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Molecular Studies Of 5-Azacytidine-Induced Early-Flowering Lines Of Flax, Megan A. House 2010 Wilfrid Laurier University

Molecular Studies Of 5-Azacytidine-Induced Early-Flowering Lines Of Flax, Megan A. House

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Several early-flowering flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) lines were derived from treatment of germinating seeds with 5-azacytidine in 1990. These lines are also shorter, have fewer leaves, and their DNA is hypomethylated, relative to their corresponding controls. The work presented in this thesis used early-flowering and control lines of the Royal (R) flax genotype, and the Large (L) flax genotroph. Firstly, levels of cytosine methylation were measured over a 24-hour period in the early-flowering line RE2 and its control (RC), using an HPLC method. Secondly, to determine the response of the flax lines to short-day conditions, control and early-flowering lines from ...


Regional Assemblages Of Lygus (Heteroptera: Miridae) In Montana Canola Fields, Andrew W. Lenssen, R. A. Ritter, Sue L. Blodgett, M. L. Taper 2010 United States Department of Agriculture

Regional Assemblages Of Lygus (Heteroptera: Miridae) In Montana Canola Fields, Andrew W. Lenssen, R. A. Ritter, Sue L. Blodgett, M. L. Taper

Andrew W. Lenssen

Sweep net sampling of canola (Brassica napus L.) was conducted in 2002 and 2003 to determine Lygus (Heteroptera: Miridae) species composition and parasitism levels in four regions of Montana. Regardless of region or seasonal change, Lygus elisus (Van Duzee) was the dominant species in all canola fields sampled, averaging 60–99% of the total adult populations. Lygus borealis (Kelton), Lygus keltoni (Schwartz) and Lygus lineolaris (Palisot) were detected at much lower levels. Total lygus population density was greatest in the southwest and central regions. The northeast and southwest regions had the greatest lygus species diversity. The proportion of L. elisus ...


Effects Of Tillage On Microbial Populations Associated To Soil Aggregation In Dryland Spring Wheat System, Andrew W. Lenssen, TheCan Caesar-TonThat, Anthony J. Caesar, Upendra M. Sainju, John F. Gaskin 2010 United States Department of Agriculture

Effects Of Tillage On Microbial Populations Associated To Soil Aggregation In Dryland Spring Wheat System, Andrew W. Lenssen, Thecan Caesar-Tonthat, Anthony J. Caesar, Upendra M. Sainju, John F. Gaskin

Andrew W. Lenssen

Tillage may influence the microbial populations involved in soil aggregation.We evaluated the effects of no till (NT) and conventional tillage (CT, tillage depth about 7 cm) continuous spring wheat system on culturable heterotrophic bacterial communities predominant in microaggregates (0.25e0.05 mm) and on soil-aggregating basidiomycete fungi in aggregate-size classes (4.75e2.00, 2.00e0.25, and 0.25e0.05 mm) at 0e20 cm depth of a Williams loam (fine-loamy, mixed, Typic Argiustolls) in dryland Montana, USA. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay used to quantify antigenic response to basidiomycete cellwalls,was higher in NT than in CT in 4.75e2.00 ...


Management Strategies To Improve Yield And Nitrogen Use Of Spring Wheat And Field Pea In The Semi-Arid Northern Great Plains Usa, Andrew W. Lenssen, Brett Allen, Upendra Sainju, TheCan Caesar, Robert Lartey, Robert Evans 2010 United States Department of Agriculture

Management Strategies To Improve Yield And Nitrogen Use Of Spring Wheat And Field Pea In The Semi-Arid Northern Great Plains Usa, Andrew W. Lenssen, Brett Allen, Upendra Sainju, Thecan Caesar, Robert Lartey, Robert Evans

Andrew W. Lenssen

Available water and N fertility are primary constraints to crop production in the northern Great Plains of the USA. A field trial was initiated in 2004 to compare four crop rotations in a complete factorial of two tillage and two management systems. Rotations were continuous spring wheat (SW), pea-SW, barley hay-pea-SW, and barley hay-corn-pea-SW. Tillage systems were no till and field cultivator tillage, while management systems were conventional and ecological. Conventional management included broadcast nitrogen fertilizer, standard seeding rates, and short stubble height. Ecological management practices varied by crop, and included banded nitrogen fertilizer for cereals, increased seeding rate, delayed ...


Direct Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Detection Of Cercospora Beticola In Field Soils, Andrew W. Lenssen, R. T. Lartey, T. C. Caesar-TonThat, J. Eckhoff, S. L. Hanson, R. G. Evans 2010 United States Department of Agriculture

Direct Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Detection Of Cercospora Beticola In Field Soils, Andrew W. Lenssen, R. T. Lartey, T. C. Caesar-Tonthat, J. Eckhoff, S. L. Hanson, R. G. Evans

Andrew W. Lenssen

Cercospora beticola, the causal agent of Cercospora leaf spot of sugar beet, survives as pseudostromata in infected sugar beet residues in the soil. Under optimal conditions, overwintering propagules germinate and produce conidia that are dispersed as primary inoculum to initiate infection in sugar beet. We developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique for rapid detection of C. beticola in field soils. Total DNA was first isolated from soil amended with C. beticola culture using the PowerSoil DNA Kit. The purified DNA was subjected to PCR in Extract- N-Amp PCR mix with CBACTIN primers over 35 cycles. The amplified products were ...


Tillage Effects On Soybean Growth, Development, And Yield, Alecia Marie Kiszonas 2010 Iowa State University

Tillage Effects On Soybean Growth, Development, And Yield, Alecia Marie Kiszonas

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Profit margins of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in the United States have recently declined as a result of an increase in production and land costs. Decreased profits coupled with increasing environmental concerns such as erosion and runoff prompts more cost-efficient production practices. No-tillage production practices offer a lower cost of production in addition to decreased soil erosion and runoff. Additionally, soil quality can be improved over time in a no-tillage system, greatly increasing the yield benefits over time. Today, only 41% of Iowa's soybean production is under no-tillage production (Conservation Technology Information Center, 2010), although even more of ...


Root Tensile Strength In A Native And Non-­Native Species Of The Coastal Chaparral Community, Jamie Elmquist, Andrea Lim, Amanda Scholl, Amanda Vest 2010 Pepperdine University

Root Tensile Strength In A Native And Non-­Native Species Of The Coastal Chaparral Community, Jamie Elmquist, Andrea Lim, Amanda Scholl, Amanda Vest

Featured Research

Non-­native species are regularly introduced into environments in which they replace existing native species and drastically influence the ecological characteristics of the area and the habitat of the living organisms surrounding them. In the botanical field of study, invasive plant species can choke out native species thus making them endangered or extinct. Specifically in the Santa Monica Mountains of Southern California, there are over 300 non-­native species of plants, each the source of its own repercussions and having both positive and negative effects on the environment. One specific non-­native species, Carpobrotus edulis (ice plant) replaces the native ...


The Affect Of Temperature On The Fluorescence Of Heteromeles Arbutifolia (Hollywood) In The Santa Monica Mountains, Patrick Y. Chisum, Adam S. Graham, Arthur C. Sanders 2010 Pepperdine University

The Affect Of Temperature On The Fluorescence Of Heteromeles Arbutifolia (Hollywood) In The Santa Monica Mountains, Patrick Y. Chisum, Adam S. Graham, Arthur C. Sanders

Featured Research

Presented here is a comparison of the predawn fluorescence of adult Heteromeles arbutifolia growing on the Pepperdine Seaver campus next to the lacrosse field, and adult Heteromeles growing in Tapia canyon. The analysis of the leaf temperature measured by an IR thermometer showed an average of 9.32°C drop when measuring plants in Tapia canyon compared to those growing on the warmer Pepperdine campus. The air temperature measured by the Kestrel and IR thermometer showed Tapia canyon being an average of 7.27°C colder than predawn measurements on Pepperdine campus. Finally, the fluorescence of the plants in both ...


Effect Of Fertilizer On Leaf Tensile Strength In Salvia Leucophylla, Tawny Lindahl, John Buie, Eiichiro Uemura 2010 Pepperdine University

Effect Of Fertilizer On Leaf Tensile Strength In Salvia Leucophylla, Tawny Lindahl, John Buie, Eiichiro Uemura

Featured Research

This experiment sought to establish a connection between short term growth in Salvia leucophylla found in Southern California and nutrient availability in the soil. It was hypothesized that adding artificially produced nutrient mix Miracle Grow would increase the strength of the leaves in the herb after one week of addition. Newer leaves were tested in the Instron device for tensile strength after one week, and after data analysis, it was concluded that there was no difference in tensile strength of leaves treated with fertilizer compared with leaves without fertilizer.


A Comparison Of The Tensile Strength Of Leaves In Encelia Californica In Canyon And Beach Species, Anna Chowaniec, Annie Lee, Hayley Springs 2010 Pepperdine University

A Comparison Of The Tensile Strength Of Leaves In Encelia Californica In Canyon And Beach Species, Anna Chowaniec, Annie Lee, Hayley Springs

Featured Research

Our research is concerned with the further exploration of leaf biomechanics, a relatively unexamined field. The purpose of this experiment was to find a correlation between environmental stress factors and tensile strength of leaves of Encelia californica. We hypothesized the beach species would have a higher tensile strength than canyon species. After evaluating data collected from both Pepperdine’s Presidents Canyon and Malibu beach we found that while the canyon species could withstand a higher maximum load of force, there was no difference between the canyon and the beach species with leaf area taken into account. Using Young’s Modulus ...


Tensile Strength Of Malosma Laurina Leaves In Wet And Dry Conditions, T. Candelore, N. Despenza, L. Garrison, L. Hinther 2010 Pepperdine University

Tensile Strength Of Malosma Laurina Leaves In Wet And Dry Conditions, T. Candelore, N. Despenza, L. Garrison, L. Hinther

Featured Research

Pepperdine University is one located in one of the most diverse places of the world. It is located in the Mediterranean which occupies less than 5% of the earth's landmass and is only found in five areas which includes California. On the campus there are several canyons. One of the canyons is called Winter Canyon. The canyon contained a plant called Malosma laurina which is located in a riparian environment and a chaparral environment. The plant grows in both areas however, our hypothesis was that the dry plants' leaves would demonstrate more plasticity. The soil humidity was also measured ...


Effect Of Petiole-­To-­Branchlet Angle On Tensile Stress And Tensile Strength In Heteromeles Arbutifolia, Matt W. Andrus, Anthony P. Lisankis, Valen C. Anderson 2010 Pepperdine University

Effect Of Petiole-­To-­Branchlet Angle On Tensile Stress And Tensile Strength In Heteromeles Arbutifolia, Matt W. Andrus, Anthony P. Lisankis, Valen C. Anderson

Featured Research

Heteromeles arbutifolia an important chaparral species of southern California, Is a food source for mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). This predation has become more pronounced as the climate shifts to hotter, drier, and longer summers. Other species that the deer normally feed on cannot survive these harsh conditions, while Heteromeles arbutifolia is able to persevere (Letourneau, 2004). We decided that there must be mechanisms involved in the petiole of leafs to keep them from being pulled off by deer and strong winds. Our group hypothesized that as the angle between the petiole and branchlet increased, the tensile strength of the petiole ...


A Draft Physical Map Of A D-Genome Cotton Species (Gossypium Raimondii), Lifeng Lin, Gary J. Pierce, John E. Bowers, James C. Estill, Rosana O. Compton, Lisa K. Rainville, Changsoo Kim, Cornelia Lemke, Junkang Rong, Haibao Tang, Xiyin Wang, Michele Braidotti, Amy H. Chen, Kristen Chicola, Kristi Collura, Ethan Epps, Wolfgang Golser, Corrinne E. Grover, Jennifer Ingles, Santhosh Karunakaran, Dave Kudrna, Jaime Olive, Nabila Tabassum, Eareana Um, Marina Wissotski, Yeisoo Yu, Andrea Zuccolo, Mehboob ur Rahman, Daniel G. Peterson, Rod A. Wing, Jonathan F. Wendel, Andrew H. Paterson 2010 University of Georgia

A Draft Physical Map Of A D-Genome Cotton Species (Gossypium Raimondii), Lifeng Lin, Gary J. Pierce, John E. Bowers, James C. Estill, Rosana O. Compton, Lisa K. Rainville, Changsoo Kim, Cornelia Lemke, Junkang Rong, Haibao Tang, Xiyin Wang, Michele Braidotti, Amy H. Chen, Kristen Chicola, Kristi Collura, Ethan Epps, Wolfgang Golser, Corrinne E. Grover, Jennifer Ingles, Santhosh Karunakaran, Dave Kudrna, Jaime Olive, Nabila Tabassum, Eareana Um, Marina Wissotski, Yeisoo Yu, Andrea Zuccolo, Mehboob Ur Rahman, Daniel G. Peterson, Rod A. Wing, Jonathan F. Wendel, Andrew H. Paterson

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Genetically anchored physical maps of large eukaryotic genomes have proven useful both for their intrinsic merit and as an adjunct to genome sequencing. Cultivated tetraploid cottons, Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense, share a common ancestor formed by a merger of the A and D genomes about 1-2 million years ago. Toward the long-term goal of characterizing the spectrum of diversity among cotton genomes, the worldwide cotton community has prioritized the D genome progenitor Gossypium raimondii for complete sequencing. A whole genome physical map of G. raimondii, the putative D genome ancestral species of tetraploid cottons was assembled, integrating genetically-anchored overgo ...


Expression And Self-Assembly Of Virus-Like Particles From Two Genotypes Of Marine Vesiviruses And Development Of An Elisa For The Detection Of Antibodies, Shasta D. McClenahan, Karin Bok, Stanislav V. Sosnovtsev, John D. Neill, Kathy A. Burek, Kimberlee B. Beckmen, Alvin W. Smith, Kim Y. Green, Carlos H. Romero 2010 University of Florida

Expression And Self-Assembly Of Virus-Like Particles From Two Genotypes Of Marine Vesiviruses And Development Of An Elisa For The Detection Of Antibodies, Shasta D. Mcclenahan, Karin Bok, Stanislav V. Sosnovtsev, John D. Neill, Kathy A. Burek, Kimberlee B. Beckmen, Alvin W. Smith, Kim Y. Green, Carlos H. Romero

Publications from USDA-ARS / UNL Faculty

Sequences encoding the major and minor capsid proteins (VP1 and VP2) from two marine vesivirus isolates (Steller sea lion viruses V810 and V1415) were engineered for expression of virus-like particles (VLPs) in the baculovirus system. The resulting VLPs were morphologically similar to native vesivirus virions. Purified VLPs were probed in immunoblots with pooled antisera specific for nine San Miguel sea lion virus (SMSV) types, and a predominant protein of approximately 60 kDa was detected. An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of antibodies was developed in which the VLPs served as antigen. The VLPs were adsorbed to the ...


Monitoring And Analyzing Process Streams Towards Understanding Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Of Switchgrass (Panicum Virgatum L.), Rohit Arora, Chithra Manisseri, Chenlin Li, Markus D. Ong, Henrik Vibe Scheller, Kenneth P. Vogel, Blake A. Simmons, Seema Singh 2010 Joint BioEnergy Institute

Monitoring And Analyzing Process Streams Towards Understanding Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Of Switchgrass (Panicum Virgatum L.), Rohit Arora, Chithra Manisseri, Chenlin Li, Markus D. Ong, Henrik Vibe Scheller, Kenneth P. Vogel, Blake A. Simmons, Seema Singh

Publications from USDA-ARS / UNL Faculty

Fundamental understanding of biomass pretreatment and its influence on saccharification kinetics, total sugar yield, and inhibitor formation is essential to develop efficient next-generation biofuel strategies, capable of displacing fossil fuels at a commercial level. In this study, we investigated the effect of residence time and temperature during ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment of switchgrass using 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium acetate. The primary metrics of pretreatment performance are biomass delignification, xylan and glucan depolymerization, porosity, surface area, cellulase kinetics, and sugar yields. Compositional analysis and quantification of process streams of saccharides and lignin demonstrate that delignification increases as a function of pretreatment temperature and ...


Overseeding Unimproved Warm-Season Pasture With Cool- And Warm-Season Legumes To Enhance Forage Productivity, P. W. Bartholomew, R. D. Williams 2010 Langston University

Overseeding Unimproved Warm-Season Pasture With Cool- And Warm-Season Legumes To Enhance Forage Productivity, P. W. Bartholomew, R. D. Williams

Publications from USDA-ARS / UNL Faculty

Overseeding forage legumes into existing warm-season pasture may help to reduce cool-season forage deficit on small and resource-limited small farms in the southern Great Plains of the United States. Unimproved warm-season grass pastures were overseeded with Korean lespedeza (Lespedeza stipulacea Maxim) were not overseeded with summer legume. These same plots were subsequently overseeded with hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth), crownvetch (Coronilla varia L.), black medic (Medicago lupulina L.) or ladino white clover (Trifolium repens L.) or, not overseeded with cool-season legume. Including lespedeza in a forage mixture increased total forage yield by an average of 15%, or 1700 kg ha ...


Effects Of A New Waste-Processing By-Product On Soil And Vegetation At Fort Campbell, Tennessee, R. R. Busby, D. L. Gebhart, H. A. Torbert, J. O. Dawson, G. A. Bollero, K. N. Potter, D. R. Curtin 2010 U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center

Effects Of A New Waste-Processing By-Product On Soil And Vegetation At Fort Campbell, Tennessee, R. R. Busby, D. L. Gebhart, H. A. Torbert, J. O. Dawson, G. A. Bollero, K. N. Potter, D. R. Curtin

Publications from USDA-ARS / UNL Faculty

A garbage-processing technology has been developed that sterilizes and separates inorganic and organic components of municipal solid waste. A study was initiated to evaluate the uncomposted organic by-product of this process as a soil amendment for establishing native prairie grasses on disturbed Army training lands. The waste was incorporated into a silt loam soil at Fort Campbell Military Reservation in the central United States. The waste material was applied at rates of 0, 4.5, 9, 18, and 36 Mg ha-1 and seeded with native prairie grasses to assess its effects on vegetation for two growing seasons, with an ...


A Nematode Effector Protein Similar To Annexins In Host Plants, Nrupali Patel, Noureddine Hamamouch, Chunying Li, Tarek Hewezi, Richard S. Hussey, Thomas J. Baum, Melissa G. Mitchum, Eric L. Davis 2010 North Carolina State University

A Nematode Effector Protein Similar To Annexins In Host Plants, Nrupali Patel, Noureddine Hamamouch, Chunying Li, Tarek Hewezi, Richard S. Hussey, Thomas J. Baum, Melissa G. Mitchum, Eric L. Davis

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Nematode parasitism genes encode secreted effector proteins that play a role in host infection. A homologue of the expressed Hg4F01 gene of the root-parasitic soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, encoding an annexin-like effector, was isolated in the related Heterodera schachtii to facilitate use of Arabidopsis thaliana as a model host. Hs4F01 and its protein product were exclusively expressed within the dorsal oesophageal gland secretory cell in the parasitic stages of H. schachtii. Hs4F01 had a 41% predicted amino acid sequence identity to the nex-1 annexin of C. elegans and 33% identity to annexin-1 (annAt1) of Arabidopsis, it contained four conserved ...


Utilizing Protein-Lean Coproducts From Corn Containing Recombinant Pharmaceutical Proteins For Ethanol Production, Ilankovan Paraman, Lorena Beatriz Moeller, M. Paul Scott, Kan Wang, Charles E. Glatz, Lawrence A. Johnson 2010 Iowa State University

Utilizing Protein-Lean Coproducts From Corn Containing Recombinant Pharmaceutical Proteins For Ethanol Production, Ilankovan Paraman, Lorena Beatriz Moeller, M. Paul Scott, Kan Wang, Charles E. Glatz, Lawrence A. Johnson

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Protein-lean fractions of corn (maize) containing recombinant (r) pharmaceutical proteins were evaluated as a potential feedstock to produce fuel ethanol. The levels of residual r-proteins in the coproduct, distillers dry grains with solubles (DDGS), were determined. Transgenic corn lines containing recombinant green fluorescence protein (r-GFP) and a recombinant subunit vaccine of Escherichia coli enterotoxin (r-LTB), primarily expressed in endosperm, and another two corn lines containing recombinant human collagen (r-CIα1) andr-GFP, primarily expressed in germ, were used as model systems. The kernels were either ground and used for fermentation or dry fractionated to recover germ-rich ...


Comparison Of The Iowa State University Effluent Limitation Guidelines Model With The Soil-Plant-Air-Water Model For Evaluating Containment Basin Performance, Daniel S. Andersen, Robert T. Burns, Lara B. Moody, Matthew J. Helmers, Robert Horton Jr. 2010 Iowa State University

Comparison Of The Iowa State University Effluent Limitation Guidelines Model With The Soil-Plant-Air-Water Model For Evaluating Containment Basin Performance, Daniel S. Andersen, Robert T. Burns, Lara B. Moody, Matthew J. Helmers, Robert Horton Jr.

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

This article compares results from the Iowa State University Effluent Limitations Guidelines (ISU-ELG) model to results obtained using the Soil-Plant-Air-Water (SPAW) model to simulate feedlot runoff containment basin overflow volume. The objective was to verify that the ISU-ELG model was providing a reasonable prediction of basin overflow. The ISU-ELG model uses a set of guidelines to determine if land application is acceptable, whereas the SPAW model uses a soil moisture criterion. The criterion for determining if a particular day was suitable for land application of basin effluent was investigated to determine the effect on basin overflow volumes. The results show ...


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