughages obtained from grasslands. The silage made in clamps and in big cylindrical bales were compared. During chemical studies, dry matter, crude protein, crude fiber, crude ash, nitrogen free extracts and fat level were determined. The digestible energy of each feed was calculated. The content of particular acids (lactic, acetic and butyric) in the mass of silage was determined. The silages were tested by feeding to ruminants. The obtained results show that the quality of both silages was good. The …


Digital Commons powered by bepress